The Agrarian History of South Asia:

A Bibliographic Essay (can be downloaded as bibessay.doc)

Ideas About Agrarian History

Understandings of the agrarian past have been most heavily imprinted with ideas that developed in policy debates and in the disciplines of political economy, whose histories have been well studied. For the Company period, the most useful monographs are S.Ambirajan, Classical Political Economy and British Policy in India (Cambridge: 1968), Ranajit Guha, A Rule of Property for Bengal (Paris: 1963), Burton Stein, Thomas Munro: The Origins of the Colonial State and His Vision of Empire (Delhi: 1989), and Eric Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford: 1959). On the later Raj, see V.C. Bhutani, The Apotheosis of Imperialism: Indian Land Economy Under Curzon (New Delhi: 1976), Sunil Kumar Sen, Studies in economic policy and development of India, 1848-1939 (Calcutta: 1972), and especially B.R.Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj, 1914-1947: The Economics of Decolonization (New York: 1979). On nationalist thought, the foundational work is Bipan Chandra, The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India: Economic Policies of the Indian National Leadership, 1880-1905 (New Delhi: 1966), now supplemented Bipan Chandra’s editing of M.G.Ranade, Ranade's economic writings (New Delhi: 1990). For the evolution of post-1950s official thought, see A.M. Zaidi and S.G.Zaidi, The Foundations of Indian Economic Planning (New Delhi: 1979) and A. Moin Zaidi, editor, A Tryst With Destiny: A Study of Economic Policy Resolutions of the INC Passeed During the Last 100 Years (New Delhi: 1985). At least a dozen history books have "Indian economic thought" in the title and explore Indian (or loosely South Asian) economic ideas: good insights into agrarian issues appear in Joseph Spengler, Indian economic thought, a preface to its history (Durham: 1971) and Ajit K. Dasgupta, A History of Indian Economic Thought (London: 1993). The intellectual history of political economy in South Asia also includes social and cultural thought that is not covered in histories of economics. Radhakamal Mukerjee, for example, is typically assigned to sociology though his degree was in economics and he served as Professor and Head of the Department of Economics and Sociology at Lucknow Unviversity for thirty-one years. See R.M.Loomba and G.R.Madan, Society and Culture (In honour of Late Dr.Radhakamal Mukerjee (Ahmedabad: 1987). His cultural approach has many variants and offshoots. Kusum Nair is perhaps the most consistently cultural theorist of agrarian political economy in the age of the green revolution: see Blossoms in the Dust (London: 1961), The Lonely Furrow (Delhi: 1969), In Defense of the Irrational Peasant: Indian Agriculture After the Green Revolution (Chicago 1979), and Transforming Traditionally: Land and Labour Use in Asia and Africa (Westwood: 1983).

The intellectual history of agrarian studies is emerging in bits and pieces. Colonial and national epistemologies play a broadly formative role: see C.A. Breckenridge and Peter van der Veer, editors, Orientalism and The Post-Colonial Predicament (Philadelphia: 1993); Jan Breman, editor, Imperial Monkey Business: Racial Supremacy in Social Darwinist Theory and Colonial Practice (Amsterdam: 1990); and Nicholas B. Dirks, editor, Colonialism and Culture (Ann Arbor: 1992). The continuing influence of ideas that cannot be consigned to the colonial past is also apparent in two important recent studies: Sumit Guha, "Lower Strata, Older Races, and Aboriginal Peoples: Racial Anthropology and Mythical History Past and Present," Journal of Asian Studies, 57, 2, 1998: 423-441; and K.Sivaramakrishnan, "Colonialism and Forestry in India: Imagining the Past in Present Politics," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 37, 1, 1995: 3-40. Histories of historical writing, with reprints of scholarly classics, are appearing in the series entitled Oxford in India Readings: Themes in Indian History, from Oxford University Press, Delhi: see especially the volumes edited by Sugata Bose, Credit markets and the agrarian economy of colonial India (Delhi: 1994), Sumit Guha, Growth, stagnation, or decline? agricultural productivity in British India (Delhi: 1992), David Hardiman, Peasant resistance in India, 1858-1914 (Delhi: 1992), David Ludden, Agricultural Production and Indian History (Delhi: 1994), Gyan Prakash, The World of the rural labourer in colonial India (Delhi: 1992), Burton Stein, The Making of agarian policy in British India, 1770-1900 (Delhi: 1992), and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Money and the Market in India 1100-1700 (Delhi: 1994). The new Oxford series, Readings in Early Indian History has openned with a volume edited by Bhairabi Prasad Sahu, Land System and Rural Society in Early India (Delhi: 1997), whose introduction is a history of relevant scholarship.

Four scholars have had the most profound personal impact on historical writing about agrarian history before 1800: D.D.Kosambi, Romila Thapar, R.S.Sharma, and Irfan Habib. D.D. Kosambi put ancient studies on a material footing that made agrarian issues prominent, and he integrated history with culture, myth, and archaeology: see An Introduction to the Study of Indian History (Bombay: 1956), Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture (Bombay: 1962), The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India (London:1965), and Ancient India: A History of Its Culture and Civilization (New York: 1966). Romila Thapar spans ancient and medieval history and her work centers on social history and society-state relations in the first millennium BCE: see especially Ancient Indian social history: some interpretations (New Delhi: 1978), From lineage to state: social formations in the mid-first millennium B.C. in the Ganga Valley (Bombay: 1984), Interpreting early India (Delhi: 1992), Recent perspectives of early Indian history (Bombay: 1995, and The Tyranny of Labels (New Delhi: 1997). R.S.Sharma also covers ancient and medieval history but his most important work is on feudalism and post-Gupta transitions: Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India (Delhi: 1983), Perspectives in Social and Economic History of Early India (New Delhi: 1983), Indian Feudalism (Delhi: 1980), and Origin of the State in India (Bombay: 1989). Irfan Habib, his students, and his colleagues at Aligarh Muslim University are the central intellectual force in Mughal history. His scholarship covers the second millennium and he is the central figure in debates about agrarian political economy during the early modern period. See The Agrarian System of Mughal India (1556-1707) (Bombay: 1963), An Atlas of Mughal Empire: Political and Economic Maps with Notes, Bibliography and Index (Delhi: 1982), Interpreting Indian History (Shillong: 1988), and Essays in Indian History: Towards a Marxist Perception (Delhi: 1995).

Southern regions of medieval history have a distinctive literature, which is more centred on the social networks and on centres of power and authority that form agrarian territory. R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough: monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka (Tucson: 1979) remains the foundational study of Sri Lanka. Burton Stein, Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India (Delhi: 1980) and Vijayanagara (Cambridge: 1989) anchors recent debates on south India.

Historical studies of the period after 1800 are more scattered and conflicted. A bibliographic essay that I wrote in the early 1980s ("Productive Power in Agriculture: A Survey of Work on the Local History of British India," in Meghnad Desai, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, and Ashok Rudra, Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in South Asia, Berkeley, 1984, pp.51-99) considers about 375 titles published before 1981 (some before 1947) in terms of themes, methods, and schools of thought; it remains useful as a guide to the entanglements of local power relations and agricultural production in zamindari and ryotwari tracts of British India. But today, modern agrarian history seems more coherent than it did then. Six scholars represent the most influential intellectual trends. Bipan Chandra represents national, political history that carries Irfan Habib’s mode of class analysis into the twentieth century. See his Modern India (New Delhi: 1971, 1976), Nationalism and colonialism in modern India (New Delhi: 1979), India's struggle for independence, 1857-1947 (New Delhi: 1988), Essays on contemporary India (New Delhi: 1993), and Essays on Indian nationalism (New Delhi: 1993). Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri is a historian of Bengal Presidency who exemplifies scholarly work on linguistic regions that combines economic, social and political history, and describes systems and trends of commercial production. See The Growth of Commercial Agriculture in Bengal (Calcutta: 1964), "Agricultural Production in Bengal, 1850-1900: Coexistence of Decline and Growth," Bengal Past and Present (88, 1969: 152-206), "The Story of a Peasant Revolt in a Bengal District," Bengal Past and Present (92, 2, 1973: 220-78), "The Process of Depeasantization in Bengal and Bihar, 1885-1947," Indian Historical Review (21, 1, 1975: 105-65), "The Land Market in Eastern India, 1793-1940, part I: The Movement of Land Prices, and part II: the Changing Composition of Landed Society," Indian Economic and Social History Review (12, 1 & 2, 1976: 1-42, 133-67), "Movement of Rent in Eastern India, 1793-1930." Indian Historical Review (3, 2, 1977: 308-90), "Tribal Society in Transition: Eastern India 1757-1920" in Mushirul Hasan and Narayani Gupta (editors) India's colonial encounter: essays in memory of Eric Stokes (New Delhi, 1993: 65-120) and "The Process of Agricultural Commercialisation in Eastern India During British Rule: A Reconsideration of the Nations of 'Forced Commercialisation' and 'Dependent Peasantry'," in Peter Robb (editor), Meanings in Agriculture: Essays in South Asian History and Economics (New Delhi, 1996: 71-91). A.R.Desai is a sociologist who has pioneered studies of changing social structure and attendant agrarian conflict and peasant struggles, from the nineteenth century to the present: see The Social Background of Indian Nationalism (Bombay: 1948) and his edited volumes, Rural Sociology in India (Bombay: 1961), Peasant Struggles in India (Delhi: 1979, 1981, 1985) and Agrarian Struggles in India After Independence (Delhi: 1986). Ranajit Guha has led the movement of Subaltern Studies into the realm of power and resistance in everyday life: see Elementary Aspect of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India (Delhi: 1983), the six volumes of Subaltern Studies: Essays on South Asian History and Society he edited between 1982 and 1989, and David Arnold and David Hardiman, editors, Subaltern Studies VIII: Essays in Honour of Ranajit Guha (Delhi: 1994). Dharma Kumar concentrates on the economic history of Madras Presidency and specialises in the empirical critique of propositions about agrarian class structure: see Land and Caste in South India, Cambridge: 1965, and Colonialism, Property, and the State (Delhi: 1998). She has also led the historical study of the market economy and development as editor of the Indian Economic and Social History Review and The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2: C.1750-c.1970 (New Delhi: 1983). Eric Stokes focused on the northern basins in the nineteenth century and positioned himself at the intersection of class-structure and market-economy. He set the standard for detailed empirical research that integrates agrarian social structure, social change, and political economy in British India: see The Peasant and the Raj: Studies in Agrarian Society and Peasant Rebellion in Colonial India (Cambridge: 1978) and C.A.Bayly (editor) The peasant armed: the Indian revolt of 1857 (Oxford: 1986).

Studies that influence the direction of historical studies often appear in collections that cover a range of related subjects. The most influential anthologies are those edited by Hamza Alavi and John Harriss, South Asia (Sociology of 'Developing Societies') (New York: 1989); Sabyasachi Bhattacharya and Romila Thapar, Situating Indian History, for Sarvapalli Gopal (Delhi: 1986); Sugata Bose, South Asia and World Capitalism (Delhi: 1990); Terence J. Byres and Harbans Mukhia, Feudalism and Non-European Societies (London: 1985); K.N.Chaudhuri and Clive Dewey, Economy and Society: Essays in Indian Economic and Social History (Delhi: 1979); Alice Clark, Gender and Political Economy: Explorations of South Asian Systems (Delhi: 1993); Desai, Rudolph, and Rudra, Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in South Asia; Clive Dewey and A.G.Hopkins, The Imperial Impact: Studies in the Economic History of Africa and India (London: 1978); Tim Dyson, India's Historical Demography: Studies in Famine, Disease, and Society, (Westwood: 1989); Francine R.Frankel and M.S.A. Rao, Dominance and State Power in Modern India: Decline of a Social Order, 2 volumes (Delhi: 1989, 1993); R.E. Frykenberg, Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History (Madison: 1969) and Land Tenure and Peasant in South Asia (New Delhi: 1977); Kathleen Gough and Hari P. Sharma, Imperialism and Revolution in South Asia (New York: 1973); Mushirul Hasan and Narayani Gupta (editors) India's colonial encounter: essays in memory of Eric Stokes (New Delhi: 1993); Douglas Haynes and Gyan Prakash, Contesting Power: Resistance and Everyday Social Relations in South Asia (Delhi: 1991); Kapil Kumar, Congress and Classes: Nationalism, Workers and Peasants (New Delhi: 1988); Morris D. Morris and others, Indian Economy in the Nineteenth Century, a Symposium (New Delhi: 1969); Utsa Patnaik and Manjari Dingwaney, Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India (Delhi: 1985); Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib, The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 1: c. 1200 - c.1750 (Cambridge 1983); Peter Robb, Rural India: Land, Power and Society Under British Rule (London: 1983) and Meanings in Agriculture: Essays in South Asian History and Economics (New Delhi: 1996); Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid, Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History (Delhi: 1989); and Anand Yang, Crime and Criminality in British India (Tucson: 1985).

