Hein C.L.

Predator–prey interactions in river networks: comparing shrimp spatial refugia in two drainage basins

COVICH, A. P., T. A. CROWL, C. L. HEIN, M. J. TOWNSEND, AND
W. H. MCDOWELL. 2009. Predator-prey interactions in
river networks: comparing shrimp spatial refugia in two
drainage basins. Freshwater Biology 54:450–465.

Abstract: 
1. Analysis of drainage networks provides a framework to evaluate the densities and distributions of prey species relative to locations of their predators. Upstream migration by diadromous shrimp (Atya lanipes and Xiphocaris elongata) during their life cycle provides access to headwater refugia from fish predation, which is intense in estuaries and coastal rivers. 2. We postulate that geomorphic barriers (such as large, steep waterfalls >3.5 m in height), can directly limit the distribution of predatory fishes and, indirectly, affect the densities of their prey (freshwater shrimps) in headwater streams. 3. We compared densities of shrimp in pools above and below waterfalls, in four headwater tributaries in two river basins of the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico. We measured shrimp densities twice a year over 8 years (1998–2005) in Prieta, Toronja, Bisley 3 and Bisley 5 streams, which differ in drainage network positions relative to steep waterfalls in Rı´o Espı´ritu Santo and Rı´o Mameyes. 4. Predatory fishes are absent in the Prieta and Toronja pools and present in Bisely 3 and in lower Bisley 5 pools. Atya lanipes and X. elongata rarely occur in the Bisley streams where predatory fishes are present but these shrimps are abundant in Prieta and Toronja, streams lacking predatory fishes. 5. The mean carapace length of X. elongata is longer in pools where fish are present (Bisley 3 and lower Bisley 5) than in pools lacking fish (Prieta, Toronja, Upper Bisley 5). The increased body size is primarily due to significantly longer rostrums of individuals in stream reaches with fish (below waterfall barriers) than in those reaches lacking fish (above waterfall barriers). Rostrum length may be an adaptation to avoid predation by visually feeding fishes. 6. Atya lanipes and X. elongata distributions and densities were predicted primarily by drainage network position relative to the presence or absence of predatory fishes. High, steep waterfalls effectively impeded fish from moving upstream and created a spatial refuge. Xiphocaris elongata may rely on size refugia (longer rostrum) to minimize predation where spatial refugia are lacking.

Effects of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on the community structure of diadromous fish and shrimp species in tropical island streams

CATHERINE L. HEIN*, ANDREW S. PIKE†1 , JUAN F. BLANCO‡, ALAN P. COVICH§ , FREDERICK N. SCATENA†, CHARLES P. HAWKINS* AND TODD A. CROWL. Effects of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on the community structure of diadromous fish and shrimp species in tropical island streams. Freshwater Biology. Vol 56, Is 5 pp 1002-1015.

Abstract: 
1. Overlapping river and road networks provide a framework for studying the complex interactions between natural and human systems, with river-road intersections as focal areas of study. Roads can alter the morphology of stream channels, pose barriers to freshwater fauna, provide easy access to streams for humans and non-native species and accelerate the expansion of urban development. 2. We determined what variables control the structure of diadromous fish and shrimp communities and assessed whether particular road crossings altered community structure in north-eastern Puerto Rico. We identified 24 sites that represented a range of river and road sizes across two catchments that drain El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico. 3. The location of natural barriers and the size of stream pools were the most important variables for predicting six of fifteen fish and shrimp distributions. Predatory fishes were predicted to be limited to areas in the river network below large, steep waterfalls, whereas adult shrimp Atya lanipes (Atyidae) were predicted to be present above these waterfalls. The fish Awaous banana was predicted to be present in pools >11.6 m wide, whereas the shrimp Xiphocaris elongata was predicted to be present in pools <10.4 m wide. The distributions of nine species were predicted poorly, but three of these species were common and three were rare. 4. Although urban and agricultural land covers were among the top three predictors of five species distributions, they were probably good predictors because they were correlated with the natural gradient. Further study is necessary to disentangle natural and anthropogenic gradients. 5. Road crossings, 10 of which were culverts, were not dispersal barriers for fishes or shrimps. On average, species were present both upstream and downstream from road crossings at 68% of sites where they occurred. Absences upstream or downstream from road crossings occurred at 16% of sites each and likely resulted from a failure to detect species.
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