Archaeobotanical Reports from Central Asia and Related Items (Caucasus to Indus and Harappan India)*

compiled by Naomi F. Miller, University of Pennsylvania Museum
November 2014

Arnanz, Ana
1997 The Flora from Velikent, A Preliminary Analysis. [part of longer report, "The 1995 Daghestan-American Velikent Expedition," by M.G. Gadzhiev et al., pp. 181-222.] Eurasia Antiqua 3: 215-218.
Daghestan//Velikent//4M//3M

Asouti, Eleni
2010 Remains of Wood Charcoal from Jeitun: Identification and Analysis. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 166-170. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//7M//6M

Asouti, Eleni
2010 Wood Charcoal from the Dam Dam Cheshme Rockshelters. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 199-200. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Dam Dam Cheshme //2M

Benecke, N and R.Neef
2005 Faunal and Plant Remains from Sohr Damb/Nal: A Prehistoric Site (c. 3500-2000 BC) in Central Balochistan (Pakistan). In South Asian Archaeology 2003, eds. U. Franke-Vogt and H.-J. Weisshaar, pp. 81-91. Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists (7-11 July 2003, Bonn), Aachen.
Pakistan//Sohr Damb/Nal//3M//sesame

Berthon, Rémi, Alexia Decaix, Zsófia Eszter Kovács, Wim Van Neer, Margareta Tengberg, George Willcox, and Thomas Cucchi
2013 A Bioarchaeological Investigation of Three Late Chalcolithic Pits at Ovçular Tepesi (Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan). Environmental Archaeology 18: 191-200.
Azerbaijan//Ovçular//5M//4M

Boardman, Sheila
1995 Archaeobotanical Progress Report. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report on the Third Season (1994)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 31-60] Iran 33: 50-52.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Gyaur Kala//Sasanian//1M AD

Boardman, Sheila
1997 Archaeobotanical Remains. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report of the Fifth Season (1996)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov, St J. Simpson et al., pp. 1-33] Iran 35: 9-10.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Sasanian

Boardman, Sheila
1999 Archaeobotanical Analyses. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report of the Seventh Season (1998)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov, St J. Simpson et al., pp. 1-24] Iran 37: 9 and 13.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Gyaur Kala//Sasanian//AD

Charles, Michael
2010 Charred Seeds from the Dam Dam Cheshme Rockshelters. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 197-198. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Dam Dam Cheshme //2M

Charles, M. and A. Bogaard
2005 Identifying Livestock Diet from Charred Plant Remains: A Neolithic Case Study from Southern Turkmenistan. In Diet and Health in Past Animal Populations, eds. J. Davies, M. Fabis, et al., pp. 93-103. 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham 2002. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//8M//6M

Charles, Michael and Amy Bogaard
2010 Charred Plant Macro-Remains from Jeitun: Implications for Early Cultivation and Herding Practices in Western Central Asia. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 150-165; 256-259. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//7M//6M

Charles, M. and G. C. Hillman
1992 Crop Husbandry in a Desert Environment: Evidence from the Charred Plant Macro-Remains. (in Russian; ms. in English). In New Research at the Jeitun Settlement (Preliminary Reports of the Soviet-British Expedition), ed. V.M. Masson. Pp. 83-94. Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan, Ashkabad.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//7M//6M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1979 Notes on the Palaeoethnobotany of Protohistorcial Swat. South Asian Archaeology 1977, ed. M. Taddei. Pp. 703-708.
Pakistan//Loebanr III//Aligrama//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1979 Plant Remains at Pirak, Pakistan. In Fouilles de Pirak, vol. I, by Jean-Francois Jarrige and Marielle Santoni, pp. 326-333. Diffusion de Boccard, Paris.
Pakistan//Pirak//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1981 Palaeothnobotany at Pirak: A Contribution to the 2nd Millennium B.C. Agriculture of the Sibi-Kacchi Plain, Pakistan. In South Asian Archaeology 1979. Pp. 271-277. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.
Pakistan//Pirak//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1984 The Beginning of Agriculture in the Kachi Plain: The Evidence of Mehrgarh. In South Asian Archaeology 1981, ed. Bridget Allchin. Pp. 29-33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//6M//5M//4M//3M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1985 Considerazioni su alcuni reperti di palma da dattero e sul centro di origine e l'area di coltivazione della Phoenix dactylifera L. Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata 56: 209-217.
Pakistan//Iran//UAR//6M//3M//Phoenix