Histories of ideas that influence agrarian knowledge outside government and academic circles have also begun to emerge in fragments. Shahid Amin, Event, Metaphor, Memory: Chauri Chaura, 1992-1996 (Berkeley: 1996) reconstructs some elements of one local sub-culture. Mentalities of agrarian subalternity preoccupy Ranajit Guha, Elementary Aspects and many authors in the volumes of Subaltern Studies. Ann Grodzins Gold and Bhoju Ram Gujar have produced a wonderful ethnography of ecological memory in "Wild Pigs and Kings: Remembered Landscapes in Rajasthan," American Anthropologist (99, 1, 1997: 70-84). Walter Hauser has documented one intellectual who changed popular thinking in Sahajanand on agricultural labour and the rural poor: an edited translation of Khet mazdoor (Delhi: 1994) and Swami Sahajanand and the peasants of Jharkhand: a view from 1941, an edited translation of Jharkhand ke kisan (Delhi: 1995). William R. Pinch, Peasants and Monks in British India (Berkeley: 1996) analyses local ideas about the historical process of agrarian social mobility. Gyan Prakash, Bonded Histories: Genealogoies of Labour Servitude in Colonial India (Cambridge: 1990) finds oral epics of worker subordination. David Ludden recovers old discourse on land and property in Peasant History in South India (Princeton: 1985; Delhi: 1989) and on farming in "Archaic Formations of Agricultural Knowledge," in Peter Robb (editor), Meanings of Agriculture: Essays in South Asian History and Economics (Delhi: 1996). Surprisingly, little has been done on the history of popular thinking about scarcity and famine, but David Arnold, "Famine in Peasant Consciousness and Peasant Action: Madras, 1876-8," in Subaltern Studies III (Delhi, 1984: 62-115) and Paul R. Greenough, Prosperity and Misery in Modern Bengal: The Famine of 1943-1944 (New York: 1982) make a start. Mythology and folklore encode the past in Indigenous Vision: Peoples of India, Attitudes to the Environment, edited by Geeti Sen (New Delhi: 1992). Scientific ideas about farming have their own kind of history: see M.S.Randawa, A History of Agriculture in India, four volumes (Dehli: 1986), and also Robert Evenson and Carl Pray, Research and productivity in Asian agriculture (Ithaca: 1991).


Historical Geography

Three books present the basic data: Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia (Chicago: 1978), O.H.K. Spate and A. T. A.Learmonth. India and Pakistan: A General and Regional Geography (London: 1967), and Daniel Thorner, Ecological and Agrarian Regions of South Asia Circa 1930 (Karachi: 1996). Other useful volumes that cover South Asia and a range of interconnected agrarian themes are Roland J-L.Breton, Atlas of the Languages and Ethnic Communities of South Asia (New Delhi: 1997), Ashok K. Dutt and M. Margaret Geib, Atlas of South Asia, Fully Annotated (Boulder: 1987), R.Huke and E. Huke, Rice-Wheat Atlas of South Asia (Los Banos: 1992), and Gordon Johnson, Cultural atlas of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh & Sri Lanka (New York: 1996).

More specialized volumes cover regions. For Bangladesh, see Nafis Ahmad, A New Economic Geography of Bangladesh (New Delhi: 1976) and Haroun Rashid, Geography of Bangladesh (Dhaka: 1977). S.P.Chatterjee, Bengal in Maps: A Geographical Analysis of Resource Distribution in West Bengal and Eastern Pakistan (Bombay: 1959) has brilliant maps of 1931 census data. Rais Akhtar, Environment, Agriculture and Nutrition in Kumaon Region (New Delhi: 1980) is a model of thematic geography that merits emulation. For Nepal, P.P.Karan and W. M. Jenkins. Nepal: A Cultural and Physical Geography (Lexington: 1960) is good. Sri Lanka is well endowed: see J.R.Desaunettes, Guidelines for land development of the districts of the wet zone of Sri (Peradeniya: 1974), C.H. Fernando, Ecology and biogeography in Sri Lanka (The Hague: 1984), and Ceylon Department of Census and Statistics, The Ceylon economic atlas (Colombo: 1969). For Pakistan and Bangladesh, I use the Oxford economic atlas for Pakistan (Oxford: 1955). For India, there are many specialized sources: see Moonis Raza and Aijazuddin Ahmad, An Atlas of Tribal India: With Computed Tables of District-Level Data and Its Geographical Interpretation (New Delhi: 1990); India, 1951 Census, Paper No.2, Population Zones, Natural Regions, and Sub-Regions and Divisions (New Delhi: 1952); India, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Atlas of India (Delhi: 1971); P.C.Patil, The Crops of the Bombay Presidency; Their Geographical Statistics (Bombay: 1922); J.L.D. Sehgal, K. Mandal C. Mandal and S. Vadivelu, Agro-Ecological Regions of India (Nagpur: 1990); Jasbir Singh, An Agricultural Atlas of India: A Geographical Analysis (Varanasi: 1974) and An Agricultural Geography of Haryana (Kurukshetra: 1976); Surendra Singh, Agricultural Development in India: A Regional Analysis (Shillong: 1994); and Terence Woodhead, Rice-Wheat Atlas of India (Delhi: 1994).

Studies in historical geography that influence my own work appear in the Cambridge Series in Historical Geography and especially important is volume seven, Robert David Sack, Human territoriality: Its theory and practice (Cambridge: 1986). I have learned most from the work of David E. Sopher and his colleagues: see A.L. Kosinski and R.M.Prothero, editors, People on the move: studies on internal migration (London: 1975); D.E.Sopher, editor, An Exploration of India: geographical perspectives on society and culture (Ithaca: 1980); R.L..Singh and P.B Rana, editors, Trends in geography of pilgrimages: homage to David E. Sopher (Varanasi: 1987); David Ley and Marwyn S. Samuels, editors, Humanistic geography: prospects and problems (Chicago: 1978); and J.A. Agnew, J.Mercer, and D.E. Sopher, editors, The City in cultural context (Boston:1984).

Approaches to Agriculture

Most literature on farming is technically narrowed by disciplines and policy debates. Older literature is more descriptive and also evokes the intricate history of agrarian discourse. See especially Harold H. Mann, Land and Labor in a Deccan Village (London: 1917), Famine and Rainfall in the Bombay Deccan 1865-1938 (Bombay: 1955), and The Social Framework of Agriculture: India, Middle East, England (New York: 1967); William H. Moreland, The Agriculture of the United Provinces, and Introduction for the Use of Landholders and Officials (Allahabad: 1904), and Notes on the Agricultural Conditions and Problems of the United Provinces, Revised Up to 1911 (Allahabad: 1913); and C.W.B. Zacharias, Madras Agriculture (Madras: 1950) and Studies in the Economics of Farm Management in Madras (New Delhi: 1957). Ranjan Kumar Gupta, The economic life of a Bengal district, Birbhum, 1770-1857 (Burdwan: 1984) harks back to James Charles Jack, The economic life of a Bengal district : a study (1916; reprinted Delhi: 1975). For the romance of agrarian Bengal, see Arthur Geddes, Au pays de Tagore. La civilisation rurale du Bengale occidental et ses facteurs géographiques (Paris: 1927).

Seasonality is a pervasive theme. A good place to begin is Bina Agarwal, "Social Security and the Family in Rural India: Coping With Seasonality and Calamity," The Journal of Peasant Studies 17, 3, 1990: 341-412. The best volumes are Robert Chambers, et al. editors, Seasonal Dimensions to Rural Poverty (Montclair 1981) and Martha Chen, Coping With Seasonality and Drought (Newbury Park, CA: 1991). Technical but broadly useful studies include David W. Hopper, "Seasonal Labour Cycles in an Eastern Uttar Pradesh Village." Eastern Anthropologist 8, 1955: 141-50; A.S.S. Kahlon, S. Miglani and Harwant Singh, "A Comparative Analysis of Dry and Irrigated Farming in Ferozpur District, Punjab," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 26, 4, 1971: 318-26; M. Malya, M. and R. Rajagopalan, "The Nature of Risk Associated With Rainfall and Its Effects on Farming -- A Case Study of Kurnool District, A.P.," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 1, 19, 1964: 76-81; Indra Munsh Saldanha, "The Political Ecology of Traditional Farming Practices in Thana District, Maharashtra (India)," The Journal of Peasant Studies, 17, 3, 1990: 433-43; Kasturi Rajan Sampath and Jayalakshmi Ganesa, Economics of Dry Farming in Tamil Nadu (Madras: 1972); and M.N.Vasantha Devi, "Some Aspects of the Agricultural Geography of South India (Pt. 2)," Indian Geographical Journal 39, 3-4, 1964: 59-122.

Development is the most broadly integrative theme. Studies always treat technology and productivity and usually attend to questions about the rise and evolution of capitalism. A small portion of work describes farming in its local environment, primarily to argue against paradigms that promote aggregate generalizations. Explorations of the particularity of agriculture and of particular agrarian environments generate the best agrarian history. In this vein, Susan Mann, Agrarian Capitalism in Theory and Practice (Chapel Hill: 1990) argues that farming is fundamentally different from industry as a capitalist enterprise. A.V.Chayanov argued that peasant family farms thrive in a market economies without being torn into classes, as Marx and Lenin described, or being turned into family businesses, as neo-classical theorists assume: see Aleksandr Vasilevich Chayanov, The theory of peasant economy, edited by Daniel Thorner, Basile Kerblay and R.E.F. Smith (Homewood: 1966) and also E.Durrenberger, editor, Chayanov, peasants, and economic anthropology (New York : Academic Press, 1984). Putting Marx’s ideas into specific agrarian settings enables scholars to theorize a diversity of modern agrarian transformations. See particularly Ashok Rudra, Political economy of Indian agriculture (Calcutta: 1992); "Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production in Non-European Societies." The Journal of Peasant Studies 15, 3, 1988: 373-94; "Local Power and Farm-Level Decision Making," in Desai, Rudolph, and Rudra, Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity, pp. 251-80; Agrarian relations in West Bengal: results of two surveys (Bombay: 1983); Indian agricultural economics: myths and realities (New Delhi: 1982); Studies in the development of capitalism in India (Lahore: 1978); and (with Pranab Bardhan), On the interlinkage of land, labour, credit relations in agriculture: an analysis of village survey data in east India (Calcutta: 1978). Rudra’s essay, "Emergence of the Intelligentsia As a Ruling Class in India." Economic and Political Weekly (January 21, 1989: 151-5), put historians themselves into agrarian history by arguing that, "In the last two decades, the intelligentsia has emerged as a member of the ruling class coalition in India, the other two classes being the big industrial capitalists and big land owners."

The state is always lurking in development studies. A useful approach locates the state in complex entanglements with society. See Joel Migdal, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue, editors, State power and social forces: Domination and transformation in the Third World (Cambridge: 1994). I have also been influenced by the model of dispersed state institutions and powers presented by Tim Mitchell in his article, "The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics,"American Political Science Review 85, 1, 1991:77-96. Amartya K. Sen’s entitlement approach in Poverty and Famine: An Essay in Entitlement and Deprivation (New York: 1981) provides a good way to connect markets, states, and social power in agriculture.

