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Author Correction: Dorsal hippocampus contributes to model-based planning

Neuroscience in the News - Fri, 11/17/2017 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Dorsal hippocampus contributes to model-based planning

Author Correction: Dorsal hippocampus contributes to model-based planning, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0026-8

A multiregional proteomic survey of the postnatal human brain

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

A multiregional proteomic survey of the postnatal human brain

A multiregional proteomic survey of the postnatal human brain, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0011-2

Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to produce a proteomic survey of postnatal human brain regions. Compared to matched RNA-seq, protein levels showed more regional variation, especially for membrane-associated proteins in the neocortex.

Lateral geniculate neurons projecting to primary visual cortex show ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

Lateral geniculate neurons projecting to primary visual cortex show ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice

Lateral geniculate neurons projecting to primary visual cortex show ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0021-0

Experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system has widely been considered to be exclusively cortical. Using chronic two-photon Ca2+imaging of individual thalamic boutons, Jaepel et al. now report that dLGN cells projecting to mouse visual cortex show pronounced ocular dominance plasticity after monocular deprivation.

Oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus regulate fluid intake

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

Oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus regulate fluid intake

Oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus regulate fluid intake, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0014-z

The authors show that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus are key regulators of fluid homeostasis that suppress fluid intake when activated, but do not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake after salt depletion.

A craniofacial-specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

A craniofacial-specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain

A craniofacial-specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0012-1

The authors show that unlike body sensory neurons, craniofacial nociceptive neurons directly synapse with noxious-stimulus-activated lateral parabrachial neurons (PBL), which in turn project to multiple limbic centers processing emotions and affects. This monosynaptic pathway is both sufficient and necessary for craniofacial-pain-activated aversive behaviors.

Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0018-8

The authors develop a methods suite for millisecond-precise, single-cell-resolution control of neural activity through protein engineering of novel opsin/trafficking sequence combinations, as well as optimized holographic two-photon optics.

Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/13/2017 - 12:00am

Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression

Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0010-3

Chronic social defeat stress induces loss of protein claudin-5, leading to abnormalities in blood vessel morphology, increased blood brain barrier permeability, infiltration of immune signals and depression-like behaviors.

Weak correlations between hemodynamic signals and ongoing neural activity during the resting state

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/06/2017 - 12:00am

Weak correlations between hemodynamic signals and ongoing neural activity during the resting state

Weak correlations between hemodynamic signals and ongoing neural activity during the resting state, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0007-y

The relationship of resting-state hemodynamics signals to ongoing neural activity is poorly understood. Using optical imaging, electrophysiology, and local pharmacological infusions, Winder et al. found that resting hemodynamic signals were weakly correlated with neural activity and that these hemodynamic fluctuations persisted when neural activity was silenced.

<i>Arid1b</i> haploinsufficiency disrupts cortical interneuron development and mouse behavior

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/06/2017 - 12:00am

Arid1b haploinsufficiency disrupts cortical interneuron development and mouse behavior

<i>Arid1b</i> haploinsufficiency disrupts cortical interneuron development and mouse behavior, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0013-0

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Arid1b haploinsufficiency causes autism and intellectual disability, yet the neurobiological basis of this is unknown. The authors demonstrate that Arid1b-heterozygous mice have impaired cortical interneuron development and epigenetic signatures. These mice also have cognitive and social deficits, which are reversed by treatment with a GABAA-receptor-positive allosteric modulator.

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Altered cerebellar connectivity in autism and cerebellar-mediated rescue of autism-related behaviors in mice

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 10/29/2017 - 11:00pm

Altered cerebellar connectivity in autism and cerebellar-mediated rescue of autism-related behaviors in mice

Altered cerebellar connectivity in autism and cerebellar-mediated rescue of autism-related behaviors in mice, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0004-1

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Cerebellar right Crus I (RCrusI) has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RCrusI modulation altered RCrusI–inferior parietal lobule connectivity, and this connectivity was atypical in children with ASD and in a TscI mouse model of ASD. Inhibition of RCrusI in mice led to autism-related behaviors, and RCrusI activation rescued social impairments in TscI mice.

