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Regulating anxiety with extrasynaptic inhibition

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/31/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4102

Authors: Paolo Botta, Lynda Demmou, Yu Kasugai, Milica Markovic, Chun Xu, Jonathan P Fadok, Tingjia Lu, Michael M Poe, Li Xu, James M Cook, Uwe Rudolph, Pankaj Sah, Francesco Ferraguti & Andreas Lüthi

Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/31/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4104

Authors: Yue Jiang, Naihua Natalie Gong, Xiaoyang Serene Hu, Mengjue Jessica Ni, Radhika Pasi & Hiroaki Matsunami

Centrosomin represses dendrite branching by orienting microtubule nucleation

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/31/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4099

Authors: Cagri Yalgin, Saman Ebrahimi, Caroline Delandre, Li Foong Yoong, Saori Akimoto, Heidi Tran, Reiko Amikura, Rebecca Spokony, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Kevin P White & Adrian W Moore

Large-scale transcriptional profiling of chemosensory neurons identifies receptor-ligand pairs in vivo

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/31/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4100

Authors: Benoît von der Weid, Daniel Rossier, Matti Lindup, Joël Tuberosa, Alexandre Widmer, Julien Dal Col, Chenda Kan, Alan Carleton & Ivan Rodriguez

ChR2 coming of age

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1191 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4103

10 years ago, channelrhodopsin-2 was expressed in neurons and shown to control their activity. In this issue, we consider how the field has developed since these early optogenetic experiments.

How a fly escapes the reflex trap

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1192 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4097

Author: Holger G Krapp

Reflexes help us maintain a default posture and direction of locomotion. But what if we deliberately want to move differently? In Drosophila, the brain modifies a visually driven stabilization reflex to enable voluntary movements.

GABA receptors in a state of fear

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1194 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4098

Authors: Andrew Holmes & Alon Chen

Our internal states can color our memories just as powerfully as the external environment. A study finds that hippocampal GABAA receptors and associated microRNAs are important for generating state-dependent contextual fear memories.

The changing tree in Parkinson's disease

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1196 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4092

Authors: Paolo Calabresi & Massimiliano Di Filippo

Dopamine loss in Parkinson's disease affects not only the basal ganglia, but also motor cortex, causing a surprising increase of spine turnover in the cortical dendritic tree and altering synaptic plasticity and memory retention.

Character studies

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1198 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4093

Authors: Ming Hsu & Adrianna C Jenkins

How do individuals attribute dispositional properties, or traits, to others? A study suggests that associative learning processes underlie aspects of trait learning at both neural and behavioral levels.

Optogenetics and the future of neuroscience

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1200 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4094

Author: Edward S Boyden

Optogenetics: 10 years after ChR2 in neurons—views from the community

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1202 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4106

Authors: Antoine Adamantidis, Silvia Arber, Jaideep S Bains, Ernst Bamberg, Antonello Bonci, György Buzsáki, Jessica A Cardin, Rui M Costa, Yang Dan, Yukiko Goda, Ann M Graybiel, Michael Häusser, Peter Hegemann, John R Huguenard, Thomas R Insel, Patricia H Janak, Daniel Johnston, Sheena A Josselyn, Christof Koch, Anatol C Kreitzer, Christian Lüscher, Robert C Malenka, Gero Miesenböck, Georg Nagel, Botond Roska, Mark J Schnitzer, Krishna V Shenoy, Ivan Soltesz, Scott M Sternson, Richard W Tsien, Roger Y Tsien, Gina G Turrigiano, Kay M Tye & Rachel I Wilson

On the anniversary of the Boyden et al. (2005) paper that introduced the use of channelrhodopsin in neurons, Nature Neuroscience asks selected members of the community to comment on the utility, impact and future of this important technique.

Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1213 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4091

Author: Karl Deisseroth

Modifiers of C9orf72 dipeptide repeat toxicity connect nucleocytoplasmic transport defects to FTD/ALS

Neuroscience in the News - Wed, 08/26/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1226 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4085

Authors: Ana Jovičić, Jerome Mertens, Steven Boeynaems, Elke Bogaert, Noori Chai, Shizuka B Yamada, Joseph W Paul, Shuying Sun, Joseph R Herdy, Gregor Bieri, Nicholas J Kramer, Fred H Gage, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Wim Robberecht & Aaron D Gitler

C9orf72 mutations are the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) produced by unconventional translation of the C9orf72 repeat expansions cause neurodegeneration in cell culture and in animal models. We performed two unbiased screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified potent modifiers of DPR toxicity, including karyopherins and effectors of Ran-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport, providing insight into potential disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets.

Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/24/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4089

Authors: Olivier Gschwend, Nixon M Abraham, Samuel Lagier, Frédéric Begnaud, Ivan Rodriguez & Alan Carleton

BET protein Brd4 activates transcription in neurons and BET inhibitor Jq1 blocks memory in mice

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/24/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4095

Authors: Erica Korb, Margo Herre, Ilana Zucker-Scharff, Robert B Darnell & C David Allis

Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/24/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4090

Authors: Ana Raquel O Martins & Robert C Froemke

GABAergic mechanisms regulated by miR-33 encode state-dependent fear

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 08/17/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1265 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4084

Authors: Vladimir Jovasevic, Kevin A Corcoran, Katherine Leaderbrand, Naoki Yamawaki, Anita L Guedea, Helen J Chen, Gordon M G Shepherd & Jelena Radulovic

GABAergic mechanisms regulated by miR-33 encode state-dependent fear

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 08/17/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4084

Authors: Vladimir Jovasevic, Kevin A Corcoran, Katherine Leaderbrand, Naoki Yamawaki, Anita L Guedea, Helen J Chen, Gordon M G Shepherd & Jelena Radulovic

EAG2 potassium channel with evolutionarily conserved function as a brain tumor target

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 08/10/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1236 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4088

Authors: Xi Huang, Ye He, Adrian M Dubuc, Rintaro Hashizume, Wei Zhang, Jüri Reimand, Huanghe Yang, Tongfei A Wang, Samantha J Stehbens, Susan Younger, Suzanne Barshow, Sijun Zhu, Michael K Cooper, John Peacock, Vijay Ramaswamy, Livia Garzia, Xiaochong Wu, Marc Remke, Craig M Forester, Charles C Kim, William A Weiss, C David James, Marc A Shuman, Gary D Bader, Sabine Mueller, Michael D Taylor, Yuh Nung Jan & Lily Yeh Jan

Cell type–specific manipulation with GFP-dependent Cre recombinase

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 08/10/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 18, 1334 (2015). doi:10.1038/nn.4081

Authors: Jonathan C Y Tang, Stephanie Rudolph, Onkar S Dhande, Victoria E Abraira, Seungwon Choi, Sylvain W Lapan, Iain R Drew, Eugene Drokhlyansky, Andrew D Huberman, Wade G Regehr & Constance L Cepko

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