Ecological approaches to agriculture and development regimes are critical. In development studies, wheat-rice farming zones have attracted attention to environments within which state-farmer interactions occur. See Ramesh Chand and T. Haque. "Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Crop System in Indo-Gangetic Region," Economic and Political Weekly 32, 13, 1997: A26-30; and R.S.Paroda, R. S. Terence Woodhead and R. B. Singh. Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Production System in Asia. New Delhi: 1993. The interface of ecology, environmentalism, anthropology, and history is the most promising academic site for history that attends to the cultural as well as material features of farming. For an overview of environmental history, see B.L.Turner, et. al. editors, The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and regional changes in the biosphere pver the past 300 years (Cambridge: 1990). For provocative case studies, see Anil Agarwal and others, The Fight for Survival: People's Action for Environment (New Delhi: 1987), Arun Agarwal and K.Sivaramakrishnan, editors, Agrarian Environments: Resources, Representations, and Rule in Inda (Durham: forthcoming), and David Arnold and Ramachandra Guha, editors, Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia (Dehli: 1995). For technical knowledge on ecologies of farming, I recommend the publications of the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), and Centre for Science and Environment (Delhi). World Bank Technical Papers are often good, such as No.221, Conserving Soil Moisture and Fertility in the Warm Seasonally Dry Tropics, by Jitendra P. Srivastava et al. (1993). Literature on sustainability is essential, and see especially Kartik C. Roy, Raj Kumar Sen, Clement A. Tisdell, editors, Environment and sustainable agricultural development: concepts, general issues, constraints and strategies (Calcutta: 1996), and D.L. Deb, editor, Natural resources management for sustainable agriculture and environment (New Delhi: 1994). Ecology is an especially strong theme in the study of mountain regions: see Narpat S.Jodha, "Mountain Agriculture," in B.Messerli and J.D. Ives, editors, Mountains of the World: a global priority (London, 1997: 313-335), and N.S.Jodha, "The Nepal middle mountains," in Jeanne.X.Kasperson, Roger E. Kasperson, and B.L.Turner II., editors, Regions at Risk: Comparisons of threatened environments (Tokyo 1995: 140-185).

There is some research on cultural aspects of farming but we need much more. Sitakant Mahapatra, Modernization and Ritual: Identity and Change in Santal Society (Calcutta: 1986) is an ethnographic account of ritual in farm life. Amita Baviskar extends this model brilliantly into the realm of politics: In the Belly of the River: Tribal Conflicts over Development in the Narmada Valley (Delhi: 1995). Tuk-Tuk Kumar, History of rice in India: mythology, culture, and agriculture (Delhi: 1988) is a cultural history of one crop. L.S. Kandasamy, Tamilar velanmai marapukal (Koyamuttur: 1987) describes the agricultural heritage of the Tamil cultural region. Shamsuzzaman Khan, Folklore of Bangladesh (Dhaka: 1987) presents folklore, as do many compilations of the same kind, which contain primary sources for historians. Forest environments -- particularly sacred groves -- have attracted attention from scholars interested in land use, ecology, and culture; and the Institut Francais de Pondichery has sponsored a number of projects: see M.A.Kalam, Sacred Groves in Kodagu District of Karnataka (South India): A Socio-historical Study (Pondichery: 1996).

Reconstructing past agrarian environments is not a major activity among historians of South Asia. We have no Marc Bloch, George Duby, or Leroy Ladurie; and local history is not a professional speciality in South Asia, as it is in Britain. Yet in the same way that southern France and the southern US have inspired agrarian literature that reflects their own cultural heritage, so has Bengal. Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Maharashtra are well served by agrarian historians, but not nearly so well as the old Bengal Presidency, whose intelligentsia has demonstrated a pronounced rural orientation going back to the days of Romesh Chrandra.Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, and Radhakamal Mukerjee. Agrarian Bengal has its own excellent volume in the New Cambridge History -- Sugata Bose, Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital: Rural Bengal since 1770 (Cambridge: 1993) -- and research is particularly dense for the early period of British rule. Recent work includes Sushil Chaudhuri, From Prosperity to Decline: Eighteenth Century Bengal (Dehli: 1995), John R.McLane, Land and Local Kingship in Eighteenth-Century Bengal (Cambridge: 1993), Chandra Prakash N. Sinha, From decline to destruction: agriculture in Bihar during the early British rule, 1765-1813 (New Delhi: 1997), Aditee Nag Chowdhury-Zilly, The vagrant peasant: agrarian distress and desertion in Bengal, 1770 to 1830 (Wiesbaden: 1982), and Datta, Rajat. "Agricultural Production, Social Participation and Domination in Late Eighteenth-Century Bengal: Towards an Alternative Explanation," The Journal of Peasant Studies 17, 1, 1989: 68-113; "Crises and Survival: Ecology, Subsistence and Coping in Eighteenth Century Bengal" The Calcutta Historical Journal 18, 1, 1996: 1-34; and "Peasant Production and Agrarian Commercialism in a Rice-Growing Economy: Some Notes on a Comparative Perspective and the Case of Bengal in the Eighteenth Century" in Peter Robb (editor) Meanings of Agriculture, pp. 92-131. A new cluster of research is also emerging at the intersecting histories of tribal societies, forest environments, and state development policy: see Mark Poffenberger, "The Resurgence of Community Forest Management in the Jungle Mahals of West Bengal," in Arnold, David and Ramachandra Guha, editors, Nature, Culture, Imperialism (Delhi, 1995: 336-69) ; K.Sivaramakrishnan, "A Limited Forest Conservancy in Southwest Bengal, 1864-1912," Journal of Asian Studies, 56, 1, 1997: 75-112, and "Forests, Politics, and Governance in Bengal, 1794-1994," PhD Dissertation, Yale University, 1997 (forthcoming from Oxford Unversity Press, Delhi). The only compilation of local studies within a region of South Asia is Shapan Adnan, Annotation of Village Studies in Bangladesh and West Bengal: A Review of Socio-Economic Trends over 1942-88 (Kotbari Comilla, 1990).

Long-term Perspectives

Among short surveys, now the best is Burton Stein, A History of India (Oxford: 1998), which also has excellent maps. Romila Thapar, A History of India ( New York: 1978) is still valuable, and so is Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India (New Delhi: 1987). For prehistoric ecology, see Ecological backgrounds of South Asian prehistory, edited by Kenneth A.R. Kennedy and Gregory L. Possehl (Ithaca: 1975); and for the Indus Valley age, see Gregory L. Possehl, Variation and change in the Indus civilization; a study of prehistoric Gujarat with special reference to the post urban Harappan Harappan civilization: a recent perspective (New Delhi: 1993), Harappan civilization and Rojdi (New Delhi: 1989). Romila Thapar, From Lineage to State is the best general view of ancient transitions within agrarian societies, and M.S.Randhawa, A History of Agriculture, has good details on farming issues. For medieval history, first see Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, The Making of Early Medieval India (New Delhi: 1995), B.P.Sahu, Land System and Rural Society, and Herman Kulke, editor. The State in India, 1000-1700 (Delhi: 1995); then see these important collections: R.Champakalakshmi and S. Gopal, editors, Tradition, Dissent, and Ideology: Essays in Honour of Romila Thapar (Delhi: 1996); Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib, editors, The Cambridge Economic History of India; Irfan Habib, editor, Medieval India 1: Researches in the History of India, 1200-1750 (Delhi: 1992);. For comparative perspectives on the state, see Henri J.M. Claessen and Peter Skolnik, editors, The Study of the State (New York: 1981); and Henri J.M.Claessen and Pieter van de Velde, editors, Early State Dynamics (Leiden: 1986), and Early State Economics (New Brunswick: 1991).

Important specialised studies of issues that apply across regions include D. N. Gupta, Changing Modes of Production in India: an Historical Analysis (New Delhi: 1983); Stephanie W. Jamison, Sacrificed Wife/Sacrificer's Wife: Women, Ritual, and Hospitality in Ancient India (New York: 1996); D.N. Jha, Studies in Early Indian Economic History (Delhi: 1980); D.N. Jha, editor, Society and Ideology in India: Essays in Honour of Professor R.S.Sharma (New Delhi: 1996) and Feudal Social Formations in Early India (Delhi: 1987); Charles Malamoud, Cooking the World: Ritual and Thought in Ancient India (Delhi: 1996); Sheldon Pollock, "Ramayana and Political Imagination in India," Journal of Asian Studies 52, 2, 1993: 261-97, and "The Sanskrit Cosmopolis, 300-1300: Transculturation, Vernacularization, and the Question of Ideology," in Jan E. M. Houben, editor, Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit Language (Leiden, 1996: 197-247); A.Rashid, Society and Culture in Medieval India, 1206-1556 A.D. (Calcutta: 1969); Savitri Saxena, Geographical Survey of the Puranas (Delhi: 1995); Kumkum Roy, The Emergence of Monarchy in North India, Eighth--Fourth Centuries B.C.: As Reflected in the Brahmanical Tradition (Delhi: 1994); and Brian K. Smith, Classifying the Universe: the Ancient Indian Varna System and the Origins of Caste (New York: 1994).

On the evolution of cuisine, Jack Goody, Cooking, cuisine, and class : a study in comparative sociology (Cambridge: 1982) is essential. Two studies of France indicates future possibilities: see Jean Francois Revel, Culture and cuisine: a journey through the history of food, translated from the French by Helen R. Lane (New York: 1984) and Amy B. Trubek, "The empire of the senses : French haute cuisine and the rise of the modern culinary profession, 1870-1910" (University of Pennsylvania dissertation: 1995). For South Asia, the most useful study is K.T.Achaya, Indian food: a historical companion (Delhi: 1994). See also Ceturamalinkam Namacivayam, Tamilar unavu (Chennai: 1981), for Tamil Nadu, and also Om Prakash, Food and drinks in ancient India, from earliest times to c. 1200 A.D. (Delhi: 1961). M.S.Randawa, History of Agriculture has lots of information on the introduction of new crops. The most important monograph that we have now explores the broader meanings of food in agrarian cultures: Francis Zimmerman, The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine (Berkeley: 1987).

On the Eurasian context, see Janet Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony the World System A.D. 1250-1350 (New York: 1989); K.N.Chaudhuri, Asia Before Europe: Economy and Civilisation of the Indian Ocean From the Rise of Islam to 1750 (Cambridge: 1990) and Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History From the Rise of Islam Until 1750 (Cambridge: 1985); Richard M. Eaton, "Islamic History As Global History," in Islamic and European Expansion: The Forming of a Global Order, editor Michael Adas (Philadelphia: 1993: 1-36); Andre Gunder Frank, "The Centrality of Central Asia." Studies in History 8, 1, 1992: 43-98, and "The World Economic System in Asia Before European Hegemony." The Historian 56, 2, 1994: 260-76; Jos Gommans, "The Silent Frontier of South Asia, c.A.D. 11-1800," Journal of World History, 9, 1, 1998: 1-23, and "The Eurasian Frontier After the First Millennium A.D.: Reflections along the Fringe of Time and Space," The Medieval History Journal, 1, 1, 1998: 125-45;Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World (Leiden: 1990); Liu Xinru, Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exchanges, AD 1-600. Delhi: 1988; and Kikoichi Yajima, "Maritime Activities of Arab Gulf People and the Indian Ocean World in the 11th and 12th Centuries," Journal of Asian and African Studies 14 (1977): 195-208.

On pastoralism, the most important reading is in the special issue of Studies in History (7, 2, 1991) edited by Shereen Ratnagar. Lawrence Leshnik and Günther-Dietz Sontheimer, editors, Pastoralists and nomads in South Asia (Weissbaden: 1975) is still valuable; and the most insightful monograph is surely Gunther-Dietz Sontheimer, Pastoral Deities in Western India (Delhi: 1989), which covers much more than religion. Good work to consult includes Michael J.Casimir, Flocks and food: a biocultural approach to the study of pastoral foodways (Köln: 1991), R.R.Prasad, Pastoral nomadism in arid zones of India: socio-demographic & ecological aspects (New Delhi: 1994), Ram Parshad Khatana, Tribal migration in Himalayan frontiers: study of Gujjar Bakarwal transhumance economy (Gurgaon: 1992), Paul Charles Rissman, Migratory pastoralism in Western India in the Second Millennium B.C.: the evidence from Oriyo Timbo (Delhi: 1985), and Sadashiv Ambadas Dange, Pastoral symbolism from the Rgveda (Poona: 1970).

