Lutheran Church in America
ex cathedra (Latin, "from the chair/throne")
An important term in Roman Catholic Christianity to designate the circumstance in which the pronouncement of the pope is considered infallible in matters of f
aith and/or morals — when he speaks "ex cathedra" (officially).
The act of religious authorities to deprive a person of membership or participation in the group; in Christianity, specifically exclusion from holy communion.
(from Greek, "ruler of the exile"; corresponds to Aramaic <h>resh galuta</>, "head of the exile")
A term used in early rabbinic Judaism for the head of the Jewish community in exile in
Babylonia. The exilarch was depicted as an imperial dignitary, a member of the council of state, living in
semi-royal fashion, who appointed communal officers and judges and was a descendant of the house of
A modern philosophical position that has influenced Jewish and Christian thought
significantly, with emphasis on the idea that meaningfulness must be created by people, to whom only
existence is given.
Exodus (from Greek "to exit or go out")
Refers to the event of the Israelites leaving Egypt (see also Passover) and to the biblical book (see Pentateuch) that tells of that event.
Name of a person in the Hebrew Bible with whom the reestablishment of Judaism in
Jerusalem in the 5th century BCE is associated. The events are recorded in a biblical book known by his name, and he is also associated with apocryphal books and traditions.
A general term for religious belief used both of an attitude (to have faith) and of a collection of doctrines (the faith). See also emuna, iman.
faqīr (Arabic, "poor person")
In Islamic Sufism, a faqir is a mendicant who pursues spiritual as well as economic
A general term for the religious rite or practice of going without food at certain times or for certain periods. See asceticism, Ramadan,
sawm, Yom Kippur.
Fâtiḥa(h) (Arabic, "opening")
Al-Fatiha(h) is the title of the initial sura of the Quran, which serves Islam as a prayer
used in various contexts. Compare Lord's Prayer in Christianity, kaddish in Judaism.
A daughter of Muhammad and his first wife, Khadija, and herself wife of ‘Ali (see also
"rightly guided caliphs"). Her name was used by the impressive Shiite "Fatimid" dynasty in Egypt in the 10th and 11th centuries.
In Islamic law, an advice rendered by an appropriate authority (see mufti). See also
responsa in Judaism.
"Understanding" in matters of religious law (sharia); Islamic jurisprudence as developed by the several schools of law (Hanbalite, Shafiite, Hanafite, Malikite). See also ijma, <
A HREF="glossmr.html#qiyas">qiyas, ray.
fitnah (Arabic, "trial, testing")
A term used of early antagonism to individual Muslims, and later of threats to the health of the state (umma) as well.
In Islam, fitra is the original constitution or nature of humans as created by God, and is considered healthy.
From the Latin word for brothers, members of one of the mendicant (begging) orders as
distinct from the cloistered monks.
A term originally applied to conservative, Bible-centered Protestant Christians (many of
whom now prefer to call themselves "evangelicals"), but more recently extended to apply to the religiously authoritarian of all sorts (including classical Christians, Jews,
and Muslims) who interpret their
scriptures literally and in general favor a strict adherence to certain traditional doctrines and practices.
An angel or archangel from Jewish tradition who is closely associated with the virgin
birth in Christianity, and with the revelation of the Quran in Islam.
galut (Heb., "exile")
The term refers to the various expulsions of Jews from the ancestral homeland. Over time,
it came to express the broader notion of Jewish homelessness and state of being aliens. Thus, colloquially,
"to be in <h>galut</>" means to live in the diaspora and also to be in a state of
physical and even spiritual alienation.
Gaon (pl. Geonim,; adj. geonic; Heb., "eminence, excellence")
A title given to the Jewish head of the Babylonian academy and then to distinguished
talmudic scholars in the 6th to 12th centuries.
Geiger, Abraham (1810-1874)
Early Jewish reform advocate in Germany, noted for his scholarship, his modern prayer book, and his advocacy for Judaism as a "world
gemara (Heb., "completion")
Popularly applied to the Jewish Talmud as a whole, to discussions by rabbinic teachers on Mishnah, and to decisions reached in these
discussions. In a more restricted sense, the work of the
generations of the amoraim
in "completing" Mishnah to
produce the Talmuds.
