With sustainability being identified as a critical issue for society and industry, the question that has been raised is how this translates to action by an individual company. This course will examine the evolution from environmental controls to sustainable engineering. The responses to environmental issues have traditionally been seen as necessary but not productive, bolt-on treatment of waste that create overhead costs. A sustainable approach looks to change core business activities that consume resources and generate waste (now to be seen as by-products) so that the new business model will not only have a beneficial impact on the environment but also generate better products, reduce costs, and improve trust between society and the company. The implementation of industrial ecology, which looks to align business operations within the natural cycle, has the potential for significant benefit for industry as well as for the long-term survival of mankind. The application of a "design for sustainability" and life cycle assessments will be reviewed as critical tools to be incorporated into business strategy. This review of environmental sustainability will also be put in context of both economic and social sustainability. The implications and impacts of government policy, laws, and regulations on industrial ecology will also be reviewed.