Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
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Common circuit design in fly and mammalian motion vision

Mon, 06/29/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4050

Authors: Alexander Borst & Moritz Helmstaedter

Nuclear pore complex remodeling by p75NTR cleavage controls TGF-β signaling and astrocyte functions

Mon, 06/29/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4054

Authors: Christian Schachtrup, Jae Kyu Ryu, Könül Mammadzada, Abdullah S Khan, Peter M Carlton, Alex Perez, Frank Christian, Natacha Le Moan, Eirini Vagena, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Victoria Rafalski, Justin P Chan, Roland Nitschke, Miles D Houslay, Mark H Ellisman, Tony Wyss-Coray, Jorge J Palop & Katerina Akassoglou

Astrocytes modulate neuronal activity and inhibit regeneration. We show that cleaved p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) required for glial scar formation and reduced gamma oscillations in mice via regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. Cleaved p75NTR interacts with nucleoporins to promote Smad2 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Thus, NPC remodeling by regulated intramembrane cleavage of p75NTR controls astrocyte–neuronal communication in response to profibrotic factors.

Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice

Mon, 06/29/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4053

Authors: Robert E Sorge, Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Sarah Rosen, Simon Beggs, Sarah Taves, Jessica K Alexander, Loren J Martin, Jean-Sebastien Austin, Susana G Sotocinal, Di Chen, Mu Yang, Xiang Qun Shi, Hao Huang, Nicolas J Pillon, Philip J Bilan, YuShan Tu, Amira Klip, Ru-Rong Ji, Ji Zhang, Michael W Salter & Jeffrey S Mogil

A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-to-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Using multiple approaches, we found that microglia are not required for mechanical pain hypersensitivity in female mice; female mice achieved similar levels of pain hypersensitivity using adaptive immune cells, likely T lymphocytes. This sexual dimorphism suggests that male mice cannot be used as proxies for females in pain research.

The medial entorhinal cortex is necessary for temporal organization of hippocampal neuronal activity

Mon, 06/29/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4056

Authors: Magdalene I Schlesiger, Christopher C Cannova, Brittney L Boublil, Jena B Hales, Emily A Mankin, Mark P Brandon, Jill K Leutgeb, Christian Leibold & Stefan Leutgeb

Human representation of visuo-motor uncertainty as mixtures of orthogonal basis distributions

Mon, 06/29/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4055

Authors: Hang Zhang, Nathaniel D Daw & Laurence T Maloney

Pathway-specific reorganization of projection neurons in somatosensory cortex during learning

Mon, 06/22/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4046

Authors: Jerry L Chen, David J Margolis, Atanas Stankov, Lazar T Sumanovski, Bernard L Schneider & Fritjof Helmchen

Subtype-specific plasticity of inhibitory circuits in motor cortex during motor learning

Mon, 06/22/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4049

Authors: Simon X Chen, An Na Kim, Andrew J Peters & Takaki Komiyama

A neural network that finds a naturalistic solution for the production of muscle activity

Mon, 06/15/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4042

Authors: David Sussillo, Mark M Churchland, Matthew T Kaufman & Krishna V Shenoy

Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity

Mon, 06/08/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4040

Authors: Robert A Power, Stacy Steinberg, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Cornelius A Rietveld, Abdel Abdellaoui, Michel M Nivard, Magnus Johannesson, Tessel E Galesloot, Jouke J Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, David Cesarini, Daniel J Benjamin, Patrik K E Magnusson, Fredrik Ullén, Henning Tiemeier, Albert Hofman, Frank J A van Rooij, G Bragi Walters, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Andres Ingason, Agnar Helgason, Augustine Kong, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Philipp Koellinger, Dorret I Boomsma, Daniel Gudbjartsson, Hreinn Stefansson & Kari Stefansson

We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10−6 and 3.8 × 10−6 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots.