An interpretative device in rabbinic Judaism which focuses on the numerical value of each word.
genizah (Heb., "hiding")
A hiding place or storeroom, usually connected with a Jewish synagogue, for worn-out holy books. The most famous is the Cairo Genizah, which contained books and documents that provide source material for
Jewish communities living under Islamic rule from about the 9th through the 12th centuries. It was discovered at the end of the 19th century.
gentile(s) (Latin for people, nation)
In pre-Christian times, used to refer to non-Jewish peoples; thereafter, for non-Jewish and
non-Christian (roughly synonymous with "pagan"). See also kafir.
gittin (Heb.; sing<h>get</>)
Jewish practice related to divorce. A <h>get</> is a Jewish divorce.
Derived from the Greek <g>gnosis</>, meaning "knowledge." Refers to various systems of belief characterized by a dualistic view of reality — the God who created the
material, phenomenal world (see demiurge), is different from (often antithetical to) the ultimate (hidden) God of pure spirit. Possession of secret gnosis frees a person from the evil material world and gives access to
the spiritual world. Gnostic thought had a great impact on the eastern Mediterranean world in the 2nd to 4th century CE, often in a Christian form. See also mystic, and hikma in Islam.
A general designation for the deity (Hebrew Elohim, Yhwh; Greek Theos; Arabic Allah).
gospel (from the German for "good news" = Greek
<g>euaggelion</>; see evangelical)
A term used in *early Christianity for the message about Jesus, and fairly soon (by extension) for writings that contained information about Jesus ("gospel according to Mark," etc.,
became "gospel of Mark"); the NT contains 4 "gospels" (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), and there are other noncanonical gospels as well. In the Muslim Quran, "gospel"
main term for Christian scripture.
In Christian thought, unmerited divine assistance on one's spiritual path; often conceived
as a special blessing received in an intense experience, but also may include a sense of special direction in
Also known as the Eastern Schism.
The "split" between the western Latin
Christian church and the
eastern Orthodox churches,
culminating in 1053 CE when mutual excommunications were hurled.
The term is also used to describe the Great Schism of the West (also known
as the Western Schism), the period
of 1378 to 1417 during which there were two rival popes
(one in Avignon and one in Rome).
habdalah (Heb., "separation")
The Jewish ceremony using wine, spices, and candles at the conclusion of the Sabbath.
Smelling the spices signifies the hope for a fragrant week; the light signifies the hope for a week of
brightness and joy.
Jewish women's zionist organization in the US.
ḥadīth (Arabic, "report, account")
A tradition about Muhammad — what he said or did on a particular occasion; the hadiths
were collected and they came to be a record of the Prophet's Sunna, which is second only to the Quran in authority for Muslims.
See also isnad.
In Jewish liturgy, designates a specific section of the biblical prophets read in
synagogue services immediately after the corresponding Torah (Pentateuch) section called the
haggada(h) (Heb., "narration"; see also Aramaic aggada[h])
In a general sense, in classical Jewish literature and discussion, what is not halaka (legal subject matter) is (h)aggada (pl. <h>haggadot</>). Technically, "the Haggada(h)" is a
liturgical manual used in the Jewish Passover Seder.
Hajj denotes the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca in the appointed sacred (12th) month (see
calendar) and is one of the five pillars of Islam (din). One who performs hajj is called a muhajirun (Arabic).
See also id, ihram, umra, aliya, liturgy.
hakam (pl. <h>hakamim</> or <h>hakmim</>; Heb.,
A Jewish title given to pre-70 CE proto-rabbinic sages/scholars and post-70 CE rabbinic scholars.
halaka(h)/halakha (adj. halakic)
Any normative Jewish law, custom, practice, or rite — or the entire complex. Halaka is law established or custom ratified by authoritative rabbinic jurists and teachers. Colloquially, if something is deemed
halakic, it is considered proper and normative behavior.