Costantini, Lorenzo
1987 Vegetal Remains. In Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c. 3000-1400 B.C.), by G. Stacul. Pp. 155-165. IsMEO, Rome.
Pakistan//Ghalegay//Bir-Khot-Ghwandai//Loebanr 3//3M//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1990 Harappan Agriculture in Pakistan: The Evidence of Nausharo. South Asian Archaeology 1987, pp. 321-332.
Pakistan//Nausharo//3M

Costantini, L. and L. Costantini-Biasini
1985 Agriculture in Baluchistan between the 7th and the 3rd Millennium B.C. Newletter of Baluchistan Studies 2: 16-30.
Iran//Pakistan

Costantini, Lorenzo and Loredana Costantini-Biasini
1985 Laboratory of Bioarchaeology. East and West 35: 331-336.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//Pirak//Swat//7M//6M//5M//4M//3M//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo and Loredana Costantini-Biasini
1986 Laboratory of Bioarchaeology. East and West 36: 354-365.
Pakistan//Nausharo//3M

Costantini, Lorenzo and Alessandro Lentini
1991 Agricoltura e ambiente della piana di Mehrgarh (Pakistan) durante il IV-III millennia a.C. In Paleoecologia e Arqueologia II, eds. F. Queiroga and A.P. Dinis, pp. 173-186. Vila Nova de Famalicao.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//4M//3M

Costantini, Lorenzo and Alessandro Lentini
1993 Palaeoethnobotanical Investigations in the Archaeological Area of Mehrgarh-Nausharo, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Giornale Botanico Italiano 127: 680.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//Nausharo//8M//7M

Costantini L. and A. Lentini
2000 Studies in the Vegetation History of Central Baluchistan, Pakistan: Palynological Investigations of a Neolithic Sequence at Merhgarh. InSouth Asian Archaeology, Rome Oriental Series, vol. I, pp. 132-159. Edizioni IsIAO Rome and Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples.
Pakistan//Merhgarh//Neolithic

Cywa, Katarzyna
2011 Use of wood in the Ancient Cult of Fire Temple at Mele Hairam (South-western Turkmenistan), Based on Preliminary Charcoal Analysis. 5th International Meeting of Charcoal Analysis: Charcoal as Cultural and Biological Heritage SAGVNTVM 11, Extra:151-152. Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia.
Turkmenistan//Mele Hairam//AD

Desse, J., N. Desse-Berset, A. Henry, M. Tengberg, and R. Besenval
2008 Faune et flore des niveaux profonds de Shahi-Tump (Balochistan, Pakistan), premiers résultats. Paléorient 34.1: 159-171. [archaeobotany:167-169]
Pakistan//Shahi-Tump//5M

Earley-Spadoni, Tiffany
2011 Preliminary archaeobotanical results from Maxta 1 and Kültəpə. Iranica Antiqua 46: 15-19, 51, 53. In: Settlement and Society in Naxçivan: 2006 excavations and survey of the Naxçivan Archaeological Project. Iranica Antiqua 46: 1-53, by Ristvet, L., V. Baxşəliyev, and S. Aşurov. DOI: 10.2143/IA.46.0.2084412
Naxçivan//Maxta 1//Kültəpə//1M

Frachetti, Michael D., Robert N. Spengler, Gayle J. Fritz, and Alexei N. Mar'yashev
2010 Earliest direct evidence for broomcorn millet and wheat in the central Eurasian steppe region. Antiquity 84:993-1010
Kazakhstan//Begash//3M//1M

Goyal, Pankaj, Anil K. Pokharia, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Pramod Joglekar, Y.S. Rawat, and Toshiki Osada
2013 Subsistence system, paleoecology, and 14C chronology at Kanmer, a Harappan site in Gujarat, India. Radiocarbon 55: 141-150.
India// Kanmer//4M//3M

Harris, David R. and Chris Gosden
1996 The beginnings of agriculture in western Central Asia. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, ed. D. R. Harris, pp. 370-389. UCL Press, London.
Turkmenistan

Harris, D.R., C. Gosden and M.P. Charles
1996 Jeitun: recent excavations at an early Neolithic site in southern Turkmenistan. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 62: 423-442.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//7M//6M

