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Delayed stabilization and individualization in connectome development are related to psychiatric disorders

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4511

Authors: Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Christine Lycke Brandt, Ole A Andreassen & Lars T Westlye

The brain functional connectome constitutes a unique fingerprint allowing identification of individuals among a pool of people. Here we establish that the connectome develops into a more stable, individual wiring pattern during adolescence and demonstrate that a delay in this network tuning process is associated with reduced mental health in the formative years of late neurodevelopment.

Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4509

Authors: Jan Kamin´ski, Shannon Sullivan, Jeffrey M Chung, Ian B Ross, Adam N Mamelak & Ueli Rutishauser

Hippocampal awake replay in fear memory retrieval

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4507

Authors: Chun-Ting Wu, Daniel Haggerty, Caleb Kemere & Daoyun Ji

One-step optogenetics with multifunctional flexible polymer fibers

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4510

Authors: Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink & Polina Anikeeva

Cadherins mediate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and behavioral conditioning

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4503

Authors: Fergil Mills, Andrea K Globa, Shuai Liu, Catherine M Cowan, Mahsan Mobasser, Anthony G Phillips, Stephanie L Borgland & Shernaz X Bamji

Metabotropic action of postsynaptic kainate receptors triggers hippocampal long-term potentiation

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4505

Authors: Milos M Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González & Jeremy M Henley

Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4498

Authors: Xuefeng Shi, Jad Barchini, Hector Acaron Ledesma, David Koren, Yanjiao Jin, Xiaorong Liu, Wei Wei & Jianhua Cang

Nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide drug for spinal muscular atrophy

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4508

Author: David R Corey

Nusinersen (Spinraza) is a recently approved drug for treating spinal muscular atrophy. Approval of nusinersen may signal new opportunities for using antisense oligonucleotides as treatments for devastating neurological diseases.

Identification of diverse astrocyte populations and their malignant analogs

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/06/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4493

Authors: Chia-Ching John Lin, Kwanha Yu, Asante Hatcher, Teng-Wei Huang, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Jeffrey Carlson, Matthew C Weston, Fengju Chen, Yiqun Zhang, Wenyi Zhu, Carrie A Mohila, Nabil Ahmed, Akash J Patel, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Jeffrey L Noebels, Chad J Creighton & Benjamin Deneen

A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/06/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4495

Authors: John N Campbell, Evan Z Macosko, Henning Fenselau, Tune H Pers, Anna Lyubetskaya, Danielle Tenen, Melissa Goldman, Anne M J Verstegen, Jon M Resch, Steven A McCarroll, Evan D Rosen, Bradford B Lowell & Linus T Tsai

Neuronal activity modifies the chromatin accessibility landscape in the adult brain

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 02/06/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4494

Authors: Yijing Su, Jaehoon Shin, Chun Zhong, Sabrina Wang, Prith Roychowdhury, Jongseuk Lim, David Kim, Guo-li Ming & Hongjun Song

Hypothalamic CRFR1 is essential for HPA axis regulation following chronic stress

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4491

Authors: Assaf Ramot, Zhiying Jiang, Jin-Bin Tian, Tali Nahum, Yael Kuperman, Nicholas Justice & Alon Chen

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is a pivotal component of an organism's response to stressful challenges, and dysfunction of this neuroendocrine axis is associated with a variety of physiological and psychological pathologies. We found that corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is an important central component of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation that prepares the organism for successive exposure to stressful stimuli.

[18F]FDG PET signal is driven by astroglial glutamate transport

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4492

Authors: Eduardo R Zimmer, Maxime J Parent, Débora G Souza, Antoine Leuzy, Clotilde Lecrux, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Serge Gauthier, Luc Pellerin, Edith Hamel & Pedro Rosa-Neto

Contributions of glial cells to neuroenergetics have been the focus of extensive debate. Here we provide positron emission tomography evidence that activation of astrocytic glutamate transport via the excitatory amino acid transporter GLT-1 triggers widespread but graded glucose uptake in the rodent brain. Our results highlight the need for a reevaluation of the interpretation of [18F]FDG positron emission tomography data, whereby astrocytes would be recognized as contributing to the [18F]FDG signal.

Pericyte degeneration leads to neurovascular uncoupling and limits oxygen supply to brain

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4489

Authors: Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Sanket V Rege, Anita Ramanathan, Yaoming Wang, Ashim Ahuja, Divna Lazic, Philbert S Tsai, Zhen Zhao, Yi Zhou, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić & Berislav V Zlokovic

Hormonal gain control of a medial preoptic area social reward circuit

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4487

Authors: Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow & Garret D Stuber

Overlearning hyperstabilizes a skill by rapidly making neurochemical processing inhibitory-dominant

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4490

Authors: Kazuhisa Shibata, Yuka Sasaki, Ji Won Bang, Edward G Walsh, Maro G Machizawa, Masako Tamaki, Li-Hung Chang & Takeo Watanabe

The maps they are a-changin': plasticity in odor representation in interneurons

Neuroscience in the News - Fri, 01/27/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 128 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4484

Authors: Tobias Ackels & Andreas T Schaefer

Representations in excitatory neurons generally narrow as they are refined. Odor representations in interneurons, however, broaden with maturation and learning, as connections between interneurons and projection neurons expand.

Pass the salt: the central control of sodium intake

Neuroscience in the News - Fri, 01/27/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4485

Authors: Amber L Alhadeff & J Nicholas Betley

The biological drive to consume salt ensures that we consume adequate sodium for survival. In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, two articles provide insight into the neurons and circuits that regulate sodium appetite.

New building blocks for navigation

Neuroscience in the News - Fri, 01/27/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 131 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4480

Author: Jeffrey S Taube

Many spatial correlates have been identified that form the neural basis for navigation. Two studies have now uncovered a new cell type: bidirectional cells, which fire when the head is pointing in one of two opposing directions.

The maternal 'baby brain' revisited

Neuroscience in the News - Fri, 01/27/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 134 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4473

Authors: Cindy K Barha & Liisa A M Galea

Pregnancy results in changes to maternal physiology and brain that may extend into older age. New results show that pregnancy-induced reductions in gray matter volume remain 2 years after childbirth in humans.

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