Theodore G. Schurr

Professor of Anthropology

M.A. Emory University, 1994; Ph.D. Emory University 1998

I am currently a Professor in the Department of Anthropology, and a Consulting Curator in the Physical Anthropology and American Sections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology.  I am also the Director of the North American Regional Center of the Genographic Project, and Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania.

For the past twenty-five years, I have investigated the genetic prehistory of Asia and the Americas through studies of mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal DNA variation in Asian, Siberian and Native American populations.  Our current projects include studies of genetic diversity in indigenous populations of Canada, the United States, Mexico and the Caribbean.  My research group is also investigating the population history of Georgia (Caucasus), Pakistan and Kazakhstan through our collaborative genetic studies in those countries.

Research Interests:

Subject areas: Human evolutionary genetics, mitochondrial biology and disease, biomedical genetics, ancient DNA, primate genetics; Geographic areas: Africa, the Americas, Australia, Georgia (Caucasus), Melanesia, Siberia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Turkey



Books and Edited Volumes:

Weber AW, Katzenberg MA, Schurr TG, eds. 2010. Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers of the Baikal Region, Siberia: Bioarchaeological Studies of Past Lifeways. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Peer-Reviewed Articles:

Benn Torres J, Vilar MG, Torres G, Gaieski JB, Bharath Hernandez R, Browne ZE, Stevenson M, Waters W, Schurr TG, The Genographic Consortium. 2015. Genetic diversity in Carib and Garifuna populations of the Lesser Antilles reveals significant indigenous ancestry and insights into Caribbean settlement history. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0139192 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139192.

Babb PL, Fernandez-Duque E, Schurr TG. 2015. Monogamous owl monkeys differ in the structure of OXTR from other non-monogamous primates. Mol Phylogenet Evol 91: 160–177.

Badano I, Totaro ME, Culasso ACA, Sanabria DJ, Schurr TG, Balette IC, Roisman A, Basiletti J, Picconi MA, Campos RH, Domingo LJ. 2015. Genetic characterization and clinical implications of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) variants from northeastern Argentina. Infect Genet Evol 29: 103-105.

Vilar MG, Melendez C, Sanders A, Walia A, Gaieski JB, Owings AC, Schurr TG, The Genographic Consortium. 2014. Genetic diversity in Puerto Rico and its implications for the peopling of the West Indies. Am J Phys Anthropol 155: 352–368.

Huck M, Fernandez-Duque E, Babb PL, Schurr TG. 2014. Correlates of genetic monogamy in pair-living mammals: Insights from Azara’s owl monkeys. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 281(1782): 20140195.

Elhaik E, Tatarinova T, Chebotarev D, Piras IS, Calò CM, De Montis A, Atzori M, Marini M, Tofanelli S, Francalacci P, Pagani L, Tyler-Smith C, Yali Xue Y, Cucca F, Schurr TG, Gaieski JB, Melendez C, Vilar MG, Owings AC, Gomez R, Fujita R, Santos FR, Comas D, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Zalloua P, Soodyall H, Pitchappan R, GaneshPrasad A, Hammer M, Matisoo-Smith L, Wells RS, The Genographic Consortium. 2014. Geographic population structure (GPS) of worldwide human populations infers biogeographical origin down to home village. Nat Commun 5: 3513 doi:10.1038/ncomms4513.

Dingley S, Polyak E, Ostrovsky J, Srinivasan S, Lee I, Rosenfeld A, Tsukikawa, Xiao R, Selak M, Coon JJ, Hebert A, Grimsurd P, Pagliarini D, Gai X, Schurr TG, Hüttemann M, Ogiso-Nakamaru E, Falk MJ. 2014. Mitochondrial DNA variant in COX1 subunit significantly alters energy metabolism of geographically divergent wild isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Mol Biol 426(11): 2199-2216.

Elhaik E, Greenspan E, Staats S, Krahn T, Tyler-Smith C, Xue Y, Tofanelli S, Francalacci P, Cucca F, Pagani P, Jin L, Li H, Schurr TG, Greenspan B, Spencer Wells RS, Genographic Consortium. 2013. The GenoChip: A new tool for genetic anthropology. Genome Biol Evol 5: 1021-1031.