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Spatial representation in the hippocampal formation: a history

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Spatial representation in the hippocampal formation: a history

Spatial representation in the hippocampal formation: a history, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4653

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Moser, Moser and McNaughton provide a historical overview describing how ideas about integration of self-motion cues have shaped our understanding of spatial representation in hippocampal–entorhinal systems, from the discovery of place cells in the 1970s to contemporary studies of spatial coding in intermingled and interacting cell types within complex circuits.

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Integration of objects and space in perception and memory

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Integration of objects and space in perception and memory

Integration of objects and space in perception and memory, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4657

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Distinct processing of objects and space has been an organizing principle for studying higher-level vision and medial temporal lobe memory. Here Connor and Knierim discuss instead how spatial information, on both local and global scales, is deeply integrated into the ventral-temporal object-processing pathway in vision and memory.

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Viewpoints: how the hippocampus contributes to memory, navigation and cognition

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Viewpoints: how the hippocampus contributes to memory, navigation and cognition

Viewpoints: how the hippocampus contributes to memory, navigation and cognition, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4661

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The hippocampus serves a critical function in memory, navigation, and cognition. Nature Neuroscience asked John Lisman to lead a group of researchers in a dialog on shared and distinct viewpoints on the hippocampus.

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Howard Eichenbaum 1947–2017

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Howard Eichenbaum 1947–2017

Howard Eichenbaum 1947–2017, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4659

Polymorphic computation in locus coeruleus networks

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Polymorphic computation in locus coeruleus networks

Polymorphic computation in locus coeruleus networks, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4663

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Physiological and optogenetic dissection of discrete locus coeruleus neuronal populations reveals a functional disassociation, with heterogeneous engagement of locus coeruleus neurons in either fear learning or extinction models.

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Synaptic integrative mechanisms for spatial cognition

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Synaptic integrative mechanisms for spatial cognition

Synaptic integrative mechanisms for spatial cognition, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4652

NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=

Synaptic integration is critical for determining how information in the brain is encoded, stored and retrieved. The authors review roles for synaptic integrative mechanisms in the selection, generation and plasticity of spatially modulated firing, and in related temporal codes for representation of space.

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Cell types for our sense of location: where we are and where we are going

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

Cell types for our sense of location: where we are and where we are going

Cell types for our sense of location: where we are and where we are going, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4654

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In this Perspective, the authors propose that functional insights into generalist cortical computation may reside at the level of population patterns rather than functionally defined cell types. They then review results showing that medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) neurons exhibit substantial heterogeneity, suggesting MEC is a generalist circuit that computes diverse episodic states.

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The cognitive map in humans: spatial navigation and beyond

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 10/25/2017 - 11:00pm

The cognitive map in humans: spatial navigation and beyond

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nn.4656

Cognitive maps are internal representations of large-scale navigable spaces. While they have been long studied in rodents, recent work in humans reveals new insights into how cognitive maps are encoded, anchored to environmental landmarks and used to plan routes. Similar neural mechanisms might be used to form ‘maps’ of nonphysical spaces.

The central amygdala controls learning in the lateral amygdala

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 10/22/2017 - 11:00pm

The central amygdala controls learning in the lateral amygdala

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0009-9

The authors show that PKC-δ-expressing neurons in the central amygdala, are essential for synaptic plasticity underlying learning in the lateral amygdala, as they convey information about unconditioned stimulus to the lateral amygdala as a teaching signal.

Elucidating the underlying components of food valuation in the human orbitofrontal cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 10/22/2017 - 11:00pm

Elucidating the underlying components of food valuation in the human orbitofrontal cortex

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0008-x

Suzuki et al. found that food valuation is related to beliefs about nutritive attributes. Functional MRI revealed these attribute codes in lateral orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting a mechanism by which value signals are constructed from constituent attributes.

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