Harris, D.R., V.M. Masson, Y.E. Berezkin, M.P. Charles, C. Gosden, G.C. Hillman, A.K. Kasparov, G.F. Korobkova, K. Kurbansakhatov, A.J. Legge and S. Limbrey
1993 Investigating early agriculture in Central Asia: New research at Jeitun, Turkmenistan. Antiquity 67: 324-338.
Turkmenistan//Jeitun//7M//6M

Herrmann, G., K. Kurbansakhatov and St J. Simpson
1996 The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report on the Fourth Season (1995). Iran 34: 1-22 (19-20).
Turkmenistan//Merv//1M AD

Hovsepyan, Roman
2011 Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia). Ethnobiology Letters 2: 58-62.
Armenia//Tsaghkasar//4M

Hovsepyan, R. and G. Willcox
2008 The earliest finds of cultivated plants in Armenia: evidence from charred remains and crop processing residues in pisé from the Neolithic settlements of Aratashen and Aknashen. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 63-71.
Armenia//Aratachen//Aknashen//6M

Janushevich, Z.V.
1975 Fossil Remains of Cultivated Plants in the South West Soviet Union. Folia Quaternaria 46: 23-30.
USSR//Caucasus

Janushevich, Z.V.
1976 Kulturnije rastenija jugo-spada SSSR po paleobotanicheskim issledovanijam. Kishinev.
USSR

Janushevich, Z.V.
1977 O nakhodke yachmenya na poselenii Altyn-depe. Karakumskie Drevnosti 5: 162-169.
Turkmenistan//Altyn-depe//4M

Janushevich, Z.V.
1978 Prehistoric Food Plants in the South-West of the Soviet Union. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 59-66.
Armenia//Turkmenistan

Janushevich, Z.V.
1984 The Specific Composition of Wheat Finds from Ancient Agricultural Centres in the USSR. In Plants and Ancient Man, eds. W. van Zeist and W.A. Casparie. Pp. 267-276. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
USSR//Turkmenistan//Altyn-Depe//4M

Kadowaki, Seiji, Lisa Maher, Marta Portillo, Rosa M. Albert, Chie Akashi, Farhad Guliyev, Yoshihiro Nishiaki
2015 Geoarchaeological and palaeobotanical evidence for prehistoric cereal storage in the southern Caucasus: the Neolithic settlement of G&0uml;ytepe (mid 8th millennium BP) Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 408-425.
Azerbaijan//G&0uml;ytepe//6M

Kajale, M.D.
1991 Current Status of Indian Palaeoethnobotany: Introduced and Indigenous Food Plants with a Discussion of the Historical and Evolutionary Development of Indian Agricultural Systems in General. In New Light on Early Farming, ed. J.M. Renfrew. Pp. 155-189. University Press, Edinburgh.
India

Kakhiani, Kakha, Antonio Sagona, Claudia Sagona, Eliso Kvavadze, Giorgi Bedianashvili, Erwan Massager, Lucie Martin, Estelle Herrscher, Inga Martkoplishvili, Jessie Birkett-Rees, and Catherine Longford
2013 Archaeological investigations at Chobareti in southern Georgia, the Caucasus. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 50: 1-138. (environmental: 40-48, 130-138) DOI: 10.2143/ANES.50.0.2975510
Georgia//Chobareti//4M

Kvavadze, Eliso and Kakha Kakhiani
2010 Palynology of the Paravani burial mound (Early Bronze Age, Georgia). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19: 479-494.
Georgia//Paravani //3M

Kvavadze, Eliso, Goderdzi Narimanishvili, and Liana Bitadze
2010 Fibres of Linum (flax), Gossypium (cotton) and animal wool as non-pollen palynomorphs in the late Bronze Age burials of Saphar-Kharaba, southern Georgia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19: 469-478.
Georgia//Saphar-Kharaba //2M

Kvavadze, E., L. Rukhadze, V. Nikolaishvili, et al.
2008 Botanical and zoological remains from an early medieval grave at Tsitsamuri, Georgia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 217-224.
Georgia//Tsitsamuri//AD

Lisitsina, Gorislava N.
1978 Main Types of Ancient Farming on the Caucasus - on the Basis of Palaeo-Ethnobotanical Research. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 47-57.
Caucasus

Lisitsina, Gorislava N.
1981 The History of Irrigation Agriculture in Southern Turkmenia. In The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia: Recent Soviet Discoveries, ed. P. Kohl, pp. 350-358. M.E. Sharpe, New York.
Turkmenistan