We need more monographs on many pre-modern territories, especially in Assam, Gujarat, Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Nepal, Orissa, and Sri Lanka. For Assam, see N.N.Acharyya, The History of Medieval Assam, From the 13th to the 17th Century; A Critical and Comprehensive History of Assam During the First Four Centuries of Ahom Rule (Gauhati: 1966) and Amalendu Guha, Medieval and Early Colonial Assam; Society, Policy, Economy (Calcutta: 1991). For early Gujarat, I have found only Ali Muhammad Khan, Medieval Gujarat: its political and statistical history (based on Mohammed Ali Khan´s Mirat-i-Ahmadi transcribed in 1822 by Narsain Dass of the Kait tribe at Ahmedabad), traslated by James Bird (New Delhi: 1980) and A.K.Majumdar, A. K. Chaulukyas of Gujarat; a Survey of the History and Culture of Gujarat From the Middle of the 10th to the End of the 13th C. (Bombay: 1956). On Kashmir: M.L.Kapur, A History of Medieval Kashmir, 1320-1586 A.D. (Jammu: 1971), Krishna Mohan, Early medieval history of Kashmir: with special reference to the Loharas, A.D. 1003-1171 (New Delhi: 1981), and K.S. Saxena, Political History of Kashimir, B.C.300 - A.D.1200 (Upper India: 1974). On Nepal, I know only D.R.Regmi, Medieval Nepal. (Calcutta: 1965-1966) and Ancient Nepal (Calcutta: 1969). On Orissa, we have more: see B.S.Das, Studies in the Economic History of Orissa From Ancient Times to 1833 (Calcutta: 1978), Kailash Chandra Dash, Legend, history, and culture of India: based on archaeology, art, and literature (Calcutta: 1997), Hermann Kulke, Kings and cults: state formation and legitimation in India and Southeast Asia (New Delhi: 1993), Shishir Kumar Panda, The state and statecraft in medieval Orissa under the later eastern Gangas (A.D. 1038-1434) (Calcutta: 1995) and Medieval Orissa: a socio-economic study (New Delhi: 1991), and Lakshmi Narayan Raut, Socio-economic life in medieval Orissa, 1568-1751 (Calcutta: 1988). On Sri Lanka, see Gunawardana, Robe and plough, and W.I. Siriweera, A study of the economic history of pre-modern Sri Lanka (New Delhi: 1994).

Bengal and the northeast are well covered: see R.G.Basak, History of Northeast India, Extending From the Foundation of the Gupta Empire to the Rise of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal (c. AD 320-760) (Calcutta: 1967), Richard M.Eaton, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760 (Berkeley: 1994), Abdul Karim, Social History of the Muslims in Bengal (Down to A.D. 1538) (Dacca: 1959), R.C.Majumdar, Expansion of Aryan Culture in Eastern India (Imphal: 1968), Barrie Morrison, Political Centers and Cultural Regions in Early Bengal (Tucson: 1970), M.A. Rahim, Social and Cultural History of Bengal, 1201-1576 (Karachi: 1963), M.Tarafdar, Husain Shahi Bengal, 1494-1538 A.D.: a Socio-Political Study (Dacca: 1965) and Trade, Technology, and Society in Medieval Bengal (Dhaka: 1995). The expansive borderlands of Bengal and its mountain surroundings are not adequately covered in the above-cited literature, however. A place to begin their exploration is with Surajit Sinha, editor, Tribal Polities and State Systems in Precolonial Eastern and North Eastern India, (Calcutta, 1987), which is a real gold mine.

On Rajasthan, Rajputs, and Rajputisation, see M.S.Ahluwalia, Muslim Expansion in Rajasthan: The Relations of Delhi Sultanate With Rajasthan, 1206-1526 (Delhi: 1978), J.N.Asopa, Origin of the Rajputs (Delhi: 1976); B.D.Chattopadhyaya, "Origin of the Rajputs: The Political, Economic and Social Processes in Early Medieval Rajasthan," Indian Historical Review, 3, 1, July 1976:59-82, and "Irrigation in early medieval Rajasthan, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 16, 2-3, 1973: 298-316); Richard Fox, Kin, Clan, Raja and Rule (Berkeley: 1971); Satya Prakash Gupta, The agrarian system of eastern Rajasthan, c. 1650-c. 1750 (Delhi: 1986) and Mughal documents: taqsim c. 1649-c. 1800 (Jaipur: 1996); D.Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties: a Study of Chauhan Political History, Chauhan Political Institutions, and Life in the Chauhan Dominions, From 800 to 1316 A.D. (Delhi: 1975) and Lectures on Rajput History and Culture (Delhi: 1970); G.C.Sharma, Administrative System of the Rajputs (New Delhi: 1979); G.D.Sharma, Rajput Polity: A Study of Politics and Administration of the State of Marwar, 1638-1749 (New Delhi: 1977); G.N.Sharma, Social Life in Medieval Rajasthan, 1500-1800 A.D., With Special Reference to the Impact of Mughal Influence (Agra: 1968); Dilbagh Singh, The State, landlords, and peasants: Rajasthan in the eighteenth century (New Delhi: 1990); R.B.Singh, Origin of the Rajputs (Gorakhpur: 1975); Surajit Sinha, "State Formation and Rajput Myth in Tribal Central India" in Kulke, The State in India, 100-1700, pp.304-42; and N. Ziegler, N. P. "Some Notes on Rajput Loyalties During the Mughal Period," in Kingship and Authority in South Asia in South Asia, edited by J.F. Richards (Madison, 1978: 215-51).

On the Maratha territories, Sumit Sarkar’ forthcoming book, entitled Environment, Ethnicity and Politics in Western India 1350-1991 (Cambridge) will be the fullest monographic study, but Maratha records have sustained many good books. See especially R.A.Alavi, Studies in History of the Medieval Deccan (New Delhi: 1977), D.K.Dhekane, Agrarian system under Marathas (Bombay: 1996), Hiroshi Fukazawa, The Medieval Deccan: Peasants, Social Systems and States (1500-1700) (New Delhi: 1991), Stewart Gordon, The Marathas 1600-1818 (New Delhi: 1993) and Marathas, marauders, and state formation in eighteenth-century India (Oxford: 1994); A.R. Kulkarni, Maharashtra in the Age of Shivaji (Poona: 1969), A.R.Kulkarni, M. A. Nayeem and T. R. de Souza, editors, Mediaeval Deccan History: Commemoration Volume in Honour of Purshottam Mahadeo Joshi (Bombay: 1996); T.T. Mahajan, Aspects of agrarian and urban history of the Marathas (New Delhi: 1991); H.H.Mann, "A Deccan Village Under the Peshwas," in H.H. Mann, The Social Framework of Agriculture (Bombay, 1967: 123-38); S.Sardesai, House of Shivaji: Studies and Documents of Maratha History (Bombay: 1979), S.N.Sen, Administrative System of the Marathas (Calcutta: 1976), and Andre Wink, Land and sovereignty in India: agrarian society and politics under the eighteenth-century Maratha svarajya (Cambridge: 1986).

For the Indo-Gangetic basin, Punjab, and adjacent mountains, see Muhammad Taqi Amini, The agrarian system of Islam (Delhi: 1991); Satish Chandra, "Some Institutional Factors in Providing Capital Inputs for the Improvement and Expansion of Cultivation in Medieval India," Indian Historical Review 3, 1, 1976: 83-98; Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, Aspects of rural settlements and rural society in early medieval India (Calcutta: 1990), and "State and Economy in North India: Fourth Century to Twelfth Century ," in Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History, editor Romila Thapar (Bombay, 1995: 309-46); Upendra Nath Ghoshal, The agrarian system in ancient India (Calcutta:1973), L.Gopal, The Economic Life of Northern India, C. AD 700-1200 (Delhi: 1965), Iqbal Husain, The Ruhela Chieftaincies: The Rise and Fall of Ruhela Power in India in the Eighteenth Century (Delhi: 1994), Sunanda Kar, Agrarian system in northern India from the seventh to the twelfth century (Bombay: 1990), Narendra Nath Kher, Agrarian and fiscal economy in the Mauryan and post Mauryan age (circa. 324 B.C.-320 A.D.) (Delhi: 1973), A.R.Khan, Chieftains in the Mughal Empire During the Reign of Akbar (Simla: 1977), Iqtidar Alam Khan The Political Biography of a Mughal Noble: Mun'Im Khan Khan-i Khanan, 1497-1575 (New Delhi: 1973), Dirk H. A.Kolff, Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistroy of the Military Labour Market of Hindustan, 1450-1850 (Cambridge: 1990), B.P.Majumdar, Socio-Economic History of Northern India 1030-1194 AD. (Calcutta: 1960), B.N.Mukherjee, The Economic Factors in Kushana History (Calcutta: 1970), Harbans Mukhia, Perspectives on Medieval History (New Delhi: 1993), Lokesh Chandra Nand Women in Delhi Sultunate (Allahabad: 1989); Robert Nichols, "Settling the Frontier: Land, Law, and Society in the Peshawar Valley, 1500-1900," Ph.d dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1997; S.S.Nigam, Economic Organisation in Ancient India, 200 B.C.-200 A.D. (New Delhi: 1975), P.Niyogi, Contributions to the Economic History of Northern India; From the Tenth to the Twelfth Century A.D. (Calcutta: 1962), Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, On History and Historians in Medieval India (New Delhi: 1983), W.R.A. Pogson, A History of the Boondelas (Delhi: 1974), M.C.Pradhan, The Political System of the Jats of North India (Bombay: 1966), Jadunath Sarkar, Glimpses of Medieval Bihar Economy: Thirteenth to Mid-Eighteenth Century (Calcutta: 1978), Jagadish Narayan Sarkar, Some Aspects of Military Thinking and Practice: Medieval India (Calcutta: 1974), Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui, Mughal Relations With the Indian Ruling Elite (New Delhi: 1983), Jares Muhammad Siddiqui, Aligarh District; A Historical Survey (From Ancient Times to 1803 A.D.) (New Delhi: 1981), Bhagat Singh, A History of Sikh Misals (Patiala: 1993), R.C.P. Singh, Kingship in Northern India, C. 600 A.D.-1200 A.D. (Delhi: 1968), and O.P.Verma, The Yadavas and Their Times (Nagpur: 1970).

For the peninsula, the most important studies are L.B. Alayev, Socio-Economic Structure of Southern India in the 15th and 16th Centuries (Moscow: 1963), A.Appadorai, Economic Conditions in South India (1000-1500 AD. (New York: 1981), B.N.Chaturvedi, "The Origin and Development of Tank Irrigation in Peninsular India." Deccan Geographer 6, 2, 1968: 57-86; Nicholas B. Dirks, The Hollow Crown:Ethnohistory of an Indian Kingdom (Ann Arbor: 1993), Kenneth R. Hall, Trade and Statecraft in the Age of the Cholas (New Delhi: 1980), B.S.L.Hanumantha Rao, Socio-Cultural History of Ancient and Medieval Andhra (Hyderabad: 1995), K. Jayasree, Agrarian economy in Andhra under Vijayanagar (New Delhi: 1991), A.P.Ibrahim Kunju, Studies in Medieval Kerala History (Trivandrum: 1975), Noboru Karashima, Towards a New Formation: South Indian Society Under Vijayanagar Rule (Delhi: 1992), A.Krishnaswami, The Tamil Country Under Vijayanagar (Annamalainagar: 1964), David Ludden, Peasant History in South India (Princeton: 1985), T.V.Mahalingam, South Indian Polity (Madras: 1955); M.G.S. Narayanan, Reinterpretations of South Indian History (Trivandrum: 1976), K.A.Nilakanta Sastri, The Cholas (Madras: 1955), K.S.Shivanna, The Agrarian System of Karnataka (1336-1761) (Mysore: 1992) and A Critique of Hoysala Polity (Mysore: 1988); K.Sundaram, Studies in Economic and Social Conditions of Medieval Andhra (1000-1600) (Madras: 1968), K.G. Vasantha Madhava, K. G. Western Karnataka, its agrarian relations, 1500-1800 A.D.(New Delhi: 1991), Kesavan Veluthat, Brahman Settlements in Kerala: Historical Studies (Calicut: 1978) and The Political Structure of Early Medieval South India (New Delhi: 1993); A.V.Venkata Ratnam, Local Government in the Vijayanagar Empire (Mysore: 1972), and R.Tirumalai, Land grants and agrarian reactions in Chola and Pandya times (Madras: 1987).

Temples have their own literature, mostly for the peninsula, with the notable exception of Hitesranjan Sanyal, "Social Aspects of Temple Building in Bengal: 1600 to 1900 A.D.," Man in India, 48, 1968: 202-224. For a general model of temple operations, see Carol A. Breckenridge and Arjun Appadurai. "The South Indian Temple: Redistribution, Honor and Authority," Contributions to Indian Sociology 10, 2, 1977: 187-211. Important studies can be found in Burton Stein, editor, South Indian Temples: An Analytical Reconsideration (Delhi: 1978). Others include Noboru Karashima, "South Indian Temple Inscriptions: A New Approach to Their Study." South Asia 19, 1, 1996: 1-12; A.K. Prasad, Devadasi System in Ancient India: A Study of Temple Dancing Girls of South India (Delhi: 1990), David Shulman, Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition (Princeton: 1980), George W. Spencer, "Temple Moneylending and Livestock Redistribution in Early Tanjore," Indian Economic and Social History Review, 5, 3, 1968: 277-93, "Religious Networks and Royal Influence in Eleventh Century South India." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 12, 1969: 42-56, and "The Sacred Geography of the Tamil Shaivaite Hymns." NUMEN: International Review of the History of Religion 17, 1970: 236-7; Burton Stein, "The Economic Functions of the Medieval South Indian Temple," Journal of Asian Studies 19, 1960: 163-76; and Cynthia Talbot, "Temples, Donors, and Gifts: Patterns of Patronage in Thirteenth-Century South India." Journal of Asian Studies 50, 2, 1991: 308-40. Studies of particular temples provide local detail, for instance T. K. T. Viraraghavacharya, History of Tirupathi (Tirupati: 1953) and The Srivilliputtur Temple of Sudikkodutta Nachchiyar (Tirupati: 1955).

