Wanga, Hongqing; Halla, Charles A.S.; Scatenab, Frederick N.; Fetcherc, Ned; Wua, Wei 2003. Modeling the spatial and temporal variability in climate and primary productivity across the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico.. Forest Ecology and Management 179 :69-94l.
There are few studies that have examined the spatial variability of forest productivity over an entire tropical forested landscape. In this study, we used a spatially-explicit forest productivity model, TOPOPROD, which is based on the FORESTBGC model, to simulate spatial patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), and respiration over the entire Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in the mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico.We modeled climate variables (e.g. solar insolation, temperature, rainfall and transpiration) using a topography-based climate model, TOPOCLIM. The simulated GPP ranged from 8 to 92 t C/ha per year with a mean of 51 t C/ha per year. The simulated NPP ranged from 0.5 to 24 t C/ha per year with a mean of 9.4 t C/ha per year. The simulated plant respiration ranged from 31 to 68 with a mean of 42 t C/ha per year. Simulated GPP and respiration declined with increased elevation whereas simulated NPP increased from low to middle elevation but decreased from middle to high elevations. Statistical analyses indicate that variation in solar insolation, which decreases with increase in elevation, is the most important factor controlling the spatial variation of forest productivity in the LEF. Validation with the limited spatial empirical data indicated that our simulations overestimated GPP by 2% for a middle elevation test site, and by 43% for a mountain peak site. Our simulations also overestimated NPP in the middle elevation Colorado forest and higher elevation Dwarf forest by 32 and 36%, respectively, but underestimated NPP in the Tabonuco and Palm forests at low to middle elevations by 915% and 18%, respectively. Simulated GPP and NPP would decrease under CO2 doubling as projected temperatures increase and precipitation decreases. Different forest types respond differently to potential climate change and CO2 doubling. Comparison with other tropical forests suggests that the LEF as a whole has higher GPP (51 tC/ha per year versus 40 t C/ha per year) but lower NPP (9.4 t C/ha per year versus 11 t C/ha per year) than other tropical rain forests.