Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
Updated: 23 hours 56 min ago

HSD2 neurons in the hindbrain drive sodium appetite

Mon, 12/05/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4451

Authors: Brooke C Jarvie & Richard D Palmiter

Sodium-depleted animals develop an appetite for aversive concentrations of sodium. Here we show that chemogenetic activation of aldosterone-sensitive neurons that express 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in the nucleus of the solitary tract is sufficient to drive consumption of sodium-containing solutions in mice, independently of thirst or hunger. These HSD2-positive neurons are necessary for full expression of sodium appetite and have distinct downstream targets that are activated during sodium depletion.

Developmentally defined forebrain circuits regulate appetitive and aversive olfactory learning

Mon, 12/05/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4452

Authors: Nagendran Muthusamy, Xuying Zhang, Caroline A Johnson, Prem N Yadav & H Troy Ghashghaei

Postnatal and adult neurogenesis are region- and modality-specific, but the significance of developmentally distinct neuronal populations remains unclear. We demonstrate that chemogenetic inactivation of a subset of forebrain and olfactory neurons generated at birth disrupts responses to an aversive odor. In contrast, novel appetitive odor learning is sensitive to inactivation of adult-born neurons, revealing that developmentally defined sets of neurons may differentially participate in hedonic aspects of sensory learning.

Shared memories reveal shared structure in neural activity across individuals

Mon, 12/05/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4450

Authors: Janice Chen, Yuan Chang Leong, Christopher J Honey, Chung H Yong, Kenneth A Norman & Uri Hasson

A probabilistic approach to demixing odors

Mon, 12/05/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4444

Authors: Agnieszka Grabska-Barwinń´ska, Simon Barthelmé, Jeff Beck, Zachary F Mainen, Alexandre Pouget & Peter E Latham

Glutamatergic synaptic integration of locomotion speed via septoentorhinal projections

Mon, 11/28/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4447

Authors: Daniel Justus, Dennis Dalügge, Stefanie Bothe, Falko Fuhrmann, Christian Hannes, Hiroshi Kaneko, Detlef Friedrichs, Liudmila Sosulina, Inna Schwarz, David Anthony Elliott, Susanne Schoch, Frank Bradke, Martin Karl Schwarz & Stefan Remy

The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) send glutamatergic axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). We found that this pathway provides speed-correlated input to several MEC cell-types in layer 2/3. The speed signal is integrated most effectively by pyramidal cells but also excites stellate cells and interneurons. Thus, the MSDB conveys speed information that can be used by MEC neurons for spatial representation of self-location.

Mechanosensory hair cells express two molecularly distinct mechanotransduction channels

Mon, 11/28/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4449

Authors: Zizhen Wu, Nicolas Grillet, Bo Zhao, Christopher Cunningham, Sarah Harkins-Perry, Bertrand Coste, Sanjeev Ranade, Navid Zebarjadi, Maryline Beurg, Robert Fettiplace, Ardem Patapoutian & Ulrich Müller

A rapidly acting glutamatergic ARC→PVH satiety circuit postsynaptically regulated by α-MSH

Mon, 11/21/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4442

Authors: Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh & Bradford B Lowell

Direct dorsal hippocampal–prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories

Mon, 11/21/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4443

Authors: Xiaojing Ye, Dana Kapeller-Libermann, Alessio Travaglia, M Carmen Inda & Cristina M Alberini

A feedback neural circuit for calibrating aversive memory strength

Mon, 11/14/2016 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4439

Authors: Takaaki Ozawa, Edgar A Ycu, Ashwani Kumar, Li-Feng Yeh, Touqeer Ahmed, Jenny Koivumaa & Joshua P Johansen

Vibrissa motor cortex activity suppresses contralateral whisking behavior

Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4437

Authors: Christian Laut Ebbesen, Guy Doron, Constanze Lenschow & Michael Brecht

A faithful internal representation of walking movements in the Drosophila visual system

Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4435

Authors: Terufumi Fujiwara, Tomás L Cruz, James P Bohnslav & M Eugenia Chiappe

Parallel processing by cortical inhibition enables context-dependent behavior

Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4436

Authors: Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Jonathan V Gill, Grace W Lindsay, Eleni S Papadoyannis, Rachel E Field, Tom A Hindmarsh Sten, Kenneth D Miller & Robert C Froemke

The spatial structure of correlated neuronal variability

Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4433

Authors: Robert Rosenbaum, Matthew A Smith, Adam Kohn, Jonathan E Rubin & Brent Doiron

A neuronal PI(3,4,5)P3-dependent program of oligodendrocyte precursor recruitment and myelination

Sun, 10/23/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4425

Authors: Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir & Klaus-Armin Nave

The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1–mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination.

Gravity orientation tuning in macaque anterior thalamus

Sun, 10/23/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4423

Authors: Jean Laurens, Byounghoon Kim, J David Dickman & Dora E Angelaki

Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.

The brain adapts to dishonesty

Sun, 10/23/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4426

Authors: Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely & Tali Sharot

Astrocytes mediate neurovascular signaling to capillary pericytes but not to arterioles

Sun, 10/23/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4428

Authors: Anusha Mishra, James P Reynolds, Yang Chen, Alexander V Gourine, Dmitri A Rusakov & David Attwell

Functional and structural underpinnings of neuronal assembly formation in learning

Sun, 10/16/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4418

Authors: Anthony Holtmaat & Pico Caroni

Synaptic scaling rule preserves excitatory–inhibitory balance and salient neuronal network dynamics

Sun, 10/16/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4415

Authors: Jérémie Barral & Alex D Reyes

Antagonistic negative and positive neurons of the basolateral amygdala

Sun, 10/16/2016 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4414

Authors: Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara & Susumu Tonegawa