This course surveys the major trends in European art of the tumultuous decades stretching from French Revolution of 1789 to the rise of realism in the mid-nineteenth century. Starting with Jacques-Louis Davis revolutionary history paintings, we study Napoleonic representations of empire, Goya's imagery of violence, romantic representations of madness and desire, Friedrich's nationalist landscapes, as well as the politicized realism of Courbet. Some of the themes that are addressed include: the revolutionary hero, the birth of the public museum, the anxious masculinity of romanticism, the rise of industry and bourgeois culture, the beginnings of photography, the quest for national identity and, not least, the orgins of the modernist painting. Throughout, we recover the original radicality of art's formal and conceptual innovations at times of political and social crisis. We focus on the history of French painting, but include sculpture, photography, visual culture and the development of the modern city, in England, Germany and Spain.