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Viewpoints: an interactive forum for debates and discussions

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1537 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4453

Neuroscientists dedicate themselves to understanding the brain. But what happens when they disagree on experimental outcomes, data interpretation or methodology? Nature Neuroscience debuts a format that invites researchers to debate critical issues in neuroscience.

Rare mutations and educational attainment

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1538 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4445

Author: David Cesarini

Intellectual disabilities and associated neurodevelopmental disorders may result from rare genetic mutations. Ganna et al. show that these also help explain variability in educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive function.

Astrocyte endfeet march to the beat of different vessels

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1539 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4446

Authors: Ravi L Rungta & Serge Charpak

During synaptic activation, the function of astrocyte endfeet depends on the vascular target: at the capillary, but not at the arteriole, a newly described P2X1R–phospholipase D2 pathway modulates prostaglandin E2 release and vessel dilation.

Many paths from state to state

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1541 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4440

Authors: Matthew T Kaufman & Anne K Churchland

Humans and animals can collect and maintain information that guides decisions, but how neural circuits achieve this is unknown. It seems neural populations may do so by passing through diverse states in many possible sequences.

The slippery slope of dishonesty

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1543 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4441

Authors: Jan B Engelmann & Ernst Fehr

Recent experiments suggest that dishonesty can escalate from small levels to ever-larger ones along a 'slippery slope'. Activity in bilateral amygdala tracks this gradual adaptation to repeated acts of self-serving dishonesty.

Viewpoints: Dialogues on the functional role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 11/29/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1545 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4438

Authors: Mauricio R Delgado, Jennifer S Beer, Lesley K Fellows, Scott A Huettel, Michael L Platt, Gregory J Quirk & Daniela Schiller

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is attributed with various functions during valuation, affect regulation and social cognition. Nature Neuroscience asked a moderator to lead researchers in a dialogue on shared and distinct viewpoints of this region's roles.

An interferon-β-resistant and NLRP3 inflammasome–independent subtype of EAE with neuronal damage

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 11/07/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1599 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4421

Authors: Makoto Inoue, Po-han Chen, Stephen Siecinski, Qi-jing Li, Chunlei Liu, Lawrence Steinman, Simon G Gregory, Eric Benner & Mari L Shinohara

A viral strategy for targeting and manipulating interneurons across vertebrate species

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1743 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4430

Authors: Jordane Dimidschstein, Qian Chen, Robin Tremblay, Stephanie L Rogers, Giuseppe-Antonio Saldi, Lihua Guo, Qing Xu, Runpeng Liu, Congyi Lu, Jianhua Chu, Joshua S Grimley, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Ajamete Kaykas, Michael C Avery, Mohammad S Rashid, Myungin Baek, Amanda L Jacob, Gordon B Smith, Daniel E Wilson, Georg Kosche, Illya Kruglikov, Tomasz Rusielewicz, Vibhakar C Kotak, Todd M Mowery, Stewart A Anderson, Edward M Callaway, Jeremy S Dasen, David Fitzpatrick, Valentina Fossati, Michael A Long, Scott Noggle, John H Reynolds, Dan H Sanes, Bernardo Rudy, Guoping Feng & Gord Fishell

Focus on psychiatric disorders

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1381 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4434

Nature Neuroscience presents a Focus issue highlighting progress in basic and clinical sciences advancing mental health research.

Back to basics: luring industry back into neuroscience

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1383 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4429

Author: Steven E Hyman

On being a circuit psychiatrist

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1385 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4419

Author: Joshua A Gordon

Psychiatric distress in animals versus animal models of psychiatric distress

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1387 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4397

Author: Robert M Sapolsky

The origin and natural history of autism spectrum disorders

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1390 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4427

Author: James C Harris

Refined social phenotyping of syndromic and idiopathic forms of autism, combined with advances in genetics, animal models of syndromes and brain imaging, may facilitate discovery of shared brain mechanisms that will lead to new treatments. The reversal of social deficits in animal models is promising for eventual translation into therapeutics.

Translating genome-wide association findings into new therapeutics for psychiatry

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1392 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4411

Authors: Gerome Breen, Qingqin Li, Bryan L Roth, Patricio O'Donnell, Michael Didriksen, Ricardo Dolmetsch, Paul F O'Reilly, Héléna A Gaspar, Husseini Manji, Christopher Huebel, John R Kelsoe, Dheeraj Malhotra, Alessandro Bertolino, Danielle Posthuma, Pamela Sklar, Shitij Kapur, Patrick F Sullivan, David A Collier & Howard J Edenberg

The road to precision psychiatry: translating genetics into disease mechanisms

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1397 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4409

Authors: Michael J Gandal, Virpi Leppa, Hyejung Won, Neelroop N Parikshak & Daniel H Geschwind

Lessons learned from studying syndromic autism spectrum disorders

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1408 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4420

Authors: Yehezkel Sztainberg & Huda Y Zoghbi

Using model systems to understand errant plasticity mechanisms in psychiatric disorders

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1418 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4413

Authors: Bruno B Averbeck & Matthew V Chafee

Rare variants are common in schizophrenia

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1426 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4422

Author: Jacob Gratten

A large DNA sequencing study of schizophrenia finds more evidence that rare inherited coding mutations across many genes contribute to risk of the disorder. This has important implications for geneticists and neuroscientists alike.

Brains, genes and power

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1428 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4424

Author: Frank W Albert

Gene expression data from more than 500 human brains shed light on the molecular consequences of genetic variation that contributes to schizophrenia.

When size matters: CHD8 in autism

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 10/25/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience 19, 1430 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4431

Authors: Martin W Breuss & Joseph G Gleeson

Recent models studying loss of the mouse homolog of the autism-associated gene CHD8 show altered Wnt signaling, cell fate and proliferation. How do these findings shape our understanding of this disease?

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