A ceremony related to the Jewish Levirate law of marriage, which frees the widow to marry
someone other than her husband's brother. In this ceremony the widow removes a shoe from her
brother-in-law's foot, which is symbolic of removing his possessive right over her. See also levirate marriage.
ḥanīf (Arabic; pl. <a>ḥunafā'</>)
In Islamic tradition, a hanif is a pre-Islamic (Arabian) monotheist whose beliefs are thought to have descended from the time of the hanif
Abraham, independently of Judaism, Christianity or
Hanukka(h) (Heb., "dedication")
A Jewish festival ("of lights") that commemorates the rededication of the
Jerusalem temple to more *traditional modes of Jewish worship by Judah the Maccabee around 164 BCE. See also calendar.
hasidim, hasidism (Heb., "pious ones")
The term may refer to Jews in various periods: (1) a group that resisted the policies of
Antiochus Epiphanes in the 2nd century BCE at the start of the Maccabean revolt; (2) pietists in the 13th century; (3) followers of the movement of Hasidism founded in the first half of the 18th century by Israel
Ba'al Shem Tov.
Jewish rationalistic "enlightenment" in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
Europe. See maskilim, Mendelson, reform.
Descendants of Hashmon, a Jewish family that included the Maccabees and the high
priests and kings who ruled Judea from 142 to 63 BCE.
Hassan or Hasan
In Islamic history, a son of Ali (and brother of Husayn) who abdicated his claims to be
calif in favor of the first Umayyad ruler Muawiyah; usually numbered as second Imam by the Shiites.
A term used variously to designate such locations as the abode of deity, or the place where those favored by God will ultimately arrive, or an area of (spiritual) activity above the material
earth, or the place where spiritual/ideal realities abide. See also paradise.
Hebrew (from Heb. to pass over, cross over)
An old name given to the people of Israel, and also to their language.
hell (also hades [Greek])
Place of punishment for the departed dead who do not attain to heaven, especially in Christian eschatology. See also sheol,
hellenism (adj. hellenistic; Greek word for "Greekish")
The civilization that spread from Greece through much of the ancient world from 333
(Alexendar the Great) to 63 (dominance of Rome) BCE. As a result, many elements of Greek culture
(names, language, philosophy, athletics, architecture, etc.) penetrated the Near East.
heresy (from Greek for "sub-group, sect")
See minim, heterodox,
bid‘a; also orthodoxy.
See heterodox, orthodox, schismatic, birkat.
Principles of interpretation (from the Greek, "to interpret, translate"). The term is often used with reference to the study of Jewish and Christian scriptures.
German Jewish author of <t>Der Judenstaat</> (The Jewish State) in 1896,
which served as a catalyst to the development of modern zionism.
Greek for "other opinioned." Refers to opinions or positions that
differ from what is considered "orthodox"
or "traditional" at the time.
A less judgmental term than "heretical,"
but with similar import.
The mountainous area along the western-central coast of the Arabian penninsula in which
both Medina (Yathrib) and Mecca are located, and which gave rise to early Islam.
Hijra(h) (Arabic; also "hegira")
The "emigration" of Muhammad and the Muslims from
Mecca to Medina
in 622 CE; the Muslim lunar calendar dates from that year
(see AH, calendar).
hikma(h) (Arabic, "wisdom"; see Heb. <h>hokma</>)
In Islam, the highest level of human understanding, and especially
the intuitive wisdom
illuminating the mystic.
See also gnostic.
Often called by the title "the Elder." Probably a Babylonian, Hillel was an
important sage of the early Jewish period in Palestine around the turn of the era. His teachings convey
the Pharisaic ideal, through many epigrams on humility and peace (found in <t>Sayings of the
Fathers</> 1-2); and were fundamental in shaping the Pharisaic traditions and modes of interpretation.
In rabbinic lore, Hillel is famous for a negative formulation of the "golden rule" (recited to a non-
Jew): "What is hateful to you do not do to your fellow man. That is the whole Torah, the rest is
commentary. Go and learn it." His style of legal reasoning is continued by his disciples, known as
*Beit Hillel ("House/School of Hillel"), and is typically contrasted with that of Shammai (a
contemporary) and his school.
