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Neural compensation in older people with brain amyloid-β deposition

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/14/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3806

Authors: Jeremy A Elman, Hwamee Oh, Cindee M Madison, Suzanne L Baker, Jacob W Vogel, Shawn M Marks, Sam Crowley, James P O'Neil & William J Jagust

Recruitment of extra neural resources may allow people to maintain normal cognition despite amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. Previous fMRI studies have reported such hyperactivation, but it is unclear whether increases represent compensation or aberrant overexcitation. We found that older adults with Aβ deposition had reduced deactivations in task-negative regions, but increased activation in task-positive regions related to more detailed memory encoding. The association between higher activity and more detailed memories suggests that Aβ-related hyperactivation is compensatory.

Metabolic regulator LKB1 is crucial for Schwann cell–mediated axon maintenance

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3809

Authors: Bogdan Beirowski, Elisabetta Babetto, Judith P Golden, Ying-Jr Chen, Kui Yang, Richard W Gross, Gary J Patti & Jeffrey Milbrandt

Genome-wide identification and characterization of functional neuronal activity–dependent enhancers

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3808

Authors: Athar N Malik, Thomas Vierbuchen, Martin Hemberg, Alex A Rubin, Emi Ling, Cameron H Couch, Hume Stroud, Ivo Spiegel, Kyle Kai-How Farh, David A Harmin & Michael E Greenberg

Information-limiting correlations

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3807

Authors: Rubén Moreno-Bote, Jeffrey Beck, Ingmar Kanitscheider, Xaq Pitkow, Peter Latham & Alexandre Pouget

Perceptual training continuously refines neuronal population codes in primary visual cortex

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 09/07/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3805

Authors: Yin Yan, Malte J Rasch, Minggui Chen, Xiaoping Xiang, Min Huang, Si Wu & Wu Li

Damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects tradeoffs between honesty and self-interest

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 08/31/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3798

Authors: Lusha Zhu, Adrianna C Jenkins, Eric Set, Donatella Scabini, Robert T Knight, Pearl H Chiu, Brooks King-Casas & Ming Hsu

Substantial correlational evidence suggests that prefrontal regions are critical to honest and dishonest behavior, but causal evidence specifying the nature of this involvement remains absent. We found that lesions of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreased the effect of honesty concerns on behavior in economic games that pit honesty motives against self-interest, but did not affect decisions when honesty concerns were absent. These results point to a causal role for DLPFC in honest behavior.

Reversal of theta rhythm flow through intact hippocampal circuits

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 08/31/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3803

Authors: Jesse Jackson, Bénédicte Amilhon, Romain Goutagny, Jean-Bastien Bott, Frédéric Manseau, Christian Kortleven, Steven L Bressler & Sylvain Williams

Encoding and decoding in parietal cortex during sensorimotor decision-making

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 08/31/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3800

Authors: Il Memming Park, Miriam L R Meister, Alexander C Huk & Jonathan W Pillow

Edge-orientation processing in first-order tactile neurons

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 08/31/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3804

Authors: J Andrew Pruszynski & Roland S Johansson

Genetic variability in the regulation of gene expression in ten regions of the human brain

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 08/31/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3801

Authors: Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Daniah Trabzuni, Sebastian Guelfi, Vibin Varghese, Colin Smith, Robert Walker, Tisham De, Lachlan Coin, Rohan de Silva, Mark R Cookson, Andrew B Singleton, John Hardy, Mina Ryten & Michael E Weale

The mythical brain

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1137 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3802

It is not enough to refute common myths about the brain: scientists need to highlight interesting real science as well.

The epigenetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1138 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3792

Authors: Jenny Lord & Carlos Cruchaga

Two independent epigenome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease cohorts have identified overlapping methylation signals in four loci, ANK1, RPL13, RHBDF2 and CDH23, not previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These studies also suggest that epigenetic changes contribute more to Alzheimer's disease than expected.

CLEARance wars: PolyQ strikes back

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1140 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3793

Authors: X William Yang & Ai Yamamoto

Polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor, causing X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, impairs its function as a transcriptional coactivator regulating an extensive network of proteins involved in protein clearance.

All that glitters is not reward signal

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1142 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3795

Authors: Benjamin Y Hayden & Sarah R Heilbronner

In this issue, Shenhav et al. critically evaluate the idea that neural correlates of value actually represent value. They describe how, in many situations, value correlates can reflect other cognitive factors, such as decisional difficulty.

Scenting Waldo: analyzing olfactory scenes

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1144 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3796

Author: Timothy E Holy

Olfaction has often been described as a 'synthetic' sense. A study now reveals a surprising capacity to resolve individual odorants in complex mixtures, with implications for how the nervous system recognizes objects.

Reward processing by the lateral habenula in normal and depressive behaviors

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1146 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3779

Authors: Christophe D Proulx, Okihide Hikosaka & Roberto Malinow

Corrigendum: Immune surveillance in the central nervous system

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1286 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn0914-1286a

Author: Shalina S Ousman & Paul Kubes

Addendum: Deep brain stimulation restores frontostriatal network activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1286 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn0914-1286b

Author: Martijn Figee, Judy Luigjes, Ruud Smolders, Carlos-Eduardo Valencia-Alfonso, Guido van Wingen, Bart de Kwaasteniet, Mariska Mantione, Pieter Ooms, Pelle de Koning, Nienke Vulink, Nina Levar, Lukas Droge, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P Richard Schuurman, Aart Nederveen, Wim van den Brink, Ali Mazaheri, Matthijs Vink & Damiaan Denys

Corrigendum: EZH2-mediated H3K27 trimethylation mediates neurodegeneration in ataxia-telangiectasia

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1286 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn0914-1286c

Author: Jiali Li, Ronald P Hart, Elyse M Mallimo, Mavis R Swerdel, Alexander W Kusnecov & Karl Herrup

Corrigendum: Identification of a unique TGF-β–dependent molecular and functional signature in microglia

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1286 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn0914-1286d

Author: Oleg Butovsky, Mark P Jedrychowski, Craig S Moore, Ron Cialic, Amanda J Lanser, Galina Gabriely, Thomas Koeglsperger, Ben Dake, Pauline M Wu, Camille E Doykan, Zain Fanek, LiPing Liu, Zhuoxun Chen, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Richard M Ransohoff, Steven P Gygi, Jack P Antel & Howard L Weiner

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