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Clearing the smoke

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1013 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3777

There is an urgent need for more research on the effects of e-cigarettes and nicotine addiction in general.

Something wicked this way comes: huntingtin

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1014 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3770

Author: Albert R La Spada

Does cell-to-cell spreading of misfolded proteins occur in all neurodegenerative disorders? A study in this issue of Nature Neuroscience now demonstrates propagation of mutant huntingtin in brain slice cultures and in vivo, thereby extending the process of cell-to-cell propagation of misfolded proteins to Huntington's disease.

A selector orchestrates cortical function

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1016 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3765

Authors: Masaki Ueno, Ryosuke Fujiki & Toshihide Yamashita

Molecular orchestration mediated by Fezf2, a master transcriptional regulator of a particular type of cortical neurons, directly determines both their identity and axonal routing, and thus their connectivity.

Getting it through your thick skull

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1018 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3766

Authors: Ikuko T Smith & Spencer L Smith

Neural activity up to 3 mm deep in mouse brain can now be inhibited optogenetically through the intact cranium with a red-shifted opsin called Jaws.

Sleep replay meets brain–machine interface

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1019 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3769

Author: Kenneth D Harris

Brain–machine interfaces provide not only potential therapies, but also new tools for studying neuronal processing. A study now uses them to investigate how learning affects sleep activity in motor cortex.

A common affective code

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1021 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn0814-1021

Author: P. Alexander Arguello

Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia: a critical reappraisal

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1022 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3743

Authors: Paolo Calabresi, Barbara Picconi, Alessandro Tozzi, Veronica Ghiglieri & Massimiliano Di Filippo

Dynamic circuit motifs underlying rhythmic gain control, gating and integration

Neuroscience in the News - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1031 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3764

Authors: Thilo Womelsdorf, Taufik A Valiante, Ned T Sahin, Kai J Miller & Paul Tiesinga

'Silent' mitral cells dominate odor responses in the olfactory bulb of awake mice

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/27/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3768

Authors: Mihaly Kollo, Anja Schmaltz, Mostafa Abdelhamid, Izumi Fukunaga & Andreas T Schaefer

How wakefulness shapes neural activity is a topic of intense discussion. In the awake olfactory bulb, high activity with weak sensory-evoked responses has been reported in mitral/tufted cells (M/TCs). Using blind whole-cell recordings, we found 33% of M/TCs to be 'silent', yet still show strong sensory responses, with weak or inhibitory responses in 'active' neurons. Thus, a previously missed M/TC subpopulation can exert powerful influence over the olfactory bulb.

Central amygdala PKC-δ+ neurons mediate the influence of multiple anorexigenic signals

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/27/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3767

Authors: Haijiang Cai, Wulf Haubensak, Todd E Anthony & David J Anderson

Cerebellum involvement in cortical sensorimotor circuits for the control of voluntary movements

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/27/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3773

Authors: Rémi D Proville, Maria Spolidoro, Nicolas Guyon, Guillaume P Dugué, Fekrije Selimi, Philippe Isope, Daniela Popa & Clément Léna

Anterior cingulate engagement in a foraging context reflects choice difficulty, not foraging value

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/27/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3771

Authors: Amitai Shenhav, Mark A Straccia, Jonathan D Cohen & Matthew M Botvinick

Orbitofrontal activation restores insight lost after cocaine use

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 07/20/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1092 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3763

Authors: Federica Lucantonio, Yuji K Takahashi, Alexander F Hoffman, Chun Yun Chang, Sheena Bali-Chaudhary, Yavin Shaham, Carl R Lupica & Geoffrey Schoenbaum

Orbitofrontal activation restores insight lost after cocaine use

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/20/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3763

Authors: Federica Lucantonio, Yuji K Takahashi, Alexander F Hoffman, Chun Chang, Sheena Bali-Chaudhary, Yavin Shaham, Carl R Lupica & Geoffrey Schoenbaum

miR-92a regulates expression of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPA receptors during homeostatic scaling

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 07/13/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1040 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3762

Authors: Mathieu Letellier, Sara Elramah, Magali Mondin, Anaïs Soula, Andrew Penn, Daniel Choquet, Marc Landry, Olivier Thoumine & Alexandre Favereaux

We investigated whether microRNAs could regulate AMPA receptor expression during activity blockade. miR-92a strongly repressed the translation of GluA1 receptors by binding the 3′ untranslated region of rat GluA1 (also known as Gria1) mRNA and was downregulated in rat hippocampal neurons after treatment with tetrodotoxin and AP5. Deleting the seed region in GluA1 or overexpressing miR-92a blocked homeostatic scaling, indicating that miR-92a regulates the translation and synaptic incorporation of new GluA1-containing AMPA receptors.

Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 07/13/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1064 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3761

Authors: Eline Pecho-Vrieseling, Claus Rieker, Sascha Fuchs, Dorothee Bleckmann, Maria Soledad Esposito, Paolo Botta, Chris Goldstein, Mario Bernhard, Ivan Galimberti, Matthias Müller, Andreas Lüthi, Silvia Arber, Tewis Bouwmeester, Herman van der Putten & Francesco Paolo Di Giorgio

miR-92a regulates expression of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPA receptors during homeostatic scaling

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/13/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3762

Authors: Mathieu Letellier, Sara Elramah, Magali Mondin, Anaïs Soula, Andrew Penn, Daniel Choquet, Marc Landry, Olivier Thoumine & Alexandre Favereaux

We investigated whether microRNAs could regulate AMPA receptor expression during activity blockade. miR-92a strongly repressed the translation of GluA1 receptors by binding the 3′ untranslated region of rat GluA1 (also known as Gria1) mRNA and was downregulated in rat hippocampal neurons after treatment with tetrodotoxin and AP5. Deleting the seed region in GluA1 or overexpressing miR-92a blocked homeostatic scaling, indicating that miR-92a regulates the translation and synaptic incorporation of new GluA1-containing AMPA receptors.

Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons

Nature Neuroscience - Sun, 07/13/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3761

Authors: Eline Pecho-Vrieseling, Claus Rieker, Sascha Fuchs, Dorothee Bleckmann, Maria Soledad Esposito, Paolo Botta, Chris Goldstein, Mario Bernhard, Ivan Galimberti, Matthias Müller, Andreas Lüthi, Silvia Arber, Tewis Bouwmeester, Herman van der Putten & Francesco Paolo Di Giorgio

A spinal analog of memory reconsolidation enables reversal of hyperalgesia

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 07/06/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1043 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3758

Authors: Robert P Bonin & Yves De Koninck

Hyperalgesia arising from sensitization of pain relays in the spinal dorsal horn shares many mechanistic and phenotypic parallels with memory formation. We discovered that mechanical hyperalgesia could be rendered labile and reversible in mice after reactivation of spinal pain pathways in a process analogous to memory reconsolidation. These findings reveal a previously unknown regulatory mechanism underlying hyperalgesia and demonstrate the existence of reconsolidation-like processes in a sensory system.

Gene co-regulation by Fezf2 selects neurotransmitter identity and connectivity of corticospinal neurons

Neuroscience in the News - Sun, 07/06/2014 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience 17, 1046 (2014). doi:10.1038/nn.3757

Authors: Simona Lodato, Bradley J Molyneaux, Emanuela Zuccaro, Loyal A Goff, Hsu-Hsin Chen, Wen Yuan, Alyssa Meleski, Emi Takahashi, Shaun Mahony, John L Rinn, David K Gifford & Paola Arlotta

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