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Interactions between the microbiota, immune and nervous systems in health and disease

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/16/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4476

Authors: Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson & Elaine Y Hsiao

Neural regulation of immunity: molecular mechanisms and clinical translation

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/16/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4477

Authors: Valentin A Pavlov & Kevin J Tracey

The role of peripheral immune cells in the CNS in steady state and disease

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/16/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4475

Authors: Marco Prinz & Josef Priller

REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/16/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4479

Authors: Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang & Wen-Biao Gan

Neuroimmune communication

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/16/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4496

We present a special set of Review articles on neuroimmune communication that highlight how the immune system and nervous system are anatomically connected, mechanistically communicate and reciprocally influence the other's function.

Separate elements of episodic memory subserved by distinct hippocampal–prefrontal connections

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/09/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4472

Authors: Gareth R I Barker, Paul J Banks, Hannah Scott, G Scott Ralph, Kyriacos A Mitrophanous, Liang-Fong Wong, Zafar I Bashir, James B Uney & E Clea Warburton

Prefrontal cortical control of a brainstem social behavior circuit

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/09/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4470

Authors: Tamara B Franklin, Bianca A Silva, Zinaida Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E Masferrer, Yang Zhan, Angie Kaplan, Louise Greetham, Violaine Verrechia, Andreas Halman, Sara Pagella, Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna Illarionova, Valery Grinevich, Tiago Branco & Cornelius T Gross

Modulation of excitation on parvalbumin interneurons by neuroligin-3 regulates the hippocampal network

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/09/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4471

Authors: Jai S Polepalli, Hemmings Wu, Debanjan Goswami, Casey H Halpern, Thomas C Südhof & Robert C Malenka

Stream-dependent development of higher visual cortical areas

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 01/09/2017 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4469

Authors: Ikuko T Smith, Leah B Townsend, Ruth Huh, Hongtu Zhu & Spencer L Smith

Grid cells' need for speed

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 12/27/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 1 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4460

Authors: Alfredo Gonzalez-Sulser & Matthew F Nolan

Grid-firing fields of neurons in the entorhinal cortex are thought to require inputs encoding running speed. Glutamatergic projections from the medial septum may be one of the inputs that provide these speed signals.

Fast-acting neurons that suppress appetite

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 12/27/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 2 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4456

Author: Richard D Palmiter

Recent studies reveal several groups of neurons that become activated upon anticipation or consumption of meals. These neurons constitute key components of the complex feedback system that prevents continuous feeding by mice.

Brake and gas pedals in motor cortex

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 12/27/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 4 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4461

Authors: Jinho Kim & S Andrew Hires

A new study finds that a major population of output cells in primary motor cortex suppresses movement and behavioral engagement.

Correlations demystified

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 12/27/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 6 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4455

Author: Peter E Latham

An elegant study answers a long-standing question: how do correlations arise in large, highly interconnected networks of neurons? The answer represents a major step forward in our understanding of spiking networks in the brain.

Cracking the mnemonic code

Neuroscience in the News - Tue, 12/27/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 20, 8 (2017). doi:10.1038/nn.4466

Authors: Eva Zita Patai & Hugo J Spiers

Evidence reveals that humans share remarkably similar patterns of event-specific neural activity during spontaneous spoken recall. Posterior medial cortex appears to play a key role in transforming experience into memory.

Developmental broadening of inhibitory sensory maps

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4467

Authors: Kathleen B Quast, Kevin Ung, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Longwen Huang, Isabella Herman, Angela P Addison, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Andreas S Tolias & Benjamin R Arenkiel

Emotional brain states carry over and enhance future memory formation

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/26/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4468

Authors: Arielle Tambini, Ulrike Rimmele, Elizabeth A Phelps & Lila Davachi

An independent, landmark-dominated head-direction signal in dysgranular retrosplenial cortex

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/19/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4465

Authors: Pierre-Yves Jacob, Giulio Casali, Laure Spieser, Hector Page, Dorothy Overington & Kate Jeffery

We investigated how landmarks influence the brain's computation of head direction and found that in a bidirectionally symmetrical environment, some neurons in dysgranular retrosplenial cortex showed bidirectional firing patterns. This indicates dominance of neural activity by local environmental cues even when these conflicted with the global head direction signal. It suggests a mechanism for associating landmarks to or dissociating them from the head direction signal, according to their directional stability and/or utility.

Subiculum neurons map the current axis of travel

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/19/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4464

Authors: Jacob M Olson, Kanyanat Tongprasearth & Douglas A Nitz

Flexible navigation demands knowledge of boundaries, routes and their relationships. Within a multi-path environment, a subpopulation of subiculum neurons robustly encoded the axis of travel. The firing of axis-tuned neurons peaked bimodally, at head orientations 180° apart. Environmental manipulations showed these neurons to be anchored to environmental boundaries but to lack axis tuning in an open arena. Axis-tuned neurons thus provide a powerful mechanism for mapping relationships between routes and the larger environmental context.

Pregnancy leads to long-lasting changes in human brain structure

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/19/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4458

Authors: Elseline Hoekzema, Erika Barba-Müller, Cristina Pozzobon, Marisol Picado, Florencio Lucco, David García-García, Juan Carlos Soliva, Adolf Tobeña, Manuel Desco, Eveline A Crone, Agustín Ballesteros, Susanna Carmona & Oscar Vilarroya

Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ

Nature Neuroscience - Mon, 12/19/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4463

Authors: Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuto Kobayashi & Masaharu Noda

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