Hira (Arabic <a>ḥirā'</>)
In Islamic tradition, the mountain
(and by extension, the cave or grotto there) where Muhammad
began to receive the Quran.
holocaust (from Greek, entire burnt offering)
A term used in recent times to refer to the Nazi German policy to exterminate the Jewish
people in the second world war period.
holy spirit (= "holy ghost" [archaic])
In Judaism, the presence of God as evidenced in the speech of the *prophets and other divine 'manifestations; in Christianity, understood more generally as the active, guiding presence of God in the
church and its members.
In classical Christian tradition, water consecrated or blessed by a priest for
homoiousios and homoousios (Greek "similar" and
Terms used in the great Christian christological controversies of the 4th century in attempting to understand the relationship of God the father to Jesus Christ
the son. See trinity. Homoousios came to be the approved term for classical Christianity.
host (from Latin for a "sacrifice")
Christian liturgical term for the element (normally unleavened bread or a bread-like wafer) in the eucharist that signifies the body of Christ.
See elevation of the host.
A modern term used (sometimes pejoratively) of the position that focuses on human
values and needs without special concern for arbitrary religious traditions or values. Also applied more traditionally to the embracing of classical Greek and Latin values, rediscovered through classical learning (as
contrasted to late Medieval scholasticism; see also renaissance).
huppah or chuppah (Heb.)
In Judaism, the special canopy under which a marriage ceremony is conducted.
In Islamic history, a son of Ali and brother of Hassan who is martyred in 680 at Karbala
and becomes a hero for Shiites.
hymn (from Greek, to sing praise)
A general term for poetic chants or songs of praise (usually to God); see piyyutim, yigdol, liturgy,
Ibada is literally "service" to God through worship
by means of the five pillars of Islam (din).
Iblīs (Arabic, from Greek <g>diabolos</>, whence English
See Satan, angels.
ibn (Arabic, "son [of]"; Heb., ben; Aramaic, *bar)
Used frequently in "patronymics" (naming by identity of father); see also bat, bint.
Usually (in Eastern Orthodox Christianity) a painted religious image — for example of Jesus Christ, his mother Mary, or a saint — understood in Eastern
Orthodoxy to be a copy of a heavenly image. See also aniconic.
iconoclastic ("icon smashing") controversy
A century or so, from mid-8th through mid-9th centuries, of inner Byzantine Christian
contention over whether to continue to revere icons
(as most monastics and unsophisticated
believers tended to do) or smash them (as some political and
the controversy was focused in Constantinople and influenced by the
traditions of Judaism and Islam.
‘id (Arabic, "festival, holy day")
Used in names of Muslim special days such as <a>‘id al-fitr</> at the end of
Ramadan or <a>‘id al-adha</> during the hajj.
A Greek term for t he worship of what are perceived to be "idols" or false
"gods," forbidden in the biblical traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. See also shirk.
Ihram denotes the state of ritual purity and dedication entered
into by the pilgrim on
hajj to Mecca;
also the special clothing worn for the hajj.
Ijma or "consensus" (of legal scholars,
representing all Muslims) is one of the four sources of
Sunni Muslim jurisprudence
(fiqh; see also sharia).
Intellectual "effort" of Muslim jurists to reach independent religio-legal
decisions (thus producing ijma), a key feature of modern Islamic reform; one who exercises ijtihad is a mujtahid.
"Leader," specifically of the salat prayer service in the mosque; in Shiite
Islam, imam also refers to one of the revered (early) leaders of the community (a designated descendant of ‘Ali) who both ruled in the political sense and also interpreted doctrine with infallible,
īmān (Arabic, "faith"; see Heb. <h>emuna</>)
A highly regarded religious virtue in the Quran. One who has iman (faith) is a
imitatio Christi (Latin, "imitation of Christ")
A Christian devotional book by Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471) and also the specific
religious goal of imitating Jesus Christ.