Babb P, McIntosh AM, Fernandez-Duque E, Schurr TG. 2013. Prolactin receptor gene diversity in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) and humans suggests a non-neutral evolutionary history among primates. Internatl J Primatol 35: 129–155.

Fetterman JL, Zelickson BR, Johnson LW, Moellering DR, Westbrook DG, Pompilius M, Sammy MJ, Salman ED, Johnson M, Dunham-Snary KJ, Cao X, Bradley WE, Zhang J, Wei CC, Chacko B, Schurr TG, Kesterson RA, Dell’Italia LJ, Darley-Usmar VM, Welch DR, Ballinger SW. 2013. Mitochondrial genetic background modulates bioenergetics and susceptibility to acute cardiac volume overload. Biochemical Journal 455: 157–167.

Schurr TG, Dulik MC, Cafaro TA, Urrets-Zavalia EA, Urrets-Zavalia JA, Serra HM. 2013. Genetic background and climatic droplet keratopathy in a Mapuche population from Argentina. PLoS ONE 8(9): e74593.

Badano I, Schurr TG, Stietz SM, Dulik MC, Mampaey M, Quintero IM, Zinovich JB, Campos RH, Liotta DJ. 2013. TNF promoter SNP variation in Amerindians and white-admixed populations from Misiones, Argentina. Internatl J Immunogenet 40:216–221.

Dulik MC, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP, Askapuli A, Gau L, Gokcumen O, Rubinstein S, Schurr TG. 2012. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation provides evidence for a recent common ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. Am J Hum Genet 90:1–18.

Badano I, Stietz S, Schurr TG, Picconi A, Fekete D, Quintero I, Cabrera M, Campos R, Liotta J. 2012. Analysis of TNF-a promoter SNPs and the risk of cervical cancer in urban populations of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). J Clin Virol 53:54-59.

Xie HM, Perin JC, Schurr TG, Dulik MC, Zhadanov SI, Baur J, King M, Place E, Clarke C, Grauer M, Schug J, Santani A, Albano A, Kim C, Hakonarson H, Gai X, Falk MJ. 2011. Mitochondrial genome sequence analysis: A custom bioinformatics pipeline substantially improves Affymetrix MitoChip call rate and accuracy. BMC Bioinformatics 12:402.

Babb PL, McIntosh AM, Fernandez-Duque E, Di Fiore T, Schurr TG. 2011. An optimized genetic fingerprinting strategy reveals individual identity and kinship in Azara’s owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai). Folia Primatologia 82:107-117.

Gaieski JB, Owings AC, Vilar MG, Dulik MC, Gaieski D, Gittelman RM, Dulik MC, Lindo J, Gau L, Schurr TG, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda. Am J Phys Anthropol 46(3): 392–405.

Yardumian A, Schurr TG. 2011. Who are the Anatolian Turks? A reappraisal of the anthropological genetic evidence. Archeol Anthropol Eurasia 50(1): 6-43 (Summer).

Babb PL, Fernandez-Duque E, Baiduc C, Gagneux P, Evan S, Schurr TG. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco. Am J Phys Anthropol 146: 209-224.

Balanovsky O, Dibirova K, Dybo A, Mudrak O, Frolova S, Pocheshkhova E, Haber M, Platt D, Schurr TG, Haak W, Kuznetsova M, Radzhabov M, Balaganskaya O, Druzhinina E, Zakharova T, Koshel S, Renfrew C, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Balanovska E, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Parallel evolution of genes and languages in the Caucasus. Mol Biol Evol 28(10): 2905-2920.

Dulik MC, Osipova LP, Schurr TG. 2011. Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongol expansions. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17548.

Gokcumen O, Gultekin T, Dogan Alakoc Y, Tug A, Gulec E, Schurr TG. 2011. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements. Amer Anthropol 113(1): 116-131.

Book Chapters:

Schurr TG, Benn Torres J, Vilar MG, Gaieski JB, Melendez C. 2015. An emerging history of indigenous Caribbean and circum-Caribbean populations: Insights from archeological, ethnographic, genetic and historical studies. In: Zuckerman M, Martin DL, editors. New Directions in Biological Anthropology: Papers Honoring the Legacy of George Armelagos. Gainesville: University of Florida Press (in press).