Representation of retrieval confidence by single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe

Mon, 06/08/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4041

Authors: Ueli Rutishauser, Shengxuan Ye, Matthieu Koroma, Oana Tudusciuc, Ian B Ross, Jeffrey M Chung & Adam N Mamelak

Excitatory transmission at thalamo-striatal synapses mediates susceptibility to social stress

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4034

Authors: Daniel J Christoffel, Sam A Golden, Jessica J Walsh, Kevin G Guise, Mitra Heshmati, Allyson K Friedman, Aditi Dey, Milo Smith, Nicole Rebusi, Madeline Pfau, Jessica L Ables, Hossein Aleyasin, Lena A Khibnik, Georgia E Hodes, Gabriel A Ben-Dor, Karl Deisseroth, Matthew L Shapiro, Robert C Malenka, Ines Ibanez-Tallon, Ming-Hu Han & Scott J Russo

Postsynaptic remodeling of glutamatergic synapses on ventral striatum (vSTR) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is critical for shaping stress responses. However, it is unclear which presynaptic inputs are involved. Susceptible mice exhibited increased synaptic strength at intralaminar thalamus (ILT), but not prefrontal cortex (PFC), inputs to vSTR MSNs following chronic social stress. Modulation of ILT-vSTR versus PFC-vSTR neuronal activity differentially regulated dendritic spine plasticity and social avoidance.

Activin receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4036

Authors: Amy M Gancarz, Zi-Jun Wang, Gabrielle L Schroeder, Diane Damez-Werno, Kevin M Braunscheidel, Lauren E Mueller, Monica S Humby, Aaron Caccamise, Jennifer A Martin, Karen C Dietz, Rachael L Neve & David M Dietz

Activin receptor signaling, including the transcription factor Smad3, was upregulated in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell following withdrawal from cocaine. Direct genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this pathway bidirectionally altered cocaine seeking while governing morphological plasticity in NAc neurons. Thus, Activin/Smad3 signaling is induced following withdrawal from cocaine, and such regulation may be a key molecular mechanism underlying behavioral and cellular plasticity in the brain following cocaine self-administration.

Distinct circuit-dependent functions of presynaptic neurexin-3 at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4037

Authors: Jason Aoto, Csaba Földy, Silviana Maria Ciurea Ilcus, Katsuhiko Tabuchi & Thomas C Südhof

Hand use predicts the structure of representations in sensorimotor cortex

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4038

Authors: Naveed Ejaz, Masashi Hamada & Jörn Diedrichsen

Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4030

Authors: Daniel Erny, Anna Lena Hrabě de Angelis, Diego Jaitin, Peter Wieghofer, Ori Staszewski, Eyal David, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Tanel Mahlakoiv, Kristin Jakobshagen, Thorsten Buch, Vera Schwierzeck, Olaf Utermöhlen, Eunyoung Chun, Wendy S Garrett, Kathy D McCoy, Andreas Diefenbach, Peter Staeheli, Bärbel Stecher, Ido Amit & Marco Prinz

β-amyloid disrupts human NREM slow waves and related hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4035

Authors: Bryce A Mander, Shawn M Marks, Jacob W Vogel, Vikram Rao, Brandon Lu, Jared M Saletin, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, William J Jagust & Matthew P Walker

Experience-dependent DNA methylation regulates plasticity in the developing visual cortex

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4026

Authors: Paola Tognini, Debora Napoli, Jonida Tola, Davide Silingardi, Floriana Della Ragione, Maurizio D'Esposito & Tommaso Pizzorusso

DNA methylation is an epigenetic repressor mark for transcription dynamically regulated in neurons. We analyzed visual experience regulation of DNA methylation in mice and its involvement in ocular dominance plasticity of the developing visual cortex. Monocular deprivation modulated the expression of factors controlling DNA methylation and exerted opposite effects on DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in specific plasticity genes. Inhibition of DNA methyltrasferase (DNMT) blocked molecular and functional effects of monocular deprivation, partially reversing the monocular deprivation transcriptional program.

The human epilepsy mutation GABRG2(Q390X) causes chronic subunit accumulation and neurodegeneration

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4024

Authors: Jing-Qiong Kang, Wangzhen Shen, Chengwen Zhou, Dong Xu & Robert L Macdonald

mGluR5 in the nucleus accumbens is critical for promoting resilience to chronic stress

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4028

Authors: Sora Shin, Obin Kwon, Jee In Kang, Somin Kwon, Sora Oh, Jiwon Choi, Chul Hoon Kim & Dong Goo Kim

The schizophrenia risk gene product miR-137 alters presynaptic plasticity

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4023

Authors: Sandra Siegert, Jinsoo Seo, Ester J Kwon, Andrii Rudenko, Sukhee Cho, Wenyuan Wang, Zachary Flood, Anthony J Martorell, Maria Ericsson, Alison E Mungenast & Li-Huei Tsai