In classical Christianity,
the claim that the Virgin Mary was
conceived under a special
dispensation of God so that she remained pure,
without the original sin usually transmitted through the sexual act.
Feasts celebrating her conception were popular in the middle ages,
although the act of recognizing this as an official
(dogma) of the
Roman Catholic church was not
formalized by the pope until 1854.
Not to be confused with the doctrine of the
virgin birth of Jesus.
A term in Christianity applied to the "becoming flesh" (human birth) of Jesus Christ.
In classical Christian doctrine, an indulgence can be
obtained to help remove the required "temporal" punishment for
oneself or of another; one of the catalysts of the
Luther's objection to the inappropriate
sale of indulgences.
See circumcision, baptism.
Refers especially to the Christian Roman Catholic court for investigating and punishing heresy. The first papal inquisitions began in the late twelfth century and
were centralized under pope
Innocent III; another notable court was the Spanish inquisition in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The period in which early Judaism
develops, between about 400 BCE (the traditional
end date for Jewish Bible =
Christian "Old Testament")
and the 1st century CE (composition of the Christian
The Jewish intertestamental literature includes the
Apocrypha (mostly preserved in Greek)
and the Pseudepigrapha
(works from this period ascribed to ancient authors
like Enoch, the patriarchs,
and Moses). This literature provides important background for
understanding the period of Christian origins.
One of the Israelite patriarchs, son of Abraham and father of Jacob, in the accounts in the book of Genesis.
Islām (Arabic, "surrender, submitting")
Islam is the name of the true religion, according to the Quran; one who submits to God is a Muslim.
isnād (Arabic, "support")
In Islam, the isnad of a tradition (see hadith) is the chain or linkage of human reporters
that authenticate the material as deriving from the time of Muhammad and his companions. Compare
Christian "apostolic succession" and Jewish validation of oral law.
A name given to the Jewish patriarch Jacob according to the etiology of Genesis 32.38. In Jewish biblical times, this name refers to the northern
tribes, but also to the entire nation. Historically,
Jews have continued to regard themselves as the true continuation of the ancient Israelite national-religious
community. The term thus has a strong cultural sense. In modern times, it also refers to the political state
of Israel. Christians came to consider themselves to be the "true" Israel, thus also a continuation of the ancient traditions.
A major city in Muslim Turkey, in the area formerly called Constantinople and even earlier, Byzantium.
One of the Israelite patriarchs, son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, in the accounts
in the book of Genesis.
Al-Jahiliya is the pre-Islamic Arabian age of "ignorancce," marked by barbarism and unbelief; Islam came to end this evil age, according to its view. The period is subdivided in some Islamic
traditions — e.g. the period of Abraham, of Jesus (or alternatively, of infidelity, of corruption, etc.).
From the religious viewpoints of Judaism, Christianity and Islam,
the main city in ancient Palestine
(= modern Israel), where the Temple of
David/Solomon had been located,
Jesus/Joshua had been crucified/resurrected,
Muhammad had journeyed to heaven
(his <a>miraj</>), among other significant things.
Thus for all three religions,
in some senses Jerusalem is a or the "holy city."
Mechanical attempt to represent the special Jewish name for deity, YHWH.
Common designation for (members of) the Roman Catholic order called the Society of Jesus (abbreviated SJ), founded in the 16the century by Ignatius of Loyola.
Jesus/Joshua ("Jesus" is the Greek attempt to transliterate the
Semitic name "Joshua")
The somewhat mysterious Palestinian popular figure from the 1st century CE whose death and alleged resurrection as God's Messiah/Christ
became foundational for an early Jewish sub-group known as Nazarenes, from which "Christianity" ultimately developed as a separate religion.
In Islam, jihad denotes "exertion" or struggle in the work of God, including,
sometimes, armed force (thus, "holy war").
The special tax levied on dhimmi in Islam.
Josephus or Flavius Josephus
Jewish general and author in the latter part of the 1st century CE who wrote a massive
history ("Antiquities") of the Jews and a detailed treatment of the Jewish revolt against Rome in
66-73 CE (and his involvement in it), among other things.