Schurr TG. 2015. Where tides of genes perpetual ebb and flow: What DNA evidence tells us about the peopling of the Americas. In: Suarez R, editor. The Early Human Occupation during the Ice Age in the Americas: New Directions and Advances. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press (in press). 

Schurr TG. 2015. Tracing human movements from Siberia to the Americas: New insights from genetic studies. In: Frachetti MB, Spengler RN, III, editors. Mobility and Ancient Society in Asia and the Americas. Basel: Springer, pp. 23-47. 

Schurr TG. 2014. Human genetic diversity in a global context. In: Spooner BL, editor. Globalization: The Crucial Phase, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 71-114.

Schurr TG. 2014. The genetic legacy of Genghis Khan. In: Fitzhugh W, Rossabi M, Honeychurch W, editors. Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire, Washington DC: Arctic Studies Center and Odyssey Books, pp. 275-277.

Schurr TG. 2013. When did we become human? Evolutionary perspectives on the emergence of the modern human brain and culture. In: Hatfield G, Pittman H, editors, The Evolution of Mind, Brain and Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum Press, pp. 45-90.

Dulik MC, Lorenz JG, Schurr TG. 2011. Hasanlu IVB: An ancient DNA pilot project. In: Dyson R, M de Schaudensee, editors, Aspects of Peoples and Crafts in Period IVB at Hasanlu, Iran: Hasanlu Special Studies Volume 4, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum Press, pp. 195-199.

Schurr TG, Pipes L. 2011. The prehistory of Mongolian populations: Evidence from cranio-facial, dental trait and genetic studies. In: Sabloff P, editor, Mapping Mongolia: Situating Mongolia in the World from Geologic Time to the Present, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum Press, pp. 134-165.

Genographic Publications:

Martínez-Cruz B, Mendizabal I, Harmant C, de Pablo R, Ioana M, Angelicheva D, Kouvatsi A, Makukh H, Netea MG, Pamjav H, Zalán A, Tournev I, Marushiakova E, Popov V, Bertranpetit J, Kalaydjieva L, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium. 2015. Origins, admixture and founder lineages in European Roma. Eur J Hum Genet advance online publication, 16 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.201.

Nagle N, Ballantyne KN, van Oven M, Tyler-Smith C, Xue Y, Taylor D, Wilcox S, Wilcox L, Turkalov R, van Oorschot RAH, McAllister P, Williams L, Kayser M, Mitchell RJ, Genographic Consortium. 2015. Antiquity and diversity of Aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes. Am J Phys Anthropol Article first published online: 30 Oct 2015 doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22886.

ArunKumar G, Tatarinova TV, Duty J, Rollo D, Syama A, Arun VS, Kavitha VJ, Triska P, Greenspan B, Wells RS, Pitchappan R, The Genographic Consortium. 2015. Genome-wide signatures of male-mediated migration shaping the Indian gene pool. J Hum Genet doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.51.

ArunKumar G, Hai L Kavitha VJ, Syama A, Arun VS, Sahoo S, Patel S, Sathwa SK, Balakrishnan R, Riba T, Chakravarthy J, Chaudhury B, Panda P, Das PK, Nyak PK, Li H, Pitchappan R, The Genographic Consortium. 2015. A late Neolithic expansion of Y chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 from east to west. J Syst Evol Article first published online: 31 Mar 2015 doi:10.1111/jse.12147.

Der Sarkissian C, Brotherton P, Balanovsky O, Templeton JEL, Llamas B, Soubrier J, Moiseyev V, Khartanovich V, Cooper A, Haak W, The Genographic Consortium. 2014. Mitochondrial genome sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe unearths a new sub-clade within the broadly distributed human haplogroup C1. PLoS ONE 9(2): e87612.

Clarke AC, Prost S, Stanton JL, White WT, Kaplan M, Matisoo-Smith EA, The Genographic Consortium. 2014. From cheek swabs to consensus sequences: an A to Z protocol for high-throughput DNA sequencing of complete human mitochondrial genomes. BMC Genomics 15: 68.

Boattini A, Martinez-Cruz B, Sarno S, Harmant C, Useli A, Sanz P, Yang-Yao D, Manry J, Ciani G, Luiselli D, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, Pettener D, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Uniparental markers in Italy reveal a sex-biased genetic structure and different historical strata. PLoS ONE 8(5): e65441.