Lisitsina, G.N. and K.P. Popov
1988 On the Woody Vegetation in the Lowlands of South Turkmenistan during the Neolite, Eneolite, Bronze, and Early Iron Ages. Izv. Akad. Nauk. Turkm. SSR, Ser. Biol. [Proc. Acad. Sci. Turkm. SSR, Ser. Biol.] 1: 68-70 (in Russian).
Turkmenistan//5M//4M//3M//2M//1M

Lisitsina, Gorislava N. and Ludmila V Prishchepenko
1976 The Significance of Paleoethnobotanical Remains for the Reconstruction of Early Farming in the Arid Regions of the USSR. Folia Quaternaria 47: 83-88.
Caucasus//Turkmenistan

Madella, Marco
2003 Investigating Agriculture and Environment in South Asia: Present and Future Contributions from Opal Phytoliths. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 199-249. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Pakistan//Harappa//4M//3M//2M//phytolith

Meier-Melikyan, N.R.
1990 Analysis of Plant Remains from Togolok-21 [in Russian, "Opredelenie Rastitel'nix Ostatkov iz Togolok-21"]. Drevnosti Strani Margush, by V.I. Sarianidi, pp. 203-205 and figs. 55-58. Ilim, Ashkabad.
Turkmenistan//Togolok 21

Messager, Erwan , Estelle Herrscher, Lucie Martin, Eliso Kvavadze,Inga Martkoplishvili, Claire Delhon, Kakha Kakhiani, Giorgi Bedianashvili, Antonio Sagona, Liana Bitadze, Modwene Poulmarc'h, André Guy, and David Lordkipanidze
2015 Archaeobotanical and isotopic evidence of Early Bronze Age farming activities and diet in the mountainous environment of the South Caucasus: a pilot study of Chobareti site (Samtskhee Javakheti region). Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 214-226.
Georgia//Chobareti//3M

Miller, Naomi F.
1993 Preliminary Archaeobotanical Results from the 1989 Excavation at the Central Asian Site of Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan. Information Bulletin, International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia 19: 149-163. [ Download pdf]
Turkmenistan//Gonur//2M

Miller, Naomi F.
1999 Agricultural Development in Western Central Asia in the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: 13-19. [Download pdf]
Turkmenistan//Uzbekistan//Anau//Gonur//Djarkutan//5M//4M//3M//2M

Miller, Naomi F.
2003 The Use of Plants at Anau North. In A Central Asian Village at the Dawn of Civilization, Excavations at Anau, Turkmenistan, by F. Hiebert, 127-138, Appendix C (201-215). University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia. [Download pdf]
Turkmenistan//Anau//5M//4M

Miller, Naomi F.
2011 Preliminary Archaeobotanical Results. In "Excavations at Monjukli Depe, Meana-Čaača Region, Turkmenistan, 2010," by S. Pollock and R. Bernbeck, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 43: 169-237 [archaeobotany: 213-221]. [Download pdf]
Turkmenistan//Monjukli Depe//7M//6M//5M

Moore, Katherine M., Naomi F. Miller, Fredrik T. Hiebert, and Richard H. Meadow
1994 Agriculture and Herding in the Early Oasis Settlements of the Oxus Civilization. Antiquity 68: 418-427.
Turkmenistan//Gonur//2M

Moulherat, Christophe, Margareta Tengberg, Jérôme-F. Haquet, Benoît Mille
2002 First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakastan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 1393-1401.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//6M//Gossypium

Neef, R.
2010 Die Pflanzenreste. In Die skythenzeitliche Fürstenkurgan Aržan 2 in Tuva, by K.V. Čugonov, H. Parzinger and A. Nagler, pp. 242-248. Archäologie in Eurasien Band 26. D.A.I.
Russia//Scythian//Aržan//1M

Nesbitt, Mark
1993 Archaeobotanical Remains [part of a longer report, "The International Merv Project Preliminary Report on the First Season (1992)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 39-62]. Iran 31: 56-58.
Turkmenistan//Merv//Sasanian//AD

Nesbitt, Mark
1994 Archaeobotanical Research in the Merv Oasis. [part of a longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report on the Second Season (1993)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 53-75]. Iran 32: 71-73.
Turkmenistan//Merv//Tahirbaj Tepe//2M//1M//AD