Early Modern Themes

The imperial Mughal administration is well studied: see M.Athar Ali, The Apparatus of Empire: Awards of Ranks, Offices and Titles to the Mughal Nobility, 1573-1658 (New Delhi: 1985) and Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb (Bombay: 1968); Stephen Blake, "The Patrimonal-Bureaucratic Empire of the Mughals," Journal of Asian Studies 39, 1, 1979: 77-94 (reprinted in Kulke, The State, pp.278-304); Neelam Chaudhary, Labour in Mughal India, 1526-1707 (New Delhi: 1996); Shireen Moosvi, The Economy of the Mughal Empire, C.1595: A Statistical Study (Delhi: 1987), and (editor and translator) "Aurangzeb's Farman to Rasidas on Problems of Revenue Administration, 1665," in Habib, editor, Medieval India (1992) pp 198-208; Tapan Raychaudhuri, "The Mughal Empire," in The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume I, pp.172-92; John F.Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: 1993), and John F. Richards, editor, The Imperial Monetary System of Mughal India (Dehli: 1987); Athar Abbas Rizvi, Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar's Reign (New Delhi: 1975), Jagdish Narayan Sarkar, Mughal Economy: Organization and Working (Calcutta: 1987), and Douglas E. Streusand, The Formation of the Mughal Empire (Delhi: 1989).

Histories of Mughal regions have more agrarian detail. Irfan Habib, An Atlas of Mughal Empire has the most comphensive data. In addition to the excellent books on Rajasthan cited above, good regional studies include Anil Chandra Banerjee, The Agrarian System of Bengal 1582-1793 (Calcutta: 1980), M.A.Nayeem, Mughal Administration of Deccan Under Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah (1720-48 AD) (New Delhi: 1985), B.S.Nijjar, Panjab Under the Great Mughals, 1526-1707 A.D. (Bombay: 1968) and Panjab Under the Later Mughals, 1707-1759 (Jullundur: 1972); Tapan Raychaudhuri, Bengal Under Akbar and Jahangir (Delhi: 1969); John F. Richards, Mughal Administration in Golconda (Oxford: 1975), and S.N.Sinha, Subah of Allahabad Under the Great Mughuls, 1580-1707 (New Delhi: 1974).

Histories of Mughal disruption and fragmentation consider propositions about agrarian dynamics originally presented by Irfan Habib. See Muzaffar Alam, The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India, Awadh and the Punjab, 1707-1748 (Delhi: 1986), Satish Chandra, Medieval India: Society, the Jagirdari Crisis and the Village (Delhi: 1982), Chetan Singh, Region and Empire: Panjab in the Eighteenth Century (Delhi: 1991); and Wink, Land and Sovereignty.

Current approaches to early modernity in South Asia have emerged from the connected histories of overseas trade, inland economies, agrarian societies, and regional polities, as studies of the eighteenth century have forced a reconsideration of transitions between Mughal and British periods. For trends in historiography, see Athar Ali, "The Eighteenth Century -- An Interpretation." Indian Historical Review 5, 1, 1978: 175-86, and "Recent Theories of Eighteenth Century India," Indian Historical Review 13, 1-2, 1986-1987: 102-8; Irfan Habib, Interpreting Indian History (Shillong: 1988); and Sugata Bose, South Asia And World Capitalism. M. Athar Ali gives a good account of the inland geography of early modern South Asia in his "Political Structures of the Islamic Orient in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," in Habib, Medieval India, pp.129-40; and for a wider view, see David Ludden, "History Outside Civilisation and the Mobility of Southern Asia," South Asia 17, 1, June 1994, 1-23. For an Asian perspective, see Emporia, commodities, and entrepreneurs in Asian maritime trade, C. 1400-1750, edited by Roderich Ptak and Dietmar Rothermund (Stuttgart: 1991). For a global view, see Alan Smith, Creating a World Economy: Merchant Capital, Colonialism and World Trade, 1400-1825 (Boulder: 1991)

Most work on early modernity concerns connections between world trade and the agrarian interior. The linkages between overseas traders and port city hinterlands are best documented, which imparts a distinctive historical identity to the coastal regions. See Sinnappah Arasaratnam, Indians in Malaysia and Singapore (Kuala Lumpur: 1979), Merchants, companies and commerce on the Coromandel coast, 1650-1740 (Delhi: 1986), Ceylon and the Dutch, 1600-1800: external influences and internal change in early modern Sri Lanka (Brookfield: 1996), Maritime India in the seventeenth century (Delhi: 1994), Maritime trade, society and European influence in South Asia, 1600-1800 (Brookfield: 1995), and Masulipatnam and Cambay: a history of two port-towns,1500- 1800 (New Delhi: 1994); Ashin Das Gupta, Indian merchants and the decline of Surat: c. 1700-1750 (Wiesbaden: 1977) and Merchants of maritime India, 1500-1800 (Brookfield: 1994); Ashin Das Gupta and M.N. Pearson, editors, India and the Indian Ocean: 1500-1800 (Calcutta: 1987); Indu Banga, editor, Ports and their hinterlands in India, 1700-1950 (New Delhi: 1992); and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Political Economy of Commerce: Southern India 1500-1650 (Cambridge: 1990), and "Rural Industry and Commercial Agriculture in Late 17th Century South Eastern India," Past and Present 126, 1990: 76-114. On the overland trade, Stephen F. Dale, Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600-1750 (Cambridge: 1994).

Networks connecting agrarian regions with the world economy over centuries before 1800 are explored in Baskarjyoti Basu, "The Trading World of the Southern Coromandel and the Crisis of the 1730s," in Proceedings of the Indian Historical Congress, 1981, 332-39; Stephen P. Blake, "The Urban Economy in Premodern Muslim India: Shahjahanabad, 1639-1739." Modern Asian Studies 21, 3, 1987: 447-72; R.Champakalakshmi, Trade, ideology, and urbanization : South India 300 BC to AD 1300 (Delhi: 1996); V.K. Chavda, editor, Studies in trade and urbanisation in Western India (Baroda: 1985); Stewart Gordon, "Buhanpur: Entrepot and Hinterland, 1650-1750." The Indian Economic and Social History Review 25, no. 4 (1988): 425-42; Grover, B. R. "An Integrated Pattern of Commercial Life in the Rural Society of North India During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (Proceedings of the 37th Session of Indian Historical Records Commission, 1966, Vol.37), reprinted in Subrahmanyam, Money and the Market in India, pp.219-55; Frank Perlin, Invisible City: Monetary, Administrative, and Popular Infrastructures in Asia and Europe, 1500-1900 (Aldershot: 1993), and Unbroken Landscape: Commodity, Category, Sign and Identity: Their Production As Myth and Knowledge From 1500 (Alderhsot: 1994); Prasannan Parthasarathy, "Weavers, Merchants and States: The South Indian Textile Industry, 1680-1800," PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1992, and "Rethinking Backwardness in the Eighteenth Century: Wages and Competitiveness in Britain and South India Before the Industrial Revolution, Past and Present, 1997; John R. Richards, editor, Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds (Durham: 1983); Sanjay Subrahmanyam, editor, Merchants, Markets, and the State in Early Modern India (Delhi: 1990); Sanjay Subrahmanyam and C. A. Bayly. "Portfolio Capitalists and the Political Economy of Early Modern India," The Indian Economic and Social History Review 25, 4, 1988: 401-24; and Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System III; The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World -Economy, 1730-1840s (San Diego: 1989).

Regional histories tend to focus on political territory, but some also indicate the complexity of linkages between the agrarian interior and the world economy. Bernard S. Cohn provides a good framework for regional history in three essays that are reprinted in An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays (Delhi: 1990): "Neworks and Centres in the Integration of Indian Civilization" (pp.78-87), "Regions Subjective and Objective: Their Relation to the Study of Modern Indian History and Society" (pp.100-136), and "Political Systems in Eighteenth-Century India: The Benares Region (pp.483-500).

Important regional histories, which substantiate early modern conditions, include the studies of Rajasthan, cited above; Indu Banga, Agrarian System of the Sikhs: Late 18th and Early 19th Century (New Delhi: 1978); Vasant Kumar Bawa. The Nizam Between Mughals and British: Hyderabad Under Salar Jang I (New Delhi: 1986); Philip B. Calkins, "The Formation of a Regionally Oriented Ruling Group in Bengal, 1700-1740," Journal of Asian Studies 29, 4, 1970: 799-806; Satish Chandra, The Eighteenth Century in India: Its Economy and the Role of the Marathas, the Jats, the Sikhs and the Afghans (Calcutta: 1986); Kumkum Chatterjee, Merchants, Politics and Society in Early Modern India: Bihar, 1733-1820 (Leiden: 1996); S.D.S.Charak,. Maharaja Ranjitdev and the Rise and Fall of Jammu Kingdom, From 1700 A.D. to 1820 (Pathankot: 1971); Sushil Chaudhuri, Trade and Commercial Organization in Bengal, 1650-1720 (Calcutta: 1975); A.I. Chicherov, Indian Economic Development in the 16th-18th Centuries: An Outline History of Crafts and Trade (Moscow: 1971); M.H. Gopal, Tipu Sultan's Mysore: an Economic Study (Bombay: 1971); S. Gopal, Commerce and Crafts in Gujarat, 16th and 17th Centuries; A Study in the Impact of European Expansion of Precapitalist Economy (New Delhi: 1975); Kenneth R. Hall, "Peasant State and Society in Chola Times: A View From the Tiruvidaimarudur Urban Complex." The Indian Economic and Social History Review 18, no. 3-4 (1981): 343-410, and "Price-Making and Market Hierarchy in Early Medieval South India [1977]," in Subrahmanyam, Money and the Market in India, pp.57-84); A.P. Ibrahim Kunju, Rise of Travancore: a Study of the Life and Times of Martanda Varma (Trivandrum: 1976); Karen Leonard, "The 'Great-Firm' Theory of the Decline of the Mughal Empire," in Comparative Studies in Society and History 21, 2, 1979: 151-67, and "The Hyderabad Political System and Its Participants." Journal of Asian Studies 30, 3, 1971: 569-82; R. Mishra, History of Purnea, 1722-1793 (Calcutta: 1978), S.G. Mishra, History of Bihar, 1740-1772 (New Delhi: 1970); M.N.Pearson, Merchant and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portugese in the 16th C. (Berkeley: 1976), A.J. Qaisar, The Indian Response to European Technology and Culture, (AD 1498-1707) (Delhi: 1982); and Veena Sachdeva, Polity and Economy of the Punjab During the Late Eighteenth Century (New Delhi: 1993).

Pre-modern urbanism has its own literature. To begin, I recommend Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, "Urban Centers in Early Medieval India: An Overview," in Bhattacharya and Thapar, Situating Indian History, pp.8-33. For case studies, see Kenneth Ballhatchet and John Harrison, editors, The City in South Asia: Premodern and Modern (London: 1980); Indu Banga, editor, The City in Indian history: urban demography, society, and politics (New Delhi: 1991); Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India (Cambridge: 1991); R.E. Frykenberg, editor, Delhi through the ages: essays in urban history, culture, and society (Delhi: 1986); Kenneth Gillion, Ahmedabad; a study in Indian urban history (Berkeley: 1968); Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, Surat in the seventeenth century: a study of urban history of pre-modern India (London:1979) and Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history (Delhi: 1988); J.S. Grewal & Indu Banga, editors, Studies in urban history (Amritsar: 1981); Ishwar Prakash Gupta, Urban glimpses of Mughal India: Agra, the imperial capital, 16th & 17th centuries (Delhi: 1986); Gavin Hambly, The Cities of Mughal India (New York: 1968); Kalpana Jha, Urbanisation in early medieval north India: an analysis of the Samaraichchakaha (Patna: 1990); Om Prakash Prasad, Decay and revival of urban centres in medieval South India: c. A.D. 600-1200 (New Delhi: 1989); Hameeda Khatoon Naqvi, Urban centres and industries in upper India, 1556-1803 (Bombay: c1968), Urbanisation and urban centres under the great Mughals, 1556-1707, an essay in interpretation (Simla: c1972), and Mughal Hindustan, cities and industries, 1556-1803 (Karachi: 1974); K.T.S. Sarao, Urban centres and urbanisation as reflected in the Pali Vinaya and Sutta pitakas (Delhi: 1990); R.S. Sharma, Urban decay in India (c.300-c.1000) (New Delhi: 1987); K.V. Soundara Rajan, Mechanics of city & village in ancient India (Delhi: 1986); Vijay Kumar Thakur, Urbanisation in ancient India (New Delhi: 1981); T.K. Venkata Subramanian, Environment and urbanisation in early Tamilakam (Thanjavur: 1988); Harish Chandra Verma, Dynamics of urban life in pre-Mughal India (New Delhi: 1986); My discussion of early modern trends in this volume draws heavily on my own publications: "Archaic Formations of Agricultural Knowledge in South India," in Peter Robb, Meanings of Agriculture, pp. 35-70; "Caste and Political Economy in Early-Modern South India: The Case of Tinnevelly District," in Stein and Subrahmanyam, Institutions and Economic Change, pp.105-133; "Urbanism and Early Modernity in The Tirunelveli Region," Bengal Past and Present, 114, 218-219, 1995: 9-40; "Patriarchy and History in South Asia: Three Interpretive Experiments," Calcutta Historical Journal, 17, 2, 1995, 1-18; "Orientalist Empiricism and Transformations of Colonial Knowledge, in Breckenridge and van der Veer, Orientalism and The Post-Colonial Predicament, pp.250-78; "India's Development Regime," in Dirks, Colonialism and Culture, pp.247-87; "World Economy and Village India, 1600-1900: Exploring the Agrarian History of Capitalism," in Sugata Bose, South Asia and World Capitalism, pp.159-77; "Craft Production in an Agrarian Economy, India, 1750-1900," in Michael Meister, editor, Making Things in South Asia, Philadelphia, 1989, pp.103-13; "Asiatic States and Agrarian Economies: Agrarian Commercialism in South India, 1700-1850," Calcutta Historical Journal, 13, 1-2, 1989: 112-137; and "Agrarian Commercialism in Eighteenth Century South India: Evidence from the 1823 Tirunelveli Census," Indian Economic and Social History Review, 25, 4, 1988: 493-519, reprinted in Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Merchants, Markets and the State, pp.215-241. I have also used "The Economy of the Ceded Districts, 1800-1828," an unpublished manuscript by Sourindranath Roy.

Modern Issues

For a broad view of economic history, see Dharma Kumar, editor, The New Cambridige Economic History of India, Volume Two; essays on the Cambridge Economic History in Modern Asian Studies (19, 13, 1985); and B.R.Tomlinson, The Economy of Modern India, 1860-1970 (Cambridge:1993), which offers a compact analysis of economic development since the nineteenth century and an excellent guide to the literature. Sumit Guha, Growth, stagnation, or decline? presents one scholarly debate, with classic reprints. For other debates, see Neil Charlesworth, British Rule and the Indian Economy, 1800-1914 (London: 1982). Recent economic data is nicely compiled in Inderjit Singh, The Great Ascent: The Rural Poor in South Asia. (Baltimore: 1990) and in Charles M. Becker, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and Edwin S. Mills, Indian urbanization and economic growth since 1960 (Baltimore: 1992). There is no book that compares long term regional trends (even within British India) despite the brilliant pioneering work by Amiya Kumar Bagchi and Eric Stokes, published in Bengal Past and Present, 95, 1, 1976 -- "Reflections on Patterns of Regional Growth in India During the Period of British Rule,"(pp.247-89) and "Dynamism and Enervation in North Indian Agriculture: The Historical Dimension" (pp.227-239; reprinted in Ludden, Agricultural Production and Indians History (pp.36-53) -- although studies of economic development are pushing in this direction: see Ambica Ghosh, Emerging capitalism in Indian agriculture: the historical roots of its uneven development (New Delhi: 1988), Manjit Singh, Uneven Development in Agriculture and Labour Migration: A Case of Bihar and Punjab (Shimla, 1995) and Surendra Singh, Agricultural Development in India: A Regional Analysis (Shillong: 1994).

Comparative studies of agrarian change are still thwarted by the lack of full economic histories for all the regions. There is no such monograph for Uttar Pradesh and most regions, even Punjab, are inadequately covered at present. Two good books on UP focus on a small set of relevant issues: Ian Stone, Canal Irrigation in British India: Perspectives on Technological Change In a Peasant Society (Cambridge: 1984) and Elizabeth Whitcombe, Agrarian Conditions in Northern India: the United Provinces Under British Rule, 1860-1900 (v. 1) (Berkeley: 1972). For Madhya Pradesh, there is one book, in Hindi, on Chhattisgarh, Santa Sukla’s Chhattisagarha ka samajika-arthika itihasa (New Delhi, 1988), and the most useful research is by Crispin Bates, beginning with his unpublished Cambridge dissertation, entitled "Regional Dependence and Rural Development in Central India, 1820-1930," and his two articles, "Class and Economic Change in Central India: The Narmada Valley 1820-1930," in Arrested Development in India: The Historical Dimension, edited by Clive Dewey (Riverdale, 1988, pp.241-82), and "Regional Dependence and Rural Development in Central India: the Pivotal Role of Migrant Labour," Modern Asian Studies 19, 3, 1985: 573-92. For Jharkhand, the Dhanbad Research Project is exemplary -- see Dietmar Rothermund, Dietmar Erhard Knopp and Gunther Dienemann, Urban Growth and Rural Stagnation: Studies in the Economy of a Indian Coalfield and Its Rural Hinterland (New Delhi: 1980) -- and Kanti Singh’s solid book, The Great Depression and Agrarian Economy: a Study of an Underdeveloped Region of India (Delhi: 1987) covers a good range of topics for an important period. But Bihar still has no monographic study of its economic history. Arvind N Das has done much to compensate and his work is also invaluable for its forceful arguments and personal insight: see Agrarian unrest and socio-economic change in Bihar, 1900-1980 (New Delhi: 1983), The Republic of Bihar (New Delhi: 1992), and The state of Bihar: an economic history without footnotes (Amsterdam: 1992). Similarly, there are good specialised studies of Sri Lanka -- Jean Grossholtz, Forging capitalist patriarchy: the economic and social transformation of feudal Sri Lanka and its impact on women (Durham: 1984) and Asoka Bandarage, Colonialism in Sri Lanka: the political economy of the Kandyan Highlands, 1833-1886 (Berlin: 1983) -- but no monograph covers all the major aspects of agrarian history on the island (including urbanisation and manufacturing) across the nineteenth and twentieth century.

Other regions are better served by economic historians. For Nepal, Mahesh Chandra Regmi’s two books are fundamental -- Thatched huts and stucco palaces: peasants and landlords in 19th-century Nepal (New Delhi: 1978) and An economic history of Nepal, 1846-1901 (Varanasi: 1988) -- but they do not cover the twentieth century. Similarly, on Gujarat, Gita Bajpai, Agrarian Urban Economy and Social Change: The Socio-Economic Profile of Select Districts of Gujarat, 1850-1900 (Delhi: 1989) is good, but the absence of a new general history makes me turn to M. Desai, The Rural Economy of Gujerat (Bombay: 1949), even now. Marcia F. Frost, "Population Growth and Agrarian Change in British Gujarat, Kaira District, 1802-1858," PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1995, is the most detailed study of any district in the Company period. On nineteenth century Orissa, first see J.K.Samal, Agrarian history of Orissa under the British rule (Delhi, 1993) and Nabin Kumar Jit, The agrarian life and economy of Orissa: a survey, 1833-1897 (Calcutta, 1984), but K.C. Jena, Socio-Economic Conditions in Orissa During the Nineteenth Century (Delhi: 1978) remains useful. The Bombay Deccan is very well covered by Sumit Guha, The Agrarian Economy of the Bombay Deccan, 1818-1941 (Delhi: 1985), and see Champaka Lakshmi, Economic Condition of the Peasantry in the Deccan During the Nineteenth Century (Delhi: 1981). But still, there is no economic history of Bombay Presidency which embraces industry and agriculture. On Punjab, M.Mufakharul Islam new study is excellent: Irrigation, agriculture, and the Raj: Punjab, 1887-1947 (Delhi: 1997). Imran Ali, The Punjab under imperialism, 1885-1947 (Princeton: 1988) covers a somewhat wider range of issues, as do B.Saini, The social & economic history of the Punjab, 1901-1939, including Haryana & Himachal Pradesh (Delhi: 1975) and G.S.Chhabra, Social and economic history of the Panjab (1849-1901) (Jullundur: 1963).

For Bengal, Sugata Bose’s Agrarian Bengal: Economy, Social Structure, and Politics (Cambridge: 1986) is the fullest monograph on agrarian economic history in the later colonial period; and his Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital is the best overview and guide to the literature. See also the work of Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri, cited above; and Sirajul Islam, editor, History of Bangladesh 1704-1971, Volume Two, Economic History (Dhaka: 1997) which is a major contribution that will perhaps stimulate other integrative efforts, because Bengal Presidency is the subject of a host of excellent specialised studies that link together industry and agriculture, and economic, social, and political history. An integrated economic history of the northeastern quadrant of British India is in order, to bring together research contained in Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Private Investment in India, 1900-1939 (Oxford: 1972); Bengal: communities, development and states, edited by Sekhar Bandyopadhyaya, Abhijit Dasgupta, and Willem van Schendel. (New Delhi: 1994); Prajnanda Banerjee, Calcutta and Its Hinterland: A Study in Economic History of India 1833-1900 (Calcutta: 1975); Sailendra Kumar Bag, The changing fortunes of the Bengal silk industry, 1757-1833 (Howrah: 1989); Balai Barui, The salt industry of Bengal, 1757-1800: a study in the interaction of British monopoly control and indigenous enterprise (Calcutta: 1985); Nirban Basu, The working class movement: a study of jute mills of Bengal, 1937-47 (Calcutta: 1994); Dipesh Chakrabarty, Rethinking working-class history: Bengal, 1890-1940 (Princeton: 1989); Ambica Prasad Ghosh. Development of Capitalist Relations in Agriculture: A Case Study of West Bengal, 1793-1971 (Delhi: 1980); Hameeda Hossain, The Company weavers of Bengal: the East India Company and the organization of textile production in Bengal, 1750-1813 (Delhi: 1988); Omkar Goswami, Industry, trade, and peasant society: the jute economy of eastern India, 1900-1947 (Delhi: 1991); Mukul Mukherjee, "Some Aspects of Economic Change in Bengal 1870-1930" (PhD Dissertation Delhi School of Economics: 1981); Bishwa Mohan Prasad, Second World War and Indian industry, 1939-45: a case study of the coal industry in Bengal and Bihar (Delhi: 1992); and Amiya Rao, The blue devil: indigo and colonial Bengal, with an English translation of Neel darpan by Dinabandhu Mitra (Delhi: 1992).

The best regional monograph on modern economic history is still Christopher John Baker’s An Indian Rural Economy: The Tamilnad Countryside, 1880-1955 (Oxford and Delhi: 1984), a model for others to emulate. On the earlier period, see Arun Bandopadhyay, The Agrarian Economy of Tamilnadu, 1820-1855 (Calcutta: 1992) and A.Sarada Raju, Economic Conditions in Madras Presidency, 1800-1850 (Madras: 1941), which has serial statistics.

Historians have thus made Bengal, Bihar, the Deccan, Gujarat, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh the best empirical ground for local studies that describe agrarian interactions with the modern world. A few monographs have both a local and long-term agenda within a broadly comparative, regional perspective: see M.Atchi Reddy, Lands and Tenants in South India: A Study of Nellore District, 1850-1990 (Delhi, 1996), Arvind N. Das, Changel: the biography of a village (New Delhi: 1996), Tom Kessinger, Vilyatpur 1848-1968: Social and Economic Change in a North Indian Village (Berkeley: 1974), David Ludden, Peasant History, and M.S.S. Pandian, The political economy of agrarian change: Nanchilnadu, 1880-1939 (New Delhi: 1990). The local characteristics of modern regions are emerging with an accumulation of regional studies that form composite pictures of agrarian politics, economy, society, and culture. In this effort, historians have tended to focus on questions about the colonialism and nationality, which has tilted agarian history toward studies of administration, development, and political issues, as indicated in this volume. Agrarian social and cultural history are less developed. Social conditions, mobility, movements, and conflict, and urban-rural interaction during the evolution of regional polities represent growth sectors in agrarian historical studies. Work on these subjects will help us to better understand not only everyday life in the country and also the character of urban middle classes and territories of nationhood, as indicated in Vivek Bhandari, "Historicizing the Public: The Making of a Social Formation in Colonial Punjab" (PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1998). The best broad accounting of social movements in British India are Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947 (Delhi: 1983) and G.Aloysius, Nationalism without a Nation in India (Delhi: 1997). Collections of local studies permit comparison of social change across regions -- see Peter Robb, Kaoru Sugihara and Haruka Yanagisawa, editors, Local agrarian societies in colonial India: Japanese perspectives (Richmond, Surrey: 1997) -- but focused, thematic studies that connect local society with broad political and social trends hold more potential. One compelling effort is Alice W. Clark, "Analysing the Reproduction of Human Beings and Social Formations, with Regional Examples over the Last Century, " in Alice W. Clark, editor, Gender and Political Economy, pp. 113-145.

Environments of rebellion and resistance are obvious candidates for comparison, because they have attracted so much scholarly and popular attention. But many historians have been drawn to approaches that favor general theory over contextuality. Theories of peasant nationalism and revolt have provoked debates for decades, and in 1983, Ranajit Guha’s Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency launched Subaltern theory, which remains influential; but we still have no systematically comparative study of rebellion in its diverse agrarian settings -- flourishing in some regions but not others, being but one feature of each environment, and flaring at some points in time but not others. Telengana is an example of an agrarian environment whose regional character demands appreciation. For its administration, see S. Bhanumathi Ranga Rao, Land revenue administration in the Nizams' Dominions, 1853-1948 (Hyderabad: 1992). For the first phase of its revolutionary history -- which began as the first radical phase of peasant history came to end in most of British India -- see Carolyn M. Elliott, "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: the Telengana Rebellion in India, 1946-51," Journal of Asian Studies 34, 1, 1974: 27-47; Barry Pavier, The Telengana Movement 1944-1951 (Delhi: 1981); and I.Thirumalai, "Peasant Class Assertions in Nalgonda and Warangal Districts of Telengana, 1930-1946," Indian Economic and Social History Review 31, 2, 1994: 217-38. The discourse and experience of revolution became uniquely embedded in this agrarian culture: see Devulapalli Venkateswara Rao, Telangana armed struggle and the path of Indian revolution: a critique of "Telangana people's struggle and its lessons" written by P. Sundarayya and of "Postscript" to the book "The great heroic Telangana struggle" written by Chandra Pulla Reddy (Hyderabad: 1982), Arutla Ramachandra Reddy, Telangana struggle: memoirs (New Delhi: 1984), and Vasantha Kannabiran, et al. We were making history: life stories of women in the Telangana people's struggle (London: 1989).

Eric Stokes stressed that rebellion should be studied in its particularity within agrarian environments (see The Peasant and the Raj), and many studies have proceded along this line, even as they seek to address general theory: good examples are Conrad Wood, The Moplah Rebellion and Its Genesis (New Delhi: 1987), Jagdish Chandra Jha, The Bhumji Revolt, 1832-3: Ganga Narain's Langama or Turmoil (Delhi: 1967), and Kapil Kumar, Peasants in Revolt, Tenants, Landlords, Congress and the Raj in Oudh, 1886-1922 (New Delhi: 1984). The changing, varied meanings of "revolt," "revolution," or "resistance" in agrarian cultures merit more attention from theorists and historians alike: on this, subject see especially T.J.Byres, Charan Singh, 1902-87, an assessment (Patna: 1988) and Charan Singh, Agrarian Revolution in Uttar Pradesh (Allahabad: 1957), for revolution from above; and Gail Omvedt, Reinventing Revolution: New Social Movements and the Socialist Tradition in India (Armonk: 1993) for more recent redefinitions.

Definitions of revolt and resistance destabilise as they vary and change across regions, periods, and social contexts. Comparative studies generate empirical patterns rather than new formations of general theory. Gujarat, for instance, could hardly be more different than Telengana. Congress anti-tax campaigns first spot-lighted Gujarati farmers and David Hardiman has steadily expanded our sense of seething resistance in the region: see his Peasant nationalists of Gujarat: Kheda District, 1917-1934 (Delhi: 1981), The coming of the Devi: adivasi assertion in western India (Delhi: 1987), and Feeding the Baniya: peasants and usurers in Western India (Delhi: 1996); and for his general orientation, see the introduction to his edited volume, Peasant Resistance in India, 1958-1914, pp.1-59. Perhaps revolt has a specifically Gujarati meaning, however, because in this region of Bombay Presidency -- a land without zamindars -- the term "peasant" covers a spectrum from very rich commercial farmers with Congress connections at the highest level, to agrarian cooperative entrepreneurs, to the poorest family farmers, near-landless workers, and tribal communities. The discourse and activity of insurgency can never provide a full sense of the agrarian environments in which they make sense. On the background of Gandhian politics in this region, see Crispin Bates, "The Nature of Social Change in Rural Gujarat: The Kheda District, 1818-1918." Modern Asian Studies 15, 4, 1981: 415-54, and Gita Bajpai, Agrarian Urban Economy and Social Change. On farmers’ politics, see E.J.M. Epstein, The Earthy Soil: Bombay Peasants and the Indian Nationalist Movement, 1919-1947 (Oxford: 1988); and on other leadership, see Ghanshyam Shah, Politics of Scheduled Cases and Tribes. Adivasi and Harijan Leaders of Gujarat (Bombay: 1975). On social change in everyday life, see V.H.Joshi, Economic Development and Social Change in a South Gujarat Village (Baroda: 1966), Jan Breman, Beyond Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat (Delhi: 1993), and David Pocock, Kanbi and Patidar: a Study of the Patidar Community of Gujarat (Oxford: 1972). An agrarian history of this region must also take into account the career of Sardar Patel, which is comparable to that of Charan Singh: see The collected works of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, edited by P.N. Chopra (Delhi: 1990). Gandhian politics marked an early phase of nationalist involvement with agrarian enterprise, on which see Vishvanath Ranchodji Joshi, Regulated markets in Gujarat (Nadiad: 1971) and Binod C. Agrawal, Television in Kheda: a social evaluation of SITE (New Delhi: 1986); and also of profitable exchange between farming and industry, on which see Mario Rutten, Farms and factories: social profile of large farmers and rural industrialists in West India (Delhi: 1995), M.V. Kamath, Management Kurien-style: the story of the white revolution (Delhi: 1989), and S.P. Singh, Amul: an experiment in rural economic development (Delhi: 1981).

Subalterns need location. Historically dynamic agrarian territories form elementary aspects of their power situation, and so do institutions. Subaltern history has focused on structures of British colonialism -- see Ranajit Guha, Dominance without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India (Cambridge: 1997) -- but this is only part of the picture. Subordinates in the countryside live as actors in institutions that set the immediate terms of their everyday struggles. There is no generic subaltern situation. Among the countless local settings of agrarian struggle, differences are significant. In this book, I have focused on general patterns among regions; on the contrast between intensive agriculture and tribal cultivation; and on the institutions that defined a distinctively modern subalternity, specifically in zamindari and ryotwari areas. The meaning of "revolt" was conditioned by these various contexts. The legal institutions of landlordism made tenant struggles very different from tribal revoles; and they also help to explain the differences between "resistance" in Telengana and Gujarat (or Punjab and Bihar). The institutions of landlordism were actually much more particularistic, culturally complex, and changeable than I have been able to indicate. See C.J.Baker, "Tamil Nadu Estates in the Twentieth Century," Indian Economic and Social History Review, 8, 1, 1976: 1-44; Nicholas B. Dirks, The Hollow Crown; Stephen Henningham,. A Great Estate and Its Landlords in Colonial India : Darbhanga, 1860-1942 (New Delhi: 1990); T.R.Metcalf, Land, Landlords and the British Raj: Northern India in the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: 1979); Nilmani Mukherjee, A Bengal Zamindar: Jaykrishna Mukherjee of Uttarpara and His Times, 1808-1888 (Calcutta: 1975); Pamela G. Price, Kingship and political practice in colonial India (Cambridge: 1996); N.G.Ranga, Economic Conditions of Zamindari Ryots (Dezwada: 1933), D. Subramanyam Reddy, Agrarian relations and peasant in modern Andhra: a study of Kalahasti zamindari (Delhi, 1990); P.D.Reeves, Landlords and Governments in Uttar Pradesh: a Study of Their Relations Until Zamindari Abolition (Oxford: 1991); Richard G. Fox, From Zamindar to Ballot Box (Ithaca: 1969); and Anand A.Yang, The Limited Raj: Agrarian Relations in Colonial India, Saran District, 1793-1920 (Berkeley: 1989).

Production regimes also condition power and resistance. Commercial cultivation is often studied with this feature in the foreground and differences among agrarian environments help us to describe basic features. Sugar production is by far the best documented, because of the great interest among competing European governments in the world sugar trade. Sugar production involves global markets, a wide range of tropical sites, and tight cordination between local farming and industry. All sugar sites show a strict subordination of farming to capital and labour to management; and the international cost of sugar labour was pushed to very low levels by the African slave trade. But subaltern conditions are very different in the various regions of sugar production, even within British India. In Maharashtra, farmers owned land and expanded their control of investment. In eastern UP, they could not. Here again, we legal institutions of zamindari and ryotwari are definitive: see Donald W. Attwood, Raising Cane: The Political Economy of Sugar in Western India (Boulder: 1992) and Shahid Amin, Sugarcane and Sugar in Gorakhpur: An Inquiry into Peasant Production for Capitalist Enterprise in Colonial India (Delhi: 1984). As shown by B.S.Baviskar, The Politics of Development: Sugar Co-Operatives in Rural Maharashtra (Delhi: 1980) and reiterated recently during Indian elections, the sugar sector has become as much a dominant feature of the agro-politics of Maharashtra as caste war is in Bihar and revolution is in Telengana. Sugar imparts to its localities in Maharashtra a specific kind of regimentation; whereas in Gorakhpur, the sugar sector is swallowed up by other elements in the agrarian political economy, above all, the power of the old zamindari elites.

The extent to which commercial production generates a logic of power of its own which can overwhelm and transform other social institutions remains a critical question for comparative study. Broadly speaking, it seems that in the American tropics, British investors could manipulate imperial power to remake local societies in the interest of world capitalism, both during and after the African slave trade -- see Madhavi Kale, Fragments of Empire: Capital, Slavery, and Indian Indentured Labour in the British Caribbean (Philadelphia: 1998) -- whereas in Asia, European power penetrated old agrarian societies that produced commodities for world markets while giving foreigners little autonomous power locally. Not only in British India, but elsewhere in Asia, the social power within agrarian capitalism was substantially Asian: see G.R.Knight, "The Java Sugar Industry As a Capitalist Plantation: A Reappraisal," The Journal of Peasant Studies 19, 3/4, 1992: 68-86; Alfred W. McCoy, "Sugar Barons: Formation of a Native Planter Class in the Colonial Philippines," The Journal of Peasant Studies 19, 3/4, 1992: 106-41; and Robert Edward Elson, Javanese peasants and the colonial sugar industry : impact and change in an East Java residency, 1830-1940 (Singapore: 1984).

Capitalism and colonialism, like modernity and nationality, diversified their meaning and form as they crossed agrarian environments; by sorting out their historical patterns we can better appreciate their local substance and global reach. The distinctive historical character of the hills, forests, and tribal environments is now receiving more attention. See Tarasankar Banerjee, editor, Changing land systems and tribals in eastern India in the modern period: report of a seminar held at Santiniketan, 6-7 March 1986 (Calcutta, 1989); Veena Bhasin, Ecology, Culture, and Change; Tribals of Sikkim Himalayas (New Delhi: 1988); Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya (Delhi: 1989); J.C.Jha, The Indian National Congress and the Tribals, 1885-1985 (New Delhi: 1985); Govind Ballabh Pant, The Forest Problem in Kumaon: Forest Problems and National Uprising in the Himalayan Region (With a Commentary by Ajay S. Rawat) (Nainital: 1985); Biswamoy Pati, Resisting Domination: Peasants, Tribals and the National Movement in Orissa, 1920-1950 (Delhi: 1993); Archana Prasad, "Forests and Subsistence in Colonial India: A study of the Central Provinces, 1830-1945," PhD dissertation, Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, 1994; and Mahesh Rangarajan, Fencing the Forest: Conservation and Ecological Change in India's Central Provinces, 1860-1914 (Delhi: 1996). Santals have their own literature. See Suchibrata Sen, The Santals of Jungle Mahals: an agrarian history, 1793-1861 (Calcutta: 1984) is most important, and also see P.K.Bhowmick, Dynamics of tribal development (New Delhi: 1993); A.B.Chaudhuri, State formation among tribals: a quest for Santal identity (New Delhi: 1993); B.K.Sharma, Habitat, economy & society of tribal core: a case study of Damin-I-Koh (New Delhi: 1992); Digambar Chakrabortti, History of the Santal Hool of 1855 (reprinted Calcutta: 1989); and Rudranand Thakur, The social matrix of a tribal village (New Delhi: 1989).

A number of books which I have not yet cited provide important documentation for the modern history of agrarian regions and polities. On Assam, see H.H.Rafiabadi, Assam From Agitation to Accord (New Delhi: 1988); Ajeya Sarkar, Regionalism State and the Emerging Political Pattern in India (Calcutta: 1990); and Amalendu Guha, Planter Raj to Swaraj: Freedom Movement and Electoral Politics in Assam, 1826-1947 (New Delhi: 1977). On Bangladesh, see A. F. Salahuddin Ahmed, Bengali Nationalism and the Emergence of Bangladesh (Dhaka: 1994); James Boyce, Agrarian Impasse in Bengal: Institutional Contraints to Technological Change (New York: 1987); Haroon-or-Rashid. The Foreshadowing of Bangladesh (Dhaka: 1987); Tajul ul-Islam Hashmi, Peasant Utopia: The Communalization of Class Politics in East Bengal, 1920-1947 (Dhaka: 1994); Sirajul Islam, Bangladesh District Records (Dacca: 1978) and Rural History of Bangladesh: A Source Study (Dacca: 1977); F. Thomasson Jannuzi, The Agrarian Structure of Bangladesh: An Impediment to Development (Boulder: 1980); Akbar Ali Khan, Discovery of Bangladesh: Explorations into Dynamics of a Hidden Nation (Dhaka: 1996); Atiur Rahman, Peasants and Classes: A Study in Differentiation in Bangladesh (London: 1986); and Kirsten Westergaard, State and Rural Society in Bangladesh: A Study in Relationships (London: 1985). On greater Bengal, see Kamruddin Ahmad, A Social History of Bengal (Dhaka: 1970); Rafiuddin Ahmed, The Bengal Muslims, 1871-1906, A Quest for Identity (Delhi: 1981); Meredith Borthwick, The Changing Role of Women in Bengal 1849-1905 (Princeton: 1984); Partha Chatterjee, Bengal 1920-1947: The Land Question (Calcutta: 1984); Sunjeed Chunder Chatterjee, Bengal Ryots: Their Rights and Liabilities (New Delhi: 1975); Joya Chatterji, Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-47 (Cambridge: 1995); Ranajit Das Gupta, Economy, Society and Politics in Bengal: Jalpaiguri 1869-1947 (Delhi: 1992); M. Mufakharul Islam, Agricultural Development in Bengal, 1920-1947: A Quantitative Study (Cambridge: 1978); Sirajul Islam, Rent and Raiyat; Society and Economy of Eastern Bengal; 1859-1928 (Dhaka: 1989) and The Permanent Settlement in Bengal: A Study of Its Operation, 1790-1819 (Dhaka: 1979); Muin-ud-din Ahmad Khan, History of the Fara'Idi Movement in Bengal (1818-1906) (Karachi: 1965); Akos Ostor, Culture and Power: Legend, Ritual, Bazaar, and Rebellion in a Bengali Society (New Delhi: 1984) and The Play of the Gods: Locality, Ideology, Structure and Time in the Festivals of a Bengali Town (Chicago: 1980); Chitta Panda, The Decline of the Bengal Zamindars: Mindapore, 1870-1920 (Delhi: 1997); Rajat Ray, Social Conflict and Political Unrest in Bengal, 1875-1927 (Delhi: 1984); Ratnalekha Ray, Change in Bengal Agrarian Society, 1760-1850 (New Delhi: 1979); Tanika Sarkar, Bengal, 1928-1934 : the Politics of Protest (New York: 1987); Willem van Schendel, Three Deltas: Accumulation and Poverty in Rural Burma, Bengal, and South India (New Delhi: 1991); Willem van Schendel and Aminul Haque Faraizi, Rural Labourers in Bengal, 1880-1980 (Rotterdam: 1984); and Sunil Kumar Sen, Agrarian Struggle in Bengal, 1946-7 (New Delhi: 1972).

On Bihar, see especially Francine R. Frankel, "Caste, Land and Dominance in Bihar: Breakdown of the Brahmanical Social Order." in Frankel and Rao, Dominance and State Power in Modern India, pp. 46-133; James R. Hagen and Anand Yang, "Local Sources for the Study of Rural India: The ‘Village Notes’ of Bihar," The Indian Economic and Social History Review 13 (1976): 75-86; Hetukar Jha, Social Structures of Indian Villages: A Study of Rural Bihar (Newbury Park, CA: 1991); Manoshi Mitra, Agrarian Social Structure: Continuity and Change in Bihar, 1786-1820 (New Delhi: 1985); Sudipto Mundle, Backwardness and Bondage: Agrarian Relations in a South Bihar District (New Delhi: 1979); Bindeshwar Ram, Land and Society in India: Agrarian Relations in Colonial North Bihar (Delhi: 1998); Peter Robb, Evolution of British Policy Towards Indian Politics 1880-1920: Essays on Colonial Attitudes, Imperial Strategies, and Bihar (Delhi: 1992); Nirmal Sengupta, "The Indigenous Irrigation Organization of South Bihar." Indian Economic and Social History Review 2, no. 1980 (17): 157-89; Gyan Prakash Sharma, "Aspects of Peasant Differentiation in Bihar in the Late Ninteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," in Gupta and Hasan, India's Colonial Encounter pp.309-24; and Ram Narayan Sinha, Bihar Tenantry, 1783-1833 (Bombay: 1968).

On Gujarat, Maharashtra, and the Bombay Deccan, see I.J.Catanach, Rural Credit in Western India, 1875-1930 (Berkeley: 1970); Neil Charlesworth, Peasants and Imperial Rule: Agriculture and Agrarian Society in the Bombay Presidency, 1850-1935 (Cambridge: 1985); Gordon Johnson, Provincial Politics and the Indian National Congress: Bombay and the Indian National Congress, 1880-1915 (Cambridge: 1973); Shirin Mehta, The Peasantry and Nationalism. A Study of the Bardoli Satyagraha (New Delhi: 1984); M.V.Nadkarni, Farmers' Movements in India (New Delhi: 1987); Kenneth Ballhatchet, Social Policy and Social Change in Western India, 1817-1832 (London: 1957); Bombay (Presidency) Committee on the Riots in Poona and Ahmednagar, 1875. Report of the Committee (Bombay: 1876); Anthony Carter, Elite Politics in Rural India: Political Stratification and Political Alliance in Western Maharashtra (Cambridge: 1974); Ravinder Kumar, Western India in the Nineteenth Century: A Study of the Social History of Maharashtra (London: 1968); Harold H. Mann, Famine and Rainfall in the Bombay Deccan 1865-1938 (Bombay: 1955); Michelle Burge McAlpin, Subject to Famine: Food Crisis and Economic Change in Western India, 1860-1920 (Princeton: 1983); and Rosalind O'Hanlon, Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low-Caste Protest in Western India (Cambridge: 1985).

On Punjab, see Himadri Banerjee, Agrarian Society of the Punjab, 1849-1901 (New Delhi: 1982), and "Problem of Dispossession: Fate of the Dispossesseed Zamindars in Punjab," in Ranjit Kumar Roy, editor, The Imperial Embrace: Society and Polity Under the Raj (Calcutta: 1993), pp.87-106; H.H.Calvert, The Wealth and Welfare of the Punjab: Being Some Studies in Punjab Rural Economics (Lahore: 1922); Malcolm Darling, The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt (Delhi: 1925); Clive Dewey, The Settlement Literature of the Greater Punjab (Delhi: 1991); Richard G. Fox, Lions of the Punjab: Culture in the Making (Berkeley: 1985); and Richard Saumarez Smith, Rule By Records: Land Registration and Village Custom in Early British Panjab (Delhi: 1996).

On Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, see Zoya Hasan, Dominance and Mobilisation: Rural Politics In Western Uttar Pradesh 1930- 1980 (New Delhi: 1989); A.B.Mukerji, The Chamars of Uttar Pradesh: A Study in Social Geography (Delhi: 1980); Walter C. Neale, Economic Change in North India: Land Tenure and Reform in the United Provinces, 1800-1955 (New Haven: 1962); Gyanendra Pandey, The Ascendancy of the Congress in Uttar Pradesh, 1926-1934: A Study of Imperfect Mobilization (Delhi: 1978); Utsa Patnaik, Peasant Class Differentiation: A Study in Method With Reference to Haryana (Delhi: 1987); Ursala Sharma, Women, Work and Property in Northwest India (London: 1980); Asiya Siddiqi, Agrarian Change in a North Indian State: Uttar Pradesh, 1819-1833 (Delhi: 1973); Majid Hayat Siddiqi, Agrarian Unrest in North India: The United Provinces, 1918-1922 (New Delhi: 1978); and Jagpal Singh, Captalism and Dependence: Agrarian Politics in Western Uttar Pradesh, 1951-1991 (Delhi: 1992).

On southern India, see David Arnold, The Congress in Tamil Nad: Nationalist Politics in South India 1919-1937 (Delhi: 1977); V.B.Athreya, G. Djurfeldt and S. Lindberg, Barriers Broken: Production Relations and Agrarian Change in Tamil Nadu (New Delhi: 1990); B.H. Farmer, B. H. ed. Green Revolution? Technology and Change in Rice-Growing Areas of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka (London: 1977); John Harriss, Capitalism and Peasant Farming: Agrarian Structure and Ideology in Northern Tamil Nadu (Delhi: 1982); Barbara Harriss-White, A political economy of agricultural markets in South India: masters of the countryside (New Delhi: 1996); Eugene F. Irschick, Politics and social conflict in South India: the non-Brahman movement and Tamil separatism, 1916-1929 (Berkeley: 1969) and Dialogue and history: constructing South India, 1795-1895 (Berkeley: 1994); Robin Jeffery, The Decline of Nayar Dominance: Society and Politics in Travancore 1847-1930 (London: 1976); Susan Lewandowski, Migration and Ethnicity in Urban India: Migration in to Madras, 1870-1970 (Delhi: 1981); Joan P. Mencher, Agriculture and Social Structure in Tamil Nadu (Durham: 1978); T.K.Oommen, Agrarian Tension in a Kerala District: An Analysis (New Delhi: 1971); J.P.Pandian, Caste, Nationalism and Ethnicity; An Interpretation of Tamil Cultural History and Social Order (Bombay: 1987); Sumathi Ramaswamy, Passions of the tongue: language devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970 (Berkeley: 1997); N.G. Ranga, The Modern Indian Peasant (Madras: 1936); T.V. Sathyamurthy, India Since Independence: Studies in the Development of the Power of the State. Volume I: Centre-State Relations: The Case of Kerala (Delhi: 1985); Loes Schenk-Sandbergen, Poverty and Survival; Kudumbi Female Domestic Servants and Their Households in Alleppey (Kerala) (New Delhi: 1988); Chitra Sivakumar and S. S. Sivakumar Peasants and Nabobs: Agrarian Radicalism in Late Eighteenth Century Tamil Country (Delhi: 1993); C.R.Srinivasan, Rice Production and Trade in Madras (Madras: 1934); P.J.Thomas, The Problem of Rural Indebtedness (Madras: 1934); T.C.Vargese, Agrarian Change and Economic Consequences: Land Tenures in Kerala, 1850-1960 (Bombay: 1970); and David Washbrook, The Emergence of Provincial Politics: The Madras Presidency, 1870-1920 (Cambridge: 1976) and "Caste, Class and Dominance in Modern Tamil Nadu," in Frankel and Rao, Dominance and State Power in Modern India, pp.204-64.