The art of the early twentieth century is marked by a number of exciting, and sometimes bewildering, transformations. This period witnessed the rise of abstraction in painting and sculpture, as well as the inventions of collage, montage, constructed sculpture, performance art, and new photography-based practices. Encounters with the arts of Africa, Oceania and other traditions unfamiliar in the West spurred innovations in media, technique, and subject matter. Artists also began to respond to the challenge photography, to organize themselves into movements, and in some cases, to challenge the norms of art through "anti-art." A new gallery system replaced traditional forms of exhibition organizers. This course will examine these developments, with attention to formal innovations as well as cultural and political contexts. The emphasis will be on major movements and artists in Europe.