Judah the Prince (Heb., haNasi)
Head of the rabbinic Jewish community in Palestine around 200 CE. Credited with
publication of the Mishnah.
From the Hebrew name of the
patriarch Judah, whose name also came to designate the tribe and tribal district in which
Jerusalem was located. Thus the inhabitants of Judah and members of the
tribe of Judah come to be called "Judahites" or, in short form, "Jews." The religious
outlook associated with these people after about the 6th century BCE comes to be called
"Judaism," and has varying characteristics at different times and places:
see especially early Judaism,
See also Hebrew(s)rael">Israel.
See eschatology, <a>yawm al-din</>, hell, satan.
Personal name (Heb. Yohanan; Greek Yohannes) found frequently in Judaism in the
Greco-Roman period and in early Christianity. For example, John Hyrkan/Hyrcanus (Jewish king, died 104
BCE), John the Baptizer/Baptist (contemporary of Jesus), John son of Zebedee (one of Jesus' apostles), John "the theologian" (author of the NT book of
Revelation/Apocalypse), John Chrysostom (4th century church *father), John of Damascus (8th century church father). Also the name given to one of the NT gospels and to t
letters in the NT.
In Christian thought, the state (or judicial act) of being released by God from the guilt of sin.
The sacred cubical shrine in Mecca, toward which Muslims face in prayer and to which they make pilgrimages (see hajj);
Islamic traditon claims the Kaba (or Kaaba) was built by Abraham and Ishmael (see Quran 2.124-127).
Kabala(h) or Kabbala(h) (Kabalism) (Heb. qabbala, "receiving,
A system of Jewish theosophy and mysticism. See also kavanah, Zohar.
Jewish prayer (mostly in Aramaic)
with eschatological focus extolling
God's majesty and kingdom recited at the
conclusion of each major section of each liturgical
service; a long version (called rabbinic
kaddish) follows an act of study; also a prayer
by mourners during the first
year of bereavement (see shiva,*sheloshim)
and on the anniversary of the death of next-of-kin. Compare the
Christian "Lord's Prayer,"
In Islam, kafir means "infidel"; see also pagan.
kahal (qahal) (Heb., "congregation, gathering")
Used to refer to the corporate Jewish community of medieval Europe. See also
synagogue, church, umma.
kalām (Arabic, "speech")
In Islam, kalam refers especially to speculative theology (see also Mutazilite).
The formal content of the shahada(h) witness is called the Kalima. See also creed.
Derived from Heb. <h>qara</>, "scripture." A Middle Eastern
heterodox Jewish group that arose in opposition to Rabbinism in the 8th century CE, and emphasized the written scriptures while criticizing the rabbinic use of
Karbala is the place in Iraq where Husayn, grandson of
Muhammad and son of ‘Ali and Fatima was
ambushed and killed on his way to assume leadership over the Shiites in
Iraq, a tragic event commemorated each year on the tenth
(<a>‘A^shūrā'</>) of the Muslim month of Muharram (see calendar).
kavanah (Heb., "intention")
A mystical instrument of the Jewish kabalists; a meditation which accompanies a ritual
kehilla(h) (Heb., "community")
Jewish sense of community, in a particular sense, within the larger kneset Israel.
keneset Israel (Heb.)
"Assembly of Israel," or the Jewish people as a whole. See kehilla; Muslim umma; compare Christian church.
kerygma (Greek, "proclamation")
Term used technically for the content of early Christian preaching as reconstructed by
ketuva(h) or ketuba(h) (Heb.)
The classical Jewish religious marriage certificate. See also *get.
Ketuvim or Ketubim (Heb., "writings")
The third and last division of the classical Jewish Bible (TaNaK), including large poetic
and epigrammatic works such as Psalms and Proverbs and Job as well as a miscellany of other writings
(Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Qohelet, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, Chronicles).
Merchant widow who became the first wife (and business partner) of Muhammad, and mother of Fatima. Khadija was an important influence in encouraging and supporting Muhammad.
