Odum H.T.

DIRECT AND OPTICAL ASSAY OF LEAF MASS OF THE LOWER MONTANE RAIN FOREST OF PUERTO RICO

Direct and Optical Assay of Leaf Mass of the Lower Montane Rain Forest of Puerto Rico
Howard T. Odum, B. J. Copeland and Robert Z. Brown
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 49, No. 4 (Apr. 15, 1963), pp. 429-434

Emergy Evaluation of Reforestation Alternative in Puerto Rico

Odum, H.T., Doherty, S.J., Scatena, F.N., Kharecha, P.A., 2000. Emergy
evaluation of reforestation alternatives in Puerto Rico. Forest Science
46 (4), 521–530.

Abstract: 
Six alternative ways of reforesting degraded lands in Puerto Rico were evaluated using emergy (spelled with an “m”). Emergy and its economic equivalent, emdollars, put the contributions of environmental work and human services on a comparable basis. This article shows the emergy method for evaluating forest contributions to public benefit and its use to select alternatives for reforestation. Emdollar values were compared for six scenarios for reforestation of degraded land in Puerto Rico: (1) the natural succession within or adjacent to mature forest; (2) reforestation from the spread of the exotic tree siris (Albizia lebbek); (3) reforestation with plantations of siris and mahogany for harvest; (4) reforestation by leaving plantations unharvested; (5) direct planting of seedlings of many species; and (6) starting patches of forest by massive transfer of topsoil, seed bank, and roots. After energy systems diagrams were made for each reforestation alternative, data were assembled and evaluation tables prepared that estimated the emergy required for: (1) canopy closure and (2) developing species complexity if left unharvested. To explain the method, detailed calculations were included for one of the alternatives, exotic Albizia lebbek plantation on 11 yr harvest cycle. All alternatives generated net public benefit (emdollar yield ratios 4.2 to 24.3). The emdollar value of a closed canopy developed in 10 to 20 yr ranged from 20,000 to 48,000 em$ /ha, whereas the economic costs were $1200 to $9700. For complex forest development in 25 to 60 yr, values ranged from 63,000 to 118,000 em$ /ha, much higher than economic costs of $4000 to $12,000/ha. Highest public benefit per dollar cost came from succession (24.7 em$/$) and exotic colonization (19.1 em$/$). Highest potential monetary returns were from exotic spread (15.1 $/$) and plantations (17.9 and 14.5 $/$). Stand quality after 60 yr, as measured by the transformity (emergy/energy), was largest in mahogany plantation (6.4 × 10 4 sej/J) and succession forest (3.9 × 104 sej/J).

An EMERGY Evaluation of Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest

Scatena, F.N.; Doherty, S.J.; Odum, H.T.; Kharecha, P. 2002. An EMERGY
evaluation of Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep.
IITF-GTR-9. Río Piedras, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
International Institute of Tropical Forestry. 79 p.

Abstract: 
The many functions of Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (the Forest) were evaluated in units of solar EMERGY, an energy-based measure of resource contribution and influence, defined as the energy of one type required to produce a flow or storage of another type. Rainfall and tectonic uplift are the largest environmental inputs into the Forest. The interaction of these inputs results in an erosional landscape where the EMERGY of biological processes is less than the EMERGY associated with the physical and chemical sculpturing of the landscape. The environmental work that built the natural capital of these forests is 9 to 50 times their current dollar market values. Of the investments evaluated in this study, the effects associated with water extraction are the largest. Tectonic inputs and the hydrologic cycle also provide most of the environmental EMERGY flows in the island of Puerto Rico. The ratio of societal inputs to environmental inputs, however, is 45 for Puerto Rico and 3.5 for the Forest. Per capita EMERGY- use is typical of moderately developed economies, but the island has one of the most investment-intensive, least self-sufficient economies known and an EMERGY signature that resembles a city-state.

Eutrophic overgrowth in the self-organization of tropical wetlands illustrated with a study of swine wastes in rainforest plots

Kent,Roberta; Odum, H.T.; Scatena, F.N. 2000. Eutrophic overgrowth in the self-organization of tropical wetlands illustrated with a study of swine wastes in rainforest plots. Ecological Engineering 16 255-269.

Abstract: 
The relationship of plant species diversity to cultural eutrophy in tropical wetlands was studied in Puerto Rico with experimental plots, a survey of 25 eutrophic sites developing from the wastes of society, and a simulation mini-model. The model is a quantitative hypothesis which contains the mechanisms to maximize empower (gross production) by reinforcing low diversity, net production overgrowth when resources are in excess, but switches to high diversity efficiency and recycle to maximize gross production when excess resources are absent. To study self-organization with eutrophy, six wetland plots (32 m) were seeded with many plant species and treated for five months with pig wastewaters and control plots with groundwater. Vegetation was seeded: (1) with seed bank; (2) with ten species of local rainforest and wetland trees (60 individuals in each plot); and (3) with weedy species invading from fertile surroundings. The fertilized waste plots filled in with vegetation in less than half the time (9 weeks) required for the clear water control plots (21 weeks). Vegetative diversity in both waste and control plots was maximum (2.73–3.34 bits per individual) shortly before 100% cover was reached, and then declined with the competitive overgrowth of a few species (mixed grasses and Commelina diffusa). Of the planted seedlings, there was little growth, and individuals of only four species survived. Survival of Andira inermis and Cyrilla racemiflora was 42 and 53%, respectively. Dominants of oligotrophic wetlands (Pterocarpus officinalis and Prestoea montana) were displaced. A survey of 25 other wetland sites, receiving high nutrient waters from developments, found low diversity overgrowth, but different species prevailing. Eighty-five species were involved in wetland self-organizational processes and ecological engineering management. Eutrophic wetlands, such as those released from sugar cane closure in Puerto Rico and elsewhere, may be in a state of marshy, arrested succession because there may not be a forest species already adapted for rapid reforestation of the excess nutrient habitat. The study provides evidence of the overgrowth principle as the natural means for ecological engineering of eutrophic interfaces between the current civilization and environment.
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