Sandoval JR, Lacerda DR, Jota MSA, Salazar-Granara A, Vieira PPR, Acosta O, Cuellar C, Revollo S, Fujita T, Santos F, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. The genetic history of indigenous populations of the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano: The legacy of the Uros. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73006.

Brandt G, Haak W, Adler CJ, Roth C, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Karimnia S, Möller-Rieker S, Meller H, Ganslmeier R, Friederich S, Dresely V, Nicklisch N, Pickrell JK, Sirocko F, Reich D, Cooper AC, Alt KW, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Ancient DNA teveals key stages in the formation of central European mitochondrial genetic diversity. Science 342(6155): 257-261.

Wang C-C, Yan S, Qin Z-D, Lu Y, Ding Q-L, Wei L-H, Li S-L, Yang Y-J, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium.. 2013. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611. J Syst Evol 51(3): 280-286.

Deng Q-Y, Wang C-C, Wang X-Q, Wang L-X, Wang Z-Y, Wu W-J, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Genetic affinity between the Kam-Sui speaking Chadong and Mulam people. J Syst Evol 51(3): 263-270.

Li D, Wang C-C, Yang K, Qin Z-D, Lu Y, Lin X-J, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Hainan indigenous substitute for genetic lineages of Champa exile Utsat people. J Syst Evol 51(3): 287-294.

Lu Y, Pan S-L, Qin S-M, Qin Z-D, Wang C-C, Gan R-J, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Genetic evidence for the multiple origins of Pinghua Chinese. J Syst Evol 51(3): 271-279.

Der Sarkissian C, Balanovsky O, Brandt G, Khartanovich V, Buzhilova A, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Moiseyev V, Gronenborn D, Kolpakov E, Shumkin V, Alt KW, Balanovska E, Cooper A, Haak W, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene flow from Siberia in the complex human population history of northeast Europe. PLoS Genetics 9(2): e1003296.

Brotherton P, Haak W, Templeton J, Brandt G, Soubrier J, Adler CJ, Richards SM, Der Sarkissian C, Ganslmeier R, Friederich S, Dresely V, van Oven M, Kenyon R, Van der Hoek M, Korlach J, Luong K, Ho SYW, Quintana-Murci L, Behar DM, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans. Nature Commun 4: 1764.

Badro DA, Douaihy B, Haber M, Youhanna SC, Salloum A, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Johnsrud B, Khazen G, Matisoo-Smith E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Platt DE, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. Y chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations. PLoS ONE 8 (1): e54616.

McAllister P, Nagle N, Mitchell RJ, The Genographic Consortium. 2013. The Australian Barrineans: Southern Negritos or rainforest-adapted aborigines? Hum Biol 85(1-3): 485-494.

Javed A, Melé M, Pybus M, Zalloua P, Haber M, Comas D, Netea MG, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jin L, Yang Y, Arunkumar G, Pitchappan RM, Bertranpetit J, Calafell F, Parida L, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Recombination networks as genetic markers in a human variation study of the Old World. Hum Genet 131(4): 601-613.

Melé M, Javed A, Pybus M, Zalloua P, Haber M, Comas D, Netea MG, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jin L, Yang Y, Pitchappan RM, Arunkumar G, Parida L, Calafell F, Bertranpetit J, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the Old World human populations. Mol Biol Evol 29(1): 25-30.

Behar DM, Harmant C, Manry J, van Oven M, Haak W, Marinez-Cruz B, Salaberria J, Ovharcabal B, Bauduer F, Comas D, Quintana-Murci L, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. The Basque paradigm: Genetic evidence of a maternal continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian region since pre-Neolithic times. Am J Hum Genet 90(3): 486-493.

Javed A, Melé M, Pybus M, Zalloua P, Haber M, Comas D, Netea MG, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jin L, Yang Y, Arunkumar G, Pitchappan R, Bertranpetit J, Calafell F, Parida L, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Recombination networks as genetic markers in a human variation study of the Old World. Hum Genet 131(4): 601-631.

Haber M, Platt DE, Bonab MA, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, Douayhi B, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Rafatpanah H, Ghanbari M, Balanovsky O, Wells RS, Comas D, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Afghanistan’s ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events. PLoS ONE 7(3): e34288.