Khārijites (Arabic <a>khawārij</>, "those who split off or
The name of a reactionary Islamic group that emerged during the fighting between ‘Ali and the Umayyad founder and tried to establish its own purified
caliphate to enforce justice and a more Quran oriented Islam. They rejected "compromising" Califs such as Uthman
and ‘Ali in the latter part of his rule. The Kharijites never became a major force in overall Islamic history after the death of ‘Ali, who was murdered by a Kharijite.
khilāfah or khalifa (Arabic)
An Indonesian Muslim term for a religious teacher of high status.
A communal settlement in modern Israel.
kiddush (Heb., "sanctification"; derived from <h>kadosh
A ritual of Jewish sabbath and other holy days, usually accompanied by a cup of wine, which proclaims the holiness of the day.
kiddushin (Heb., "consecration")
Denotes Jewish betrothal for marriage, signifying the sanctity of the relationship.
A Jewish headcovering worn for worship, religious study, meals, or at any other time; also called yarmulke.
Kingdom of God
The state of the world in which God's will is fulfilled; expected to be brought into being at
the end of time when Christ returns.
kohen or cohen (pl. <h>kohanim</>; Heb.)
An Israelite priest, generally descended from the tribe of Levi.
kosher (Heb., <h>kasher</>)
"Proper" or "ritually correct";
<h>kashrut</> refers to ritually correct Jewish dietary
practices. Traditional Jewish
dietary laws are based on biblical
legislation. Only land animals that chew the cud and have split hooves
(sheep, beef; not pigs, camels) are permitted and must be slaughtered in a
special way. Further, meat products may not be eaten with milk products or
immediately thereafter. Of sea creatures, only those (fish) having fins
and scales are permitted. Fowl is considered a meat food and also has to
be slaughtered in a special manner.
See torah, commandments, oral and written law, halaka, Shulhan
nomos, shariah, fiqh.
A fermenting substance used to make bread dough rise, making it lighter with air bubbles. In Jewish ritual, leaven is not premitted at passover time, when "unleavened" bread
a major symbol. Classical Christianity has also been influenced by this prohibition in its Easter and eucharist practices (see host).
In the Christian liturgical calendar, the period of 40 days between "Ash Wednesday" and Easter.
From the Latin <l>levir</> for the Hebrew <h>yabam</>, brother-in-law; a biblical system of marriage in which the levir marries his brother's widow (Deuteronomy 25.5-10).
liberal (from Latin, "free [thinker]")
A general term used in religion discussions to indicate a person or view that breaks significantly from the conservative
traditional position(s). See also modernist.
A general term used in religion discussions to indicate a person or view that attempts to interpret the scriptures and other recognized
classical religious authorities in a straightforward, literal
manner. See also fundamentalism, verbal inspiration, allegory.
liturgy (adj. liturgical)
Rites of public worship, usually institutionalized in relation
to temple, synagogue, church, kaba, or mosque locations and traditions, but also in other
formalized observances (see, e.g., pillars of Islam, calendar). See also eucharist, hajj, hymn, mass, passover, prayer, shema, sukkot, siddur.
logos (Greek, "word," "speech"; divine reason)
A Greek term found in various connections in hellenistic
thought, including the philosophy of Philo the 1st century CE Alexandrian
Jew where it is comparable to the Hebrew <h>hokmah</>
("wisdom"; Greek <g>sofia</>). In the Christian
Gospel of John, <g>logos</> is equated with the divine
functions of Jesus Christ (John 1.1-18).
Lord's Prayer (or "the Our Father")
A familiar Christian prayer attributed to Jesus/Joshua (NT Matthew 6.9-13) and
comparable to the Jewish kaddish (see also Islam's Fatiha).
The palm branch used with other plants in the Jewish Sukkot (Tabernacles) celebration.
Martin Luther (1483-1546, Germany) was the most celebrated of the protestant Christian reformers, who is credited with igniting the
reformation by challenging Roman Catholic positions in his "95 theses" posted in 1517 at Wittenberg, Germany. The Lutheran denominati
ons take their name from him.
See also indulgence, consubstantiation.
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Wednesday, 30-Jun-2010 19:46:38 EDT