Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
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Sensory uncertainty decoded from visual cortex predicts behavior

Sun, 10/25/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4150

Authors: Ruben S van Bergen, Wei Ji Ma, Michael S Pratte & Janneke F M Jehee

Bayesian theories of neural coding propose that sensory uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution encoded in neural population activity, but direct neural evidence supporting this hypothesis is currently lacking. Using fMRI in combination with a generative model-based analysis, we found that probability distributions reflecting sensory uncertainty could reliably be estimated from human visual cortex and, moreover, that observers appeared to use knowledge of this uncertainty in their perceptual decisions.

GDF10 is a signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery after stroke

Sun, 10/25/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4146

Authors: Songlin Li, Esther H Nie, Yuqin Yin, Larry I Benowitz, Spencer Tung, Harry V Vinters, F Rena Bahjat, Mary P Stenzel-Poore, Riki Kawaguchi, Giovanni Coppola & S Thomas Carmichael

Distinct recurrent versus afferent dynamics in cortical visual processing

Sun, 10/25/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4153

Authors: Kimberly Reinhold, Anthony D Lien & Massimo Scanziani

Trajectory events across hippocampal place cells require previous experience

Sun, 10/25/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4151

Authors: Delia Silva, Ting Feng & David J Foster

Memory hierarchies map onto the hippocampal long axis in humans

Sun, 10/18/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4138

Authors: Silvy H P Collin, Branka Milivojevic & Christian F Doeller

Memories, similar to the internal representation of space, can be recalled at different resolutions ranging from detailed events to more comprehensive, multi-event narratives. Single-cell recordings in rodents have suggested that different spatial scales are represented as a gradient along the hippocampal axis. We found that a similar organization holds for human episodic memory: memory representations systematically vary in scale along the hippocampal long axis, which may enable the formation of mnemonic hierarchies.

Neurons in the human amygdala encode face identity, but not gaze direction

Sun, 10/18/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4139

Authors: Florian Mormann, Johannes Niediek, Oana Tudusciuc, Carlos M Quesada, Volker A Coenen, Christian E Elger & Ralph Adolphs

The amygdala is important for face processing, and direction of eye gaze is one of the most socially salient facial signals. Recording from over 200 neurons in the amygdala of neurosurgical patients, we found robust encoding of the identity of neutral-expression faces, but not of their direction of gaze. Processing of gaze direction may rely on a predominantly cortical network rather than the amygdala.

Reward expectation differentially modulates attentional behavior and activity in visual area V4

Sun, 10/18/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4141

Authors: Jalal K Baruni, Brian Lau & C Daniel Salzman

Anchoring and synaptic stability of PSD-95 is driven by ephrin-B3

Sun, 10/18/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4140

Authors: Martin Hruska, Nathan T Henderson, Nan L Xia, Sylvain J Le Marchand & Matthew B Dalva

Neural mechanisms supporting maladaptive food choices in anorexia nervosa

Sun, 10/11/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4136

Authors: Karin Foerde, Joanna E Steinglass, Daphna Shohamy & B Timothy Walsh

People routinely make poor choices, despite knowledge of negative consequences. The authors found that individuals with anorexia nervosa, who make maladaptive food choices to the point of starvation, engaged the dorsal striatum more than healthy controls when making choices about what to eat, and that activity in fronto-striatal circuits was correlated with their actual food consumption in a meal the next day.

Rescue of long-range circuit dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease models

Sun, 10/11/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4137

Authors: Marc Aurel Busche, Maja Kekuš, Helmuth Adelsberger, Takahiro Noda, Hans Förstl, Israel Nelken & Arthur Konnerth

Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity

Sun, 10/11/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4135

Authors: Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Dustin Scheinost, Monica D Rosenberg, Jessica Huang, Marvin M Chun, Xenophon Papademetris & R Todd Constable

Basal forebrain circuit for sleep-wake control

Sun, 10/11/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4143

Authors: Min Xu, Shinjae Chung, Siyu Zhang, Peng Zhong, Chenyan Ma, Wei-Cheng Chang, Brandon Weissbourd, Noriaki Sakai, Liqun Luo, Seiji Nishino & Yang Dan

Connectivity of mouse somatosensory and prefrontal cortex examined with trans-synaptic tracing

Sun, 10/11/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4131

Authors: Laura A DeNardo, Dominic S Berns, Katherine DeLoach & Liqun Luo

Perceptual learning in autism: over-specificity and possible remedies

Sun, 10/04/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4129

Authors: Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann & Dov Sagi

Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols.

Depletion of microglia and inhibition of exosome synthesis halt tau propagation

Sun, 10/04/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4132

Authors: Hirohide Asai, Seiko Ikezu, Satoshi Tsunoda, Maria Medalla, Jennifer Luebke, Tarik Haydar, Benjamin Wolozin, Oleg Butovsky, Sebastian Kügler & Tsuneya Ikezu

Negligible fronto-parietal BOLD activity accompanying unreportable switches in bistable perception

Sun, 10/04/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4130

Authors: Jan Brascamp, Randolph Blake & Tomas Knapen

Flexible gating of contextual influences in natural vision

Sun, 10/04/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4128

Authors: Ruben Coen-Cagli, Adam Kohn & Odelia Schwartz

Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds

Sun, 10/04/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4133

Authors: Wan-chun Liu, Jessica Kohn, Sarah K Szwed, Eben Pariser, Sharon Sepe, Bhagwattie Haripal, Naoki Oshimori, Martin Marsala, Atsushi Miyanohara & Ramee Lee

CD33 modulates TREM2: convergence of Alzheimer loci

Sun, 09/27/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4126

Authors: Gail Chan, Charles C White, Phoebe A Winn, Maria Cimpean, Joseph M Replogle, Laura R Glick, Nicole E Cuerdon, Katie J Ryan, Keith A Johnson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Lori B Chibnik, Reisa A Sperling, Elizabeth M Bradshaw & Philip L De Jager

We used a protein quantitative trait analysis in monocytes from 226 individuals to evaluate cross-talk between Alzheimer loci. The NME8 locus influenced PTK2B and the CD33 risk allele led to greater TREM2 expression. There was also a decreased TREM1/TREM2 ratio with a TREM1 risk allele, decreased TREM2 expression with CD33 suppression and elevated cortical TREM2 mRNA expression with amyloid pathology.

A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior

Sun, 09/27/2015 - 11:00pm

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4125

Authors: Stephen M Smith, Thomas E Nichols, Diego Vidaurre, Anderson M Winkler, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F Glasser, Kamil Ugurbil, Deanna M Barch, David C Van Essen & Karla L Miller

We investigated the relationship between individual subjects' functional connectomes and 280 behavioral and demographic measures in a single holistic multivariate analysis relating imaging to non-imaging data from 461 subjects in the Human Connectome Project. We identified one strong mode of population co-variation: subjects were predominantly spread along a single 'positive-negative' axis linking lifestyle, demographic and psychometric measures to each other and to a specific pattern of brain connectivity.