Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
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Excitatory transmission at thalamo-striatal synapses mediates susceptibility to social stress

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4034

Authors: Daniel J Christoffel, Sam A Golden, Jessica J Walsh, Kevin G Guise, Mitra Heshmati, Allyson K Friedman, Aditi Dey, Milo Smith, Nicole Rebusi, Madeline Pfau, Jessica L Ables, Hossein Aleyasin, Lena A Khibnik, Georgia E Hodes, Gabriel A Ben-Dor, Karl Deisseroth, Matthew L Shapiro, Robert C Malenka, Ines Ibanez-Tallon, Ming-Hu Han & Scott J Russo

Postsynaptic remodeling of glutamatergic synapses on ventral striatum (vSTR) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is critical for shaping stress responses. However, it is unclear which presynaptic inputs are involved. Susceptible mice exhibited increased synaptic strength at intralaminar thalamus (ILT), but not prefrontal cortex (PFC), inputs to vSTR MSNs following chronic social stress. Modulation of ILT-vSTR versus PFC-vSTR neuronal activity differentially regulated dendritic spine plasticity and social avoidance.

Activin receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4036

Authors: Amy M Gancarz, Zi-Jun Wang, Gabrielle L Schroeder, Diane Damez-Werno, Kevin M Braunscheidel, Lauren E Mueller, Monica S Humby, Aaron Caccamise, Jennifer A Martin, Karen C Dietz, Rachael L Neve & David M Dietz

Activin receptor signaling, including the transcription factor Smad3, was upregulated in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell following withdrawal from cocaine. Direct genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this pathway bidirectionally altered cocaine seeking while governing morphological plasticity in NAc neurons. Thus, Activin/Smad3 signaling is induced following withdrawal from cocaine, and such regulation may be a key molecular mechanism underlying behavioral and cellular plasticity in the brain following cocaine self-administration.

Distinct circuit-dependent functions of presynaptic neurexin-3 at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4037

Authors: Jason Aoto, Csaba Földy, Silviana Maria Ciurea Ilcus, Katsuhiko Tabuchi & Thomas C Südhof

Hand use predicts the structure of representations in sensorimotor cortex

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4038

Authors: Naveed Ejaz, Masashi Hamada & Jörn Diedrichsen

Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4030

Authors: Daniel Erny, Anna Lena Hrabě de Angelis, Diego Jaitin, Peter Wieghofer, Ori Staszewski, Eyal David, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Tanel Mahlakoiv, Kristin Jakobshagen, Thorsten Buch, Vera Schwierzeck, Olaf Utermöhlen, Eunyoung Chun, Wendy S Garrett, Kathy D McCoy, Andreas Diefenbach, Peter Staeheli, Bärbel Stecher, Ido Amit & Marco Prinz

β-amyloid disrupts human NREM slow waves and related hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation

Mon, 06/01/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4035

Authors: Bryce A Mander, Shawn M Marks, Jacob W Vogel, Vikram Rao, Brandon Lu, Jared M Saletin, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, William J Jagust & Matthew P Walker

Experience-dependent DNA methylation regulates plasticity in the developing visual cortex

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4026

Authors: Paola Tognini, Debora Napoli, Jonida Tola, Davide Silingardi, Floriana Della Ragione, Maurizio D'Esposito & Tommaso Pizzorusso

DNA methylation is an epigenetic repressor mark for transcription dynamically regulated in neurons. We analyzed visual experience regulation of DNA methylation in mice and its involvement in ocular dominance plasticity of the developing visual cortex. Monocular deprivation modulated the expression of factors controlling DNA methylation and exerted opposite effects on DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in specific plasticity genes. Inhibition of DNA methyltrasferase (DNMT) blocked molecular and functional effects of monocular deprivation, partially reversing the monocular deprivation transcriptional program.

The human epilepsy mutation GABRG2(Q390X) causes chronic subunit accumulation and neurodegeneration

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4024

Authors: Jing-Qiong Kang, Wangzhen Shen, Chengwen Zhou, Dong Xu & Robert L Macdonald

mGluR5 in the nucleus accumbens is critical for promoting resilience to chronic stress

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4028

Authors: Sora Shin, Obin Kwon, Jee In Kang, Somin Kwon, Sora Oh, Jiwon Choi, Chul Hoon Kim & Dong Goo Kim

The schizophrenia risk gene product miR-137 alters presynaptic plasticity

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4023

Authors: Sandra Siegert, Jinsoo Seo, Ester J Kwon, Andrii Rudenko, Sukhee Cho, Wenyuan Wang, Zachary Flood, Anthony J Martorell, Maria Ericsson, Alison E Mungenast & Li-Huei Tsai

Central role for PICALM in amyloid-β blood-brain barrier transcytosis and clearance

Mon, 05/25/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4025

Authors: Zhen Zhao, Abhay P Sagare, Qingyi Ma, Matthew R Halliday, Pan Kong, Kassandra Kisler, Ethan A Winkler, Anita Ramanathan, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu, Nelly Chuqui Owens, Sanket V Rege, Gabriel Si, Ashim Ahuja, Donghui Zhu, Carol A Miller, Julie A Schneider, Manami Maeda, Takahiro Maeda, Tohru Sugawara, Justin K Ichida & Berislav V Zlokovic

The cortical analysis of speech-specific temporal structure revealed by responses to sound quilts

Mon, 05/18/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4021

Authors: Tobias Overath, Josh H McDermott, Jean Mary Zarate & David Poeppel

Social signals of safety and risk confer utility and have asymmetric effects on observers' choices

Mon, 05/18/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4022

Authors: Dongil Chung, George I Christopoulos, Brooks King-Casas, Sheryl B Ball & Pearl H Chiu

Inhumane treatment of nonhuman primate researchers

Mon, 05/18/2015 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4039

Animal rights extremists are threatening nonhuman primate research by harassing scientists. We cannot tolerate these tactics, and we must rally individual, institutional and governmental support to protect scientists.