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Grid scale drives the scale and long-term stability of place maps

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

Grid scale drives the scale and long-term stability of place maps

Grid scale drives the scale and long-term stability of place maps, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0055-3

How entorhinal grid cells control hippocampal coding and behavior remains elusive. The authors report that increasing the spatial scale of grid cells expands the scale and reduces the stability of place fields, impairing spatial memory in mice.

In vivo simultaneous transcriptional activation of multiple genes in the brain using CRISPR–dCas9-activator transgenic mice

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

In vivo simultaneous transcriptional activation of multiple genes in the brain using CRISPR–dCas9-activator transgenic mice

In vivo simultaneous transcriptional activation of multiple genes in the brain using CRISPR–dCas9-activator transgenic mice, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0060-6

dCas9-mediated activation has been verified and widely used in vitro. Here the authors generated a potent in vivo activation platform and applied it to control the transcription of multiple genetic elements in the mammalian brain.

Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing

Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0056-2

Using single-cell RNA-seq, the authors show that early developmental neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is largely conserved in the adult, but with a perinatal transformation of stem cells to an adult type.

Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response

Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0059-z

A salt-rich diet promotes cerebrovascular diseases and dementia. This study shows that high dietary salt in mice induces a TH17 response in the gut leading to cerebral endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment via circulating IL-17.

Dentate network activity is necessary for spatial working memory by supporting CA3 sharp-wave ripple generation and prospective firing of CA3 neurons

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

Dentate network activity is necessary for spatial working memory by supporting CA3 sharp-wave ripple generation and prospective firing of CA3 neurons

Dentate network activity is necessary for spatial working memory by supporting CA3 sharp-wave ripple generation and prospective firing of CA3 neurons, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0061-5

Sasaki et al. reveal that the dentate gyrus not only performs pattern separation but also has a direct role in organizing memory-guided behavior by coordinating the planning of future actions.

<i>N</i><sup>6</sup>-methyladenosine RNA modification regulates embryonic neural stem cell self-renewal through histone modifications

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/15/2018 - 12:00am

N6-methyladenosine RNA modification regulates embryonic neural stem cell self-renewal through histone modifications

<i>N</i><sup>6</sup>-methyladenosine RNA modification regulates embryonic neural stem cell self-renewal through histone modifications, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0057-1

Using a genetic approach, Wang et al. demonstrate an essential function for m6A mRNA modification in promoting neural stem cell proliferation and reveal interactions between m6A and histone modification as a novel gene regulatory mechanism.

Hexadirectional coding of visual space in human entorhinal cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Hexadirectional coding of visual space in human entorhinal cortex

Hexadirectional coding of visual space in human entorhinal cortex, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0050-8

fMRI activity in human entorhinal cortex is modulated by eye-movement direction with 60° periodicity, implicating a grid cell-like code in mapping visual space. This suggests a role for entorhinal grid coding in cognition beyond spatial navigation.

Simple integration of fast excitation and offset, delayed inhibition computes directional selectivity in <i>Drosophila</i>

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Simple integration of fast excitation and offset, delayed inhibition computes directional selectivity in Drosophila

Simple integration of fast excitation and offset, delayed inhibition computes directional selectivity in <i>Drosophila</i> , Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0046-4

In the Drosophila visual system, T4 is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. This directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs.

Mutations in <i>Vps15</i> perturb neuronal migration in mice and are associated with neurodevelopmental disease in humans

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Mutations in Vps15 perturb neuronal migration in mice and are associated with neurodevelopmental disease in humans

Mutations in <i>Vps15</i> perturb neuronal migration in mice and are associated with neurodevelopmental disease in humans, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0053-5

The brain is a complex biological machine that results from the birth, migration and differentiation of neurons. This paper reports that Vps15 enables the migration and survival of neurons, and implicates the gene in neurodevelopmental disease.

Human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid

Human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0049-1

The authors show that human entorhinal cortex supports a grid cell-like representation of visual space. This visual grid pattern is stably anchored to the external visual world in a fashion analogous to rodent grid representations of navigable space.

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0044-6

In mice, stress-induced priming of glutamate synapses in the PVN can be transmitted through social interactions. This requires PVN CRH neuron activation in both of the interacting mice and release of an alarm pheromone from the stressed mouse.

TDP-43 pathology disrupts nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in ALS/FTD

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

TDP-43 pathology disrupts nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in ALS/FTD

TDP-43 pathology disrupts nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in ALS/FTD, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0047-3

Pathological TDP-43 protein aggregates are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. TDP-43 pathology alters the morphology of nuclear pore complexes and cause deficits in nucleocytoplasmic transport.

Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:00am

Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation

Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0054-4

Polanía, Nitsche and Ruff summarize the state of non-invasive brain stimulation research in humans, discuss some current debates about properties and limitations of these methods, and give recommendations for how these challenges may be addressed.

Generalizable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in medial frontal cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 01/01/2018 - 12:00am

Generalizable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in medial frontal cortex

Generalizable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in medial frontal cortex, Published online: 01 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0051-7

Assessing person-level human brain maps across 18 fMRI studies, the authors identify separable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in the medial frontal cortex that generalize across different studies and tasks.

Stay alert, don’t get hurt

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

Stay alert, don’t get hurt

Stay alert, don’t get hurt, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0045-5

Both nucleus accumbens and orexin play clear roles in motivated behavior, but the functions of orexin projections to accumbens are poorly understood. Blomeley et al. show that this pathway, via specific orexin excitation of dopamine D2 receptor–expressing neurons, can inhibit reward seeking and exploratory drive when danger is perceived.

The diversity and disparity of the glial scar

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

The diversity and disparity of the glial scar

The diversity and disparity of the glial scar, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0033-9

The glial scar plays critical but divergent roles during regeneration of the mammalian CNS. Here the authors propose that in-depth analysis of the functionally heterogeneous populations of reactive glia within the scar is needed to fully understand the glial scar’s dual nature.

Promoting diversity in neuroscience

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

Promoting diversity in neuroscience

Promoting diversity in neuroscience, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0052-6

Neuroscience is not spared from wrestling with gender disparity issues. Progress toward more balanced representation has been slow, but improvement is possible with consistent and focused efforts.

From entorhinal neural codes to navigation

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

From entorhinal neural codes to navigation

From entorhinal neural codes to navigation, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0048-2

The medial entorhinal cortex contains spatially selective grid cells, whose lattice-like firing patterns are proposed to support path-integration-based navigation. However, direct behavioral evidence has been lacking. Gil et al. disrupt grid cells in a targeted manner, establishing a clear link between grid cell codes and navigation.

Calcium control of myelin sheath growth

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

Calcium control of myelin sheath growth

Calcium control of myelin sheath growth, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0043-7

New studies provide compelling evidence that the number and length of myelin sheaths generated by oligodendrocytes in the CNS are controlled by local calcium levels, linking axonal activity to individual myelin sheath formation.

Munc13 marks the spot

Neuroscience in the News - Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:00am

Munc13 marks the spot

Munc13 marks the spot, Published online: 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0042-8

Super-resolution optical imaging of presynaptic terminals shows that a protein essential to all known forms of neurotransmitter release is clustered in small assemblies that likely correspond to release sites for synaptic vesicle fusion.
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