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Evaluation of ambiguous associations in the amygdala by learning the structure of the environment

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4308

Authors: Tamas J Madarasz, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Omar Akhand, Edgar A Ycu, Joseph E LeDoux & Joshua P Johansen

Hedgehog signaling promotes basal progenitor expansion and the growth and folding of the neocortex

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4307

Authors: Lei Wang, Shirui Hou & Young-Goo Han

Spatially segregated feedforward and feedback neurons support differential odor processing in the lateral entorhinal cortex

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/16/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4303

Authors: Frauke C Leitner, Sarah Melzer, Henry Lütcke, Roberta Pinna, Peter H Seeburg, Fritjof Helmchen & Hannah Monyer

Hippocampo-cortical coupling mediates memory consolidation during sleep

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/16/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4304

Authors: Nicolas Maingret, Gabrielle Girardeau, Ralitsa Todorova, Marie Goutierre & Michaël Zugaro

Neuronal remapping and circuit persistence in economic decisions

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/09/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4300

Authors: Jue Xie & Camillo Padoa-Schioppa

In vivo imaging of dendritic pruning in dentate granule cells

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/02/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4301

Authors: J Tiago Gonçalves, Cooper W Bloyd, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T Johnston, Simon T Schafer, Sarah L Parylak, Thanh Tran, Tina Chang & Fred H Gage

We longitudinally imaged the developing dendrites of adult-born mouse dentate granule cells (DGCs) in vivo and found that they underwent over-branching and pruning. Exposure to an enriched environment and constraint of dendritic growth by disrupting Wnt signaling led to increased branch addition and accelerated growth, which were, however, counteracted by earlier and more extensive pruning. Our results indicate that pruning is regulated in a homeostatic fashion to oppose excessive branching and promote a similar dendrite structure in DGCs.

Neural pattern similarity reveals the inherent intersection of social categories

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/02/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4296

Authors: Ryan M Stolier & Jonathan B Freeman

We provide evidence that neural representations of ostensibly unrelated social categories become bound together by their overlapping stereotype associations. While viewing faces, multi-voxel representations of gender, race, and emotion categories in the fusiform and orbitofrontal cortices were stereotypically biased and correlated with subjective perceptions. The findings suggest that social-conceptual knowledge can systematically alter the representational structure of social categories at multiple levels of cortical processing, reflecting bias in visual perceptions.

A microRNA switch regulates the rise in hypothalamic GnRH production before puberty

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 05/02/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4298

Authors: Andrea Messina, Fanny Langlet, Konstantina Chachlaki, Juan Roa, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Nathalie Jouy, Sarah Gallet, Francisco Gaytan, Jyoti Parkash, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Paolo Giacobini & Vincent Prevot

Neocortex: a lean mean memory storage machine

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 04/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 643 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4292

Authors: Beatriz E P Mizusaki, Armen Stepanyants, Dmitri B Chklovskii & P Jesper Sjöström

Connectivity patterns of neocortex exhibit several odd properties: for example, most neighboring excitatory neurons do not connect, which seems curiously wasteful. Brunel's elegant theoretical treatment reveals how optimal information storage can naturally impose these peculiar properties.

Foraging and flight trump defense and fight

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 04/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 645 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4294

Authors: Chia Li & Michael J Krashes

Hypothalamic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons promote feeding via inhibitory mechanisms. A downstream target in the medial amygdala both mediates feeding and modulates risk-taking and defensive behaviors in the face of starvation.

Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 04/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 647 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4276

Authors: Boaz Barak & Guoping Feng

Going and stopping: dichotomies in behavioral control by the prefrontal cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 04/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 656 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4275

Authors: Shannon L Gourley & Jane R Taylor

Control of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by feed-forward cytokine signaling

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4295

Authors: Arezu Jahani-Asl, Hang Yin, Vahab D Soleimani, Takrima Haque, H Artee Luchman, Natasha C Chang, Marie-Claude Sincennes, Sidharth V Puram, Andrew M Scott, Ian A J Lorimer, Theodore J Perkins, Keith L Ligon, Samuel Weiss, Michael A Rudnicki & Azad Bonni

Serotonin modulates spike probability in the axon initial segment through HCN channels

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4293

Authors: Kwang Woo Ko, Matthew N Rasband, Victor Meseguer, Richard H Kramer & Nace L Golding

Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4287

Authors: Nathan F Parker, Courtney M Cameron, Joshua P Taliaferro, Junuk Lee, Jung Yoon Choi, Thomas J Davidson, Nathaniel D Daw & Ilana B Witten

Sequential regulatory loops as key gatekeepers for neuronal reprogramming in human cells

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4297

Authors: Yuanchao Xue, Hao Qian, Jing Hu, Bing Zhou, Yu Zhou, Xihao Hu, Aziz Karakhanyan, Zhiping Pang & Xiang-Dong Fu

Silencing spinal interneurons inhibits immune suppressive autonomic reflexes caused by spinal cord injury

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/18/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4289

Authors: Masaki Ueno, Yuka Ueno-Nakamura, Jesse Niehaus, Phillip G Popovich & Yutaka Yoshida

Spinal cord injury (SCI) at high spinal levels (e.g., above thoracic level 5) causes systemic immune suppression; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that profound plasticity develops within spinal autonomic circuitry below the injury, creating a sympathetic anti-inflammatory reflex, and that chemogenetic silencing of this reflex circuitry blocks post-SCI immune suppression. These data provide new insights and potential therapeutic options for limiting the devastating consequences of post-traumatic autonomic hyperreflexia and post-injury immune suppression.

Coordinated grid and place cell replay during rest

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/18/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4291

Authors: H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Francis Carpenter & Caswell Barry

Hippocampal replay has been hypothesized to underlie memory consolidation and navigational planning, yet the involvement of grid cells in replay is unknown. During replay we found grid cells to be spatially coherent with place cells, encoding locations 11 ms delayed relative to the hippocampus, with directionally modulated grid cells and forward replay exhibiting the greatest coherence with the CA1 area of the hippocampus. This suggests grid cells are engaged during the consolidation of spatial memories to the neocortex.

Dense EM-based reconstruction of the interglomerular projectome in the zebrafish olfactory bulb

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 04/18/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4290

Authors: Adrian A Wanner, Christel Genoud, Tafheem Masudi, Léa Siksou & Rainer W Friedrich

Linking pattern completion in the hippocampus to predictive coding in visual cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 04/11/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 19, 665 (2016). doi:10.1038/nn.4284

Authors: Nicholas C Hindy, Felicia Y Ng & Nicholas B Turk-Browne

Models of predictive coding frame perception as a generative process in which expectations constrain sensory representations. These models account for expectations about how a stimulus will move or change from moment to moment, but do not address expectations about what other, distinct stimuli are likely to appear based on prior experience. We show that such memory-based expectations in human visual cortex are related to the hippocampal mechanism of pattern completion.

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