Martinez-Cruz B, Ioana M, Calafell F, Rubio L, Sanz P, Ioenscu R, Boengui S, Plantinga T, van der Meer JWM, Comas D, Netea MG, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Y-chromosome analysis in individuals bearing the Basarab name of the first dynasty of Wallachian kings. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41803.

Rębała K, Martínez-Cruz B, Tönjes A, Kovacs P, Stumvoll M, Lindner I, Büttner A, Wichmann H-E, Siváková D, Soták M, Quintana-Murci L, Szczerkowska Z, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: From early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements. Eur J Hum Genet 21: 415-422.

Martínez-Cruz B, Harmant C, Platt DE, Manry J, Ramos-Luis E, Hernanz DF, Bauduer F, Salaberria J, Oyharçabal B, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Evidence of pre-Roman tribal genetic structure in Basques from uniparental genomes Mol Biol Evol 29(9): 2211-2122.

Kang L, Lu Y, Wang C, Hu K, Chen F, Li S, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Y-chromosome haplogroup O3 diversity in Sino-Tibetan populations reveals two migration routes into the eastern Himalayas. Ann Hum Genet 76(1): 92-99.

Lu Y, Qin Z, Wen B, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2012. Mitochondrial origin of the matriarchal Mosuo people in China. Mitochondrial DNA 23(1): 13-19.

Cai X, Qin Z, Wen B, Xu S, Wang Y, Lu Y, Wei L, Wang C, Li S, Huang X, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during last glacial maximum revealed by Y-chromosomes. PLoS ONE 6: e24282.

Haber M, Platt DE, Badro DA, Xue Y, El-Sibai M, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Saade S, Soria-Hernanz DF, Royyuru A, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: The Maronites in Lebanon. Eur J Hum Genet 19: 334-340.

Yang K, Zheng H, Qin Z, Lu Y, Farina SE, Li S, Jin L, Li D, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Positive selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people in Hainan. J Hum Genet 56: 253-256.

Martínez-Cruz B, Ziegle J, Sanz P, Sotelo G, Anglada R, Plaza S, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Multiplex screening of the human Y-chromosome using TaqMan probes. Invest Genet 2: 13.

Yan S, Wang CC, Li H, Li SL, Jin L, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. An updated tree of Y chromosome haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic position of mutations P164 and PK4. Eur J Hum Genet 19: 1013-1015.

Adler CJ, Haak W, Donlon D, Cooper A, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. Survival and recovery of DNA from ancient teeth and bones. J Archaeol Sci 38(5): 956-64.

Jota MS, Lacerda DR, Sandoval JR, Vieira PP, Santos-Lopes SS, Bisso-Machado R, Rodrigues Paixão-Cortes V, Revollo S, Paz-y-Miño C, Fujita R, Salzano FM, Bonatto SL, Bortolini MC, Santos FR, The Genographic Consortium. 2011. A new subhaplogroup of Native American Y chromosomes from the Andes. Am J Phys Anthropol 146(4): 553–559.

Melé M, Javed A, Pybus M, Calafell F, Parida L, The Genographic Consortium. 2010. A new method to reconstruct recombination events at a genomic scale. PLoS Comput Biol 6(11): e1001010.

Qin Z, Yang Y, Kang L, Cai X, Zhu D, Fei D, Li S, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium. 2010. A mitochondrial revelation of early human migrations to the Tibetan Plateau before and after the last glacial maximum. Am J Phys Anthropol 143: 555–569.

Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Adler CJ, Der Sarkissian CSI, Brandt G, Schwarz C, Nicklisch N, Dresely V, Fritsch B, Balanovska E, Villems R, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A, The Genographic Consortium. 2010. Ancient DNA from European early Neolithic farmers reveals their Near Eastern affinities. PLoS Biology 8(11): e1000536.

Please contact me by email ( to request a copy of any of these publications.

University Museum, Room 431


Office Hours:

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Anthropology Department Faculty; Department of Biology Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania; Associate Member, Center for East Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania; Member, CHOP Mitochondrial Research Affinity Group, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; Research Associate, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania; Member, International Center for Clinical Genetics, Kharkiv, Ukraine; Consortium Faculty, Penn Genomic Frontiers Institute; Consulting Curator, American and Physical Anthropology Sections, Penn Museum; Consortium Faculty, African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania