James F. Ross , Professor of Philosophy and Law, University of Pennsylvania

Education: A.B., 1953, A.M. 1954, The Catholic University of America. Ph.D., 1958, Brown University; J.D., 1974, University of Pennsylvania, admitted to Pennsylvania Bar, 1975

Teaching Positions:
University of Michigan, Instructor, 1959-61; Assistant

Professor, 1961-62;

University of Pennsylvania, Assistant Professor, 1962-65

Associate Professor, 1965-68;

Professor, 1968-present;

Johns Hopkins University, Visiting Lecturer, 1964-65;

Brown University, Visiting Professor, Summer, 1977.

Ph.D Thesis: 1. A Critical Examination of the Analogy Theory of.

Thomas Aquinas. Brown University, 1958; University Microfilms, Brown University

2. Philosophical Theology. Bobbs Merrill, 1968, 320 pages; Reissued 1979, Hackett Publishing Company

3. Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion.

Macmillan, September, 1969

4. Essays in Medieval Philosophy (editor

and contributor), Greenwood Press, New York, 1971

5. Portraying Analogy. 244 pages,

Cambridge University Press, 1982. This is an explanation of semantic contagion, (analogy of meaning), its species, with applications to religion, law and philosophical analysis.

In preparation (see end):

6. (a) Hidden Necessities

(b) Willing Belief :Cognitive Voluntarism

(c) Aspects of Creation

7. Suarez on Formal and Universal Unity.

Marquette University Press, 1964. Translated from Latin.

8. Thomism. by Paul Grenet, Harper and Row, 1967. Translated from French.

9. “God and Logical Necessity”, Philosophical Quarterly. January, 1960.

10. “Logically Necessary Existential Statements”, Journal of Philosophy. May 31. 1961.

11. “Analogy as a Rule of Meaning for Religious Language”, International Philosophical Quarterly. September, 1961; reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series; reprinted in Aquinas, ed. by Anthony Kenney, Doubleday, 1969, and in Essays in Medieval Philosophy (ed. by James F. Ross). 1971.

12. “A Scotistic Argument”, paper, American Philosophical Association, St. Louis, May 1961.

13. “Seeing Stars”, (competition prize paper), Review of Metaphysics, September 1961.

14. “Medieval Theories of Universals”, American Catholic Philosophical Association, Detroit, October 1961.

15. “Suarez on Universals”, invited symposium , American Philosophical Association, December 1962; printed in Journal of Philosophy. November 8, 1962; participants:

Ernest Moody (UCLA), Francis Clarke (University of Pennsylvania), Alan Woltcr (CUA) and Alonzo Church (Princeton University).

16. “Does ‘x is possible’ ever yield ‘x exists’”, Theoria. Vol. XXVIII,


17. “Did God Create the Only Possible World?” American Philosophical Association, Detroit, May 1962; printed in Review of Metaphysics. September 1962.

18. “Ralph McInerny, The logic of Analogy”, feature book review, International Philosophical Quarterly. December 1962

19. “Reply of Professor Ross”, International Philosophical Quarterly. December 1962. Reply to criticism of “Analogy as a Rule of Meaning for Religious Language” and “Ralph McInerny, The Logic of Analogy.”

20. “The Fallacious Bases of Two Theistic Paradoxes”, American Philosophical Association, Columbus, 1963.

21. “Religion in the Neo-Scholastic Tradition”, a 15,000 word chapter of critical history of philosophy, written in September 1963,printed in Religion in Philosophical and Cultural Heritage, ed. by J. Claylon Feaver and William Horosz, Van Nostrand, 1967.

22. “On the Insufficiency of Sufficient Reason”, American Philosophical Association, New York, December 1965.

23. Review of Julius Weinberg’s Short History of Medieval Philosophy, .feature review in Journal of Philosophy. November 1964.

24. Review of Paul Weiss’. The God We Seek. Philosophical Review. April 1967.

25. “An Application of a Scotist Principle”, paper for Scotist 7th Centennial, Duns Scotus College, Detroit, May 1966; published in the Proceedings of the 7th Centennial Conference.

26. “Truth”, Society for Theological Discussion, New York, 1965; included in a book entitled Skepticism and the Word of God. drafted but not finally revised (1979).

27. “On Intentional Objects”, invited symposium paper, December 1967, American Philosophical Association, Boston. Other participants, P. Geach, Leeds and L. J. Cohen, Oxford.

28. Review of V. Preller’s “Divine Science and the Science of God”, Religious Studies. December 1969.

29. “On Proofs for the Existence of God”, Monist. Spring 1970 (invited paper), pp. 202-217, reprinted in Logical Analysis and Contemporary Theism, edited by John Donnelly, New York, Fordham University Press, 1972 and in The Challenge of Religion, pp. 114-127, eds. Ferre, Smith and Kocklemans.

30. “St. Thomas and Philosophical Methodology”, Ignatius Smith Memorial Lecture at Catholic University of America, March 1969; printed, Metaphilosophv (Buffalo), Fall 1970.

31. “St. Augustine’s Philosophy of Education” signed article for Encyclopedia of Education, submitted May 1969.

32. “Testimonial Evidence”, The Fullerton Club, April 1967, printed in Analysis and Metaphysics, ed. Keith Lehner, pp. 35-56, D. Reidel Company, 1975.

33. “On the Nature of Philosophical Theology”, plenary symposium paper, American Academy of Religion, Boston; October 1969, printed, Union Seminary Quarterly. Fall 1970.

34. “Verification or Certification”? comments on paper by Stephen Crites. Soundings. Spring. 1970.

35. “On Simplicity” invited symposium, American Philosophical Association, New York, December 196 9; Other participants :Daniel Bennett and Norris Clarke.

36. “Response to Paul Van Buren”, Union Seminary Quarterly. Summer 1970.

37. “A New Theory of Analogy”, plenary session of American Catholic Philosophical Association, San Francisco, printed in Proceedings. 1970, reprinted in Logical Analysis and Contemporary Theism, ed. by John Donnelly, Fordham University Press, 1972, pp. 124-143.

38. “Scotus on the Being and Power of God”, 7th Centennial International Scotus Congress, Vienna, October 1970.

39. “Analogy and the Resolution of Some Cognitivity Problems”, main symposium

paper, American Philosophical Association, December 1970; printed in Journal of Philosophy. October 1970. Reprinted in Readings in the Philosophy of Religion, ed. Baruch Brody, Prentice Hall, 1974.

40. “ Religions Knowledge,” plenary session, American Catholic Philosophical Association, Milwaukee 1972, printed in Proceedings of ACPA. 29-43, 1972.

41. Feature Review of H.H. Price’s Essays in Philosophy of Religion, Journal of Religion, 1973.

42. Review of Raeburne Heimbeck’s Theology and Meaning, Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 1973.

43. “Justice is Reasonableness: Aquinas on Law and Morality”, Monist. Aquinas Issue, 1974, pp. 86-103, invited paper on foundations of natural law theory.

44. “Divine Simplicity and the Reality of Relations”, American University, April 1973.

45. “An Analysis of the Concepts of ‘Reading’”, Research report for U.S. Office of Education, Project N. 08033, Grant No. De G-2-7000 28 (509) 1971, approx. 38,000 words, stored in the ERIC-CRIER System.

46. Reading “On the Concepts of Reading”, The Philosophical Forum, pp. 93-342, with chart, Fall, 1974; excerpted and reorganized from #45 above.

47. “Aquinas on Faith and Reason”, centennial lecture at Catholic University of America, September 1974; printed in , TheChallenge of Religion Today, edited by J. Smith, F. Ferre and Joseph Kocklemans, the Thyssen Volume, Seabury Press, 1982.

48. “Unless you believe you will not understand”, paper on St. Augustine delivered at symposium, University of South Carolina, 1978; pp. 113-128 in Experience, Reason and God. 1980.

49. “A natural rights basis for substantive due Process of Law in United States Jurisprudence”, plenary session, American Catholic Philosophical Association, 1976; revised and printed in Universal Human Rights. Fall 1979.

50. “Might Might be Right?” lecture in honor of Lee Scott, Dennison University, Spring 1979, 20pp.

51. “Ways of Religious Knowing”, Goodspeed Lecture, Dennison University, 1976, pp. 83-104; The Challenge of Religion Today. , Seabury Press, 1982, edited by Smith, Ferre and Kocklemans.

52. Review of G. R. Evan’s Anselm and Talking about God, Review of Metaphysics. Spring, 1980.

53. Commentary at the 1979 APA meeting in New York upon John Smith’s paper on Incarnation for Society of Christian Philosophers.

54. “Moderate Realism” paper for Moral Sciences Club, Cambridge University, 1983.

55. Review: Mackie, J.L., The Miracle of Theism. Review of Metaphysics. 1984.

56. “Believing for Profit”, pp. 221-35, in The Ethics of Belief Debate, ed. Gerald D. McCarthy, AAR Studies in Religion, 41, Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1986.

57. “Christians Get the Best of Evolution” in Evolution and Creation. ed.E. McMullin, University of Notre Dame Press, 1985, pp. 223-251.

58. “God, Creator of Kinds and Possibilities”, pp. 351-34, Rationality. Religious Belief and Moral Commitment. eds. Robert Audi and William J. Wainwright, Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York, 1986.

59. “Aquinas on Belief and Knowledge” pp. 243-69, in Essays Honoring Alan B. Wolter. eds. William A. Frank and Gerard J. Etzkorn, Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure, New York, 1985.

61. Review, John Wippel’s Metaphysical Themes in Thomas

Aquinas. Journal of History of Philosophy. Vol. XXV, No. 4, October 1987.

62. Review, Janet Martin Soskice’s Metaphor and Religious Language. Language and Society, 1986.

63. “Kretzmann and Stump on Simplicity”, Faith and Philosophy. 1985.

64. “Eschatological Pragmatism”, Philosophy and the Christian Faith, cd. Thomas Morris, University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

65. “Annihilation”, pp. 177-199, Studies in Medieval Philosophy, ed. John Wipple, The Catholic University of America, 1986.

66. “Immaterial Thought”, Journal of Philosophy. March 1992.pp 136-150.

67. Four lectures on “Eternal Truth”, delivered at NEH Summer Institute in Philosophy of Religion, June-July 1986, Bellingham Washington, Seminar Directors: Plantinga and Alston.

68. “The Crash of Modal Metaphysics”, pp. 251-279, Review of Metaphysics. December, 1989, pp. 252-279.

69. “Semantic Contagion”, Frames, Fields and Contrasts, New Essays in Semantic and Lexical Organization. Eds. Adrienne Lehrer and Eva Kittay, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers: Hillsdale, New Jersey. 1993.

70. “Mindful of Man”, Invited Lecture, University of Notre Dame, September, 1989, the same as the published “Real Freedom,” below.

71. “Adjusted Prospects for Philosophical Theology: Reason and Reliance”, printed in Prospects for Natural Theology. Ed. E. Long, The CUA Press: Washington, D.C., 1990.

72. “The Fate of the Analysts: Aristotle’s Revenge”, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. Toronto, 1990.pp.51-74.

73. Review of On a Complex Theory of a Simple God by Christopher Hughes (Cornell Studies in Philosophy of Religion, Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York, 1989), SPECULUM.

74. Review of The Philosophical Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas by Leo J,, Elders; EJ. Brell: New York, 1990. SPECULUM

75. Review of A. Kenny’s Aquinas on the Mind. (Routledge. 1993).in Philosophical Quarterly. 1993.

76. Review of David Braine’s The Human Person. Philosophical Quarterly. fall, 1994,536-538.

77. “Musical Standards as Function of Musical Accomplishment” in The Interpretation of Music: Philosophical Essays, ed. Michael Krausz, Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1993.

78. “Cognitive Finality” in Rational Faith, ed. Linda Zagzebski, University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.

79. “On Christian Philosophy” in The Monist. Special Issue, July 1992,pp.354-380.

80. “Rational Reliance,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1995. LXII/3, 769-798.

81. Review of Philip A. Rolnick’s Analogical Possibilities, Scholar’s Press, Atlanta Georgia: American Academy of Religion Series, No. 81, for American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 1996.

82. Review of Mary T. Clark’s Augustine, Geoffrey Chapman, London and Georgetown University Press, Wash D.C. for Journal of Early Christian Studies, 1996

83. “Real Freedom” ch. 5 of Faith, Freedom, and Responsibilty. Ed. Jeff Jordan, pp. 89-117 and 252-262, 1996 (revised item #70, above)

84. Review of J. Hood’s Aquinas and the Jews, University of Pa Press, 1995, for Speculum, published 1998.

85. “Analogy”. Article for the Oxford Companion to Christian Thought, 1999

86. “Religious Language” , chapter for Philosophy of Religion: a Guide to the Subject, ed. Brian Davies, Geoffrey Chapman Publishers, London, 1999

87. “On Being Certain About the Existence of God” a chapter for God and Argument, edited by William Sweet, 1999, Ottawa University Press.

88. Review of Norman Kretzmann’s The Metaphysics of Theism,(Oxford University Press), Speculum, 2001.

89. “Duns Scotus’ Natural Theology,” chapter, coauthored with Todd Bates, Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus, ed. Th, Williams, 15,000 wds. 2001.

90. “The Summa Theologiae of Saint Thomas Aquinas”, 14,000 wds, chapter for Blackwell Classics of Western Philosophy, eds, Gracia, Reichberg and Schumacher.

In Progress:
There are several books in various stages.

Hidden Necessities: Truth and Impossibility, needs final revisions. Planned for Fall, 2002: a general account of natural necessity and impossibility, with applications to theory of meaning and theory of truth, the nature of abstraction and the real constituents of thought.

Willing Belief: Cognitive Voluntarism, an account of empirical, scientific, and trans-sensual knowledge that is explained by our willing reliance and by the cognitive functioning of feeling. There A number of previously published papers (#56,64, 71,78,80), have to be integrated into a single whole: this is not a collection but the product of prior partial treatments. Finished: perhaps, Spring 2003.

Aspects of Creation: Science and God. involving revisions and expansions of earlier papers discussing the creation of time and space (#58), and the role of biological evolution;(#57) of annihilation (#65), and physical eschatology (cf. #64). Expected completion, Spring or Summer, 2003.

Remedial Justice, a brief book, based on notes prepared over several decades, tracing some ideas from medieval economic theory and medieval and early modern theories of natural law, through the conundrums facing the use of state coercion to restore an unjust society to an approximation of some ideal of original justice. This will be further developed with course to be offered for Penn Philosophy and Law students in Spring , 2003.

Introduction to some Problems of Metaphysics, a brief book, already written, to be tested for a couple of years in our Undergraduate Majors seminar on Metaphysics, based on the hundred-thirty page introduction originally prepared for Hidden Necessities, above, and now removed as too elementary. (to include # 68 and # 58).

There is also a theological work, mentioned above, drafted many years ago but never finally revised: Skepticism and the Word of God. first drafted in 1966. I hope to return to that.