Porteres, R.
1961 Sur quelques échantillons végétaux des fouilles de Mundigak. In Fouilles de Mundigak, vol. 1, by J.M. Casal. P. 260. C. Klincksieck, Paris.
Pakistan//Mundigak

Reddy, Seetha N.
1991 Archaeobotany at Oriyo Timbo 1989-90: A Post Urban site in Gujarat. Man and Environment 16(1): 73-83.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Harappan

Reddy, Seetha N.
1991 Complementary approaches to Late Harappan subsistence: An example from Oriyo Timbo. In The Archaeology of 3rd Millennium Urbanism at Harappa (Pakistan), ed. Richard Meadow, pp. 127-135. Prehistory Press, Madison.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Harappan

Reddy, Seetha
2003 Discerning palates of the past, an ethnoarchaeological study of crop cultivation and plant usage in India. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ethnoarchaeological series 5 Ann Arbor, Michigan.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Babar Kot//2M

Schultze-Motel, Jurgen
1989 Archäologische Kulturpflanzenreste aus der Georgischen SSR (Teil 2). Kulturpflanze 37: 415-426.
Georgia

Spengler, Robert N. III, Claudia Chang, and Perry A. Tourtellotte
2013 Agricultural production in the central Asian mountains: Tuzusai, Kazakhstan (410-150 B.C.). Journal of Field Archaeology 38:68-85. DOI: 10.1179/0093469012Z.00000000037
Kazakhstan//Tuzusai//1M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Barbara Cerasetti, Margareta Tengberg, Maurizio Cattani, and Lynne M. Rouse
2014 Agriculturalists and pastoralists: Bronze Age economy of the Murghab alluvial fan, southern Central Asia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany: online March, 2014.
Turkmenistan//Ojakly//Murghab 1211, Murghab 1219//2M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Michael D. Frachetti, and Paula N. Domani
2014 Late Bronze Age agriculture at Tasbas in the Dzhungar Mountains of eastern Kazakhstan. Quaternary International.
Kazakhstan//Tasbas//2M

Spengler, Robert N. and George Willcox
2013 Archaeobotanical results from Sarazm, Tajikistan, an Early Bronze Age settlement on the edge: agriculture and exchange. Environmental Archaeology 18: 211-222.
Tajikistan//Sarazm//3M

Tengberg, Margareta
1999 Crop husbandry at Miri Qalat, Makran, SW Pakistan (4000-2000 B.C.). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: 1-12.
Pakistan//Miri Qalat//4M//3M

Tengberg, Margareta and Stephanie Thiébault
2003 Vegetation history and wood exploitation in Pakistani Baluchistan from the Neolithic to the Harappan period: The evidence from charcoal analysis. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 21-63. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Pakistan/Mehrgarh//Lal Shah//Nausharo//Shahi Tump//Miri Qalat//5M//4M//3M//2M

Thiébault, Stephanie
1989 A note on the ancient vegetation of Baluchistan based on charcoal analysis of the latest periods from Mehrgarh, Pakistan. In South Asian Archaeology 1985, pp. 186-188. (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Occasional Papers 4). The Riverdale Company, Riverdale, MD.
Pakistan//Mehrgarh//4M//3M

Thomas, D., K. Deckers, M.M. Hald, M. Holmes, M. Madella, and K. White
2006 Environmental evidence from the Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project, Afghanistan. Iran 44.
Afghanistan //Jam//AD

Weber, Steven A.
1991 Plants and Harappan Subsistence. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.
India//Rojdi//Harappan//4M//3M//2M

Weber, Steven A.
2003 Archaeobotany at Harappa: Indications for change. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 175-198. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Pakistan//Harappa//4M//3M//2M

Weber, Steven A. and William R. Belcher (editors)
2003 Indus Ethnobiology, New Perspectives from the Field. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Pakistan//India//4M//3M//2M

Willcox, G.W.
1989 Étude Archéobotanique. In Fouilles de Shortughaï, Recherches sur l'Asie Centrale protohistorique, vol. 1, by H.-P. Francfort, pp. 175-185. Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique Française en Asie Centrale 2.
Afghanistan//Shortugaï//3M//Harappan

Willcox, G.W.
1991 Carbonised plant remains from Shortugaï. In New Light on Early Farming, ed. J. Renfrew, pp. 139-154. University Press, Edinburgh.
Afghanistan//Shortugaï//3M//Harappan

*NOTE: I have not personally seen every reference listed, and I include syntheses because some of the reports are linguistically or physically unavailable.


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