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Modulation of oligodendrocyte generation during a critical temporal window after NG2 cell division

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3815

Authors: Robert A Hill, Kiran D Patel, Christopher M Goncalves, Jaime Grutzendler & Akiko Nishiyama

Neural correlates of water reward in thirsty Drosophila

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3827

Authors: Suewei Lin, David Owald, Vikram Chandra, Clifford Talbot, Wolf Huetteroth & Scott Waddell

A somatosensory circuit for cooling perception in mice

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3828

Authors: Nevena Milenkovic, Wen-Jie Zhao, Jan Walcher, Tobias Albert, Jan Siemens, Gary R Lewin & James F A Poulet

Neural antecedents of self-initiated actions in secondary motor cortex

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3826

Authors: Masayoshi Murakami, M Inês Vicente, Gil M Costa & Zachary F Mainen

Consorting with big science

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1289 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3830

Large-scale consortia have benefited many fields chasing big data. In the face of new projects, neuroscientists should consider banding together.

A touching tale: point sensor or pattern detector?

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1290 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3820

Author: David T Blake

The tactile sensors in our fingers have variable sensitivity across the skin. Does this variability harm or help the CNS in touch perception? Work now shows that this variability may provide the CNS with more information about micropositioning and stimulus orientation.

Promoting FOS to an enhanced position

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1291 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3819

Authors: Sietse Jonkman & Paul J Kenny

How do enhancers facilitate transcription of plasticity-related genes in response to synaptic stimulation? A study implicates a specific histone modification and suggests that FOS regulates enhancer function.

Axons hooked to Schwann cell metabolism

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1293 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3825

Authors: Iva D Tzvetanova & Klaus-Armin Nave

Long axonal projections seem to be metabolically coupled to ensheathing glial cells. Targeting LKB1, a regulator of energy homeostasis, specifically in Schwann cells causes a loss of predominantly small unmyelinated fibers.

Practice makes perfect

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1295 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3817

Author: Aniruddha Das

As we learn through visual experience, where does that memory form? A study now shows that neural responses at even the earliest stage of visual cortex get reshaped in a way that faithfully reflects ongoing learning.

A two-way street

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1297 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn1014-1297

Author: Sébastien Thuault

Motivational activation: a unifying hypothesis of orexin/hypocretin function

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1298 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3810

Authors: Stephen V Mahler, David E Moorman, Rachel J Smith, Morgan H James & Gary Aston-Jones

Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 09/25/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1304 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3811

Authors: Edita Navratilova & Frank Porreca

Social learning and amygdala disruptions in Nf1 mice are rescued by blocking p21-activated kinase

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/21/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3822

Authors: Andrei I Molosh, Philip L Johnson, John P Spence, David Arendt, Lauren M Federici, Cristian Bernabe, Steven P Janasik, Zaneer M Segu, Rajesh Khanna, Chirayu Goswami, Weiguo Zhu, Su-Jung Park, Lang Li, Yehia S Mechref, D Wade Clapp & Anantha Shekhar

Tactile frequency discrimination is enhanced by circumventing neocortical adaptation

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/21/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3821

Authors: Simon Musall, Wolfger von der Behrens, Johannes M Mayrhofer, Bruno Weber, Fritjof Helmchen & Florent Haiss

Single rodent mesohabenular axons release glutamate and GABA

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/21/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3823

Authors: David H Root, Carlos A Mejias-Aponte, Shiliang Zhang, Hui-Ling Wang, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica & Marisela Morales

Visualizing an emotional valence map in the limbic forebrain by TAI-FISH

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/21/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3813

Authors: Jianbo Xiu, Qi Zhang, Tao Zhou, Ting-ting Zhou, Yang Chen & Hailan Hu

Neural compensation in older people with brain amyloid-β deposition

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 09/14/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1316 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3806

Authors: Jeremy A Elman, Hwamee Oh, Cindee M Madison, Suzanne L Baker, Jacob W Vogel, Shawn M Marks, Sam Crowley, James P O'Neil & William J Jagust

Recruitment of extra neural resources may allow people to maintain normal cognition despite amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. Previous fMRI studies have reported such hyperactivation, but it is unclear whether increases represent compensation or aberrant overexcitation. We found that older adults with Aβ deposition had reduced deactivations in task-negative regions, but increased activation in task-positive regions related to more detailed memory encoding. The association between higher activity and more detailed memories suggests that Aβ-related hyperactivation is compensatory.

Neural compensation in older people with brain amyloid-β deposition

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/14/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3806

Authors: Jeremy A Elman, Hwamee Oh, Cindee M Madison, Suzanne L Baker, Jacob W Vogel, Shawn M Marks, Sam Crowley, James P O'Neil & William J Jagust

Recruitment of extra neural resources may allow people to maintain normal cognition despite amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. Previous fMRI studies have reported such hyperactivation, but it is unclear whether increases represent compensation or aberrant overexcitation. We found that older adults with Aβ deposition had reduced deactivations in task-negative regions, but increased activation in task-positive regions related to more detailed memory encoding. The association between higher activity and more detailed memories suggests that Aβ-related hyperactivation is compensatory.

Genome-wide identification and characterization of functional neuronal activity–dependent enhancers

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1330 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3808

Authors: Athar N Malik, Thomas Vierbuchen, Martin Hemberg, Alex A Rubin, Emi Ling, Cameron H Couch, Hume Stroud, Ivo Spiegel, Kyle Kai-How Farh, David A Harmin & Michael E Greenberg

Metabolic regulator LKB1 is crucial for Schwann cell–mediated axon maintenance

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1351 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3809

Authors: Bogdan Beirowski, Elisabetta Babetto, Judith P Golden, Ying-Jr Chen, Kui Yang, Richard W Gross, Gary J Patti & Jeffrey Milbrandt

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