Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4150
Authors: Ruben S van Bergen, Wei Ji Ma, Michael S Pratte & Janneke F M Jehee
Bayesian theories of neural coding propose that sensory uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution encoded in neural population activity, but direct neural evidence supporting this hypothesis is currently lacking. Using fMRI in combination with a generative model-based analysis, we found that probability distributions reflecting sensory uncertainty could reliably be estimated from human visual cortex and, moreover, that observers appeared to use knowledge of this uncertainty in their perceptual decisions.
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4146
Authors: Songlin Li, Esther H Nie, Yuqin Yin, Larry I Benowitz, Spencer Tung, Harry V Vinters, F Rena Bahjat, Mary P Stenzel-Poore, Riki Kawaguchi, Giovanni Coppola & S Thomas Carmichael
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4153
Authors: Kimberly Reinhold, Anthony D Lien & Massimo Scanziani
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4151
Authors: Delia Silva, Ting Feng & David J Foster
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4138
Authors: Silvy H P Collin, Branka Milivojevic & Christian F Doeller
Memories, similar to the internal representation of space, can be recalled at different resolutions ranging from detailed events to more comprehensive, multi-event narratives. Single-cell recordings in rodents have suggested that different spatial scales are represented as a gradient along the hippocampal axis. We found that a similar organization holds for human episodic memory: memory representations systematically vary in scale along the hippocampal long axis, which may enable the formation of mnemonic hierarchies.
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4139
Authors: Florian Mormann, Johannes Niediek, Oana Tudusciuc, Carlos M Quesada, Volker A Coenen, Christian E Elger & Ralph Adolphs
The amygdala is important for face processing, and direction of eye gaze is one of the most socially salient facial signals. Recording from over 200 neurons in the amygdala of neurosurgical patients, we found robust encoding of the identity of neutral-expression faces, but not of their direction of gaze. Processing of gaze direction may rely on a predominantly cortical network rather than the amygdala.
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4141
Authors: Jalal K Baruni, Brian Lau & C Daniel Salzman
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4140
Authors: Martin Hruska, Nathan T Henderson, Nan L Xia, Sylvain J Le Marchand & Matthew B Dalva
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4136
Authors: Karin Foerde, Joanna E Steinglass, Daphna Shohamy & B Timothy Walsh
People routinely make poor choices, despite knowledge of negative consequences. The authors found that individuals with anorexia nervosa, who make maladaptive food choices to the point of starvation, engaged the dorsal striatum more than healthy controls when making choices about what to eat, and that activity in fronto-striatal circuits was correlated with their actual food consumption in a meal the next day.
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4137
Authors: Marc Aurel Busche, Maja Kekuš, Helmuth Adelsberger, Takahiro Noda, Hans Förstl, Israel Nelken & Arthur Konnerth
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4135
Authors: Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Dustin Scheinost, Monica D Rosenberg, Jessica Huang, Marvin M Chun, Xenophon Papademetris & R Todd Constable
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4143
Authors: Min Xu, Shinjae Chung, Siyu Zhang, Peng Zhong, Chenyan Ma, Wei-Cheng Chang, Brandon Weissbourd, Noriaki Sakai, Liqun Luo, Seiji Nishino & Yang Dan
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4131
Authors: Laura A DeNardo, Dominic S Berns, Katherine DeLoach & Liqun Luo
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4129
Authors: Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann & Dov Sagi
Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols.
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4132
Authors: Hirohide Asai, Seiko Ikezu, Satoshi Tsunoda, Maria Medalla, Jennifer Luebke, Tarik Haydar, Benjamin Wolozin, Oleg Butovsky, Sebastian Kügler & Tsuneya Ikezu
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4130
Authors: Jan Brascamp, Randolph Blake & Tomas Knapen
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4128
Authors: Ruben Coen-Cagli, Adam Kohn & Odelia Schwartz
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4133
Authors: Wan-chun Liu, Jessica Kohn, Sarah K Szwed, Eben Pariser, Sharon Sepe, Bhagwattie Haripal, Naoki Oshimori, Martin Marsala, Atsushi Miyanohara & Ramee Lee
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4126
Authors: Gail Chan, Charles C White, Phoebe A Winn, Maria Cimpean, Joseph M Replogle, Laura R Glick, Nicole E Cuerdon, Katie J Ryan, Keith A Johnson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Lori B Chibnik, Reisa A Sperling, Elizabeth M Bradshaw & Philip L De Jager
We used a protein quantitative trait analysis in monocytes from 226 individuals to evaluate cross-talk between Alzheimer loci. The NME8 locus influenced PTK2B and the CD33 risk allele led to greater TREM2 expression. There was also a decreased TREM1/TREM2 ratio with a TREM1 risk allele, decreased TREM2 expression with CD33 suppression and elevated cortical TREM2 mRNA expression with amyloid pathology.
A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior
Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4125
Authors: Stephen M Smith, Thomas E Nichols, Diego Vidaurre, Anderson M Winkler, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F Glasser, Kamil Ugurbil, Deanna M Barch, David C Van Essen & Karla L Miller
We investigated the relationship between individual subjects' functional connectomes and 280 behavioral and demographic measures in a single holistic multivariate analysis relating imaging to non-imaging data from 461 subjects in the Human Connectome Project. We identified one strong mode of population co-variation: subjects were predominantly spread along a single 'positive-negative' axis linking lifestyle, demographic and psychometric measures to each other and to a specific pattern of brain connectivity.