Schellekens J.

High-Mg andesites and related lavas from southwest Puerto Rico (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Petrogenetic links with emplacement of the Late Cretaceous Caribbean mantle plume

Jolly, Wayne T., Johannes H. Schellekens, and Alan P. Dickin. 2007. High-mg andesites and related lavas from southwest puerto rico (greater antilles island arc): Petrogenetic links with emplacement of the late cretaceous caribbean mantle plume. Lithos 98 (1-4) (OCT): 1-26.

Two-pyroxene-bearing high-Mg andesite, hornblende basalt and andesite, and high-Fe augite basalt were erupted simultaneously in southwest Puerto Rico between 85 and 65 Ma. An analogy with geologic settings in Cenozoic arcs indicates that hornblende-bearing lavas and high-Mg andesites, restricted to the southwestern-most corner of Puerto Rico, represent the forearc assemblage, whereas high-Fe basalts, concentrated in an adjacent volcanic belt toward the northeast, represent the arc-axis suite. This arrangement implies northeast-dipping subduction of refractory Jurassic chert from the Caribbean Basin, and is, therefore, consistent with relatively low Sr-isotope ratios in all three lava suites compared with correlative strata in Eastern Puerto Rico. Moreover, Pb- and Nd-isotope ratios and trace element melting models for both high-Mg andesites and hornblende-bearing lavas are consistent with the presence of a slab melt component generated by high-pressure fusion of incompatible elementenriched plateau basalts. The most likely source for such a basaltic component is the Caribbean basalt plateau, which is represented in southwest Puerto Rico by the Upper Cajul Formation. The models indicate that up to 5% slab melt was added to the source of hornblende-bearing lavas, but higher proportions, as much as 10%, are required to generate high-Mg andesites. The elevated buoyancy of the more enriched and siliceous high-Mg andesite source apparently destabilized the mantle wedge and induced combined mantle-mass assimilation and fractional crystallization of orthopyroxene (AFC≈1), which ultimately produced elevated MgO and low Al2O3 concentrations characteristic of the high-Mg andesites. The tectonic setting in southwest Puerto Rico was unlike Cenozoic analogues, because the pre-arc basement was already old (Early Jurassic, 185–155 Ma) at the time of initial island arc volcanism (∼85 Ma). However, geothermal gradients in the region were increased again immediately preceding arc volcanism by emplacement of the Caribbean mantle plume (92–88 Ma), during which the original N-MORB-type upper mantle in the region was replaced by incompatible element-enriched material. The elevated heat flow produced by plume emplacement, supplemented by ascent of plume basalts from depth and associated gabbroic underplating, is inferred to have promoted slab melting. The presence of a low Zr/Sm component in both plateau basalts and arc lavas in southwest Puerto Rico is consistent with the incorporation of a small biogenic supra-subduction zone component of Atlantic origin, introduced into the back-arc region of an older (from 115 Ma) southwest-dipping subduction zone in eastern Puerto Rico.

Evaporation from a tropical rain forest, Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico

Schellekens, J., L. A. Bruijnzeel, F. N. Scatena, N. J. Bink, and F. Holwerda (2000), Evaporation from a tropical rain forest, Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico, Water Resour. Res., 36(8), 2183–2196, doi:10.1029/2000WR900074.

Evaporation losses from a watertight 6.34 ha rain forest catchment under wet maritime tropical conditions in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were determined using complementary hydrological and micrometeorological techniques during 1996 and 1997. At 6.6 mm d−1 for 1996 and 6.0 mm d−1 for 1997, the average evapotranspiration (ET) of the forest is exceptionally high. Rainfall interception (Ei), as evaluated from weekly throughfall measurements and an average stemflow fraction of 2.3%, accounted for much (62–74%) of the ET at 4.9 mm d−1 in 1996 and 3.7 mm d−1 in 1997. Average transpiration rates (Et) according to a combination of the temperature fluctuation method and the Penman-Monteith equation were modest at 2.2 mm d−1 and 2.4 mm d−1 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Both estimates compared reasonably well with the water-budget-based estimates (ET − Ei) of 1.7 mm d−1 and 2.2 mm d−1. Inferred rates of wet canopy evaporation were roughly 4 to 5 times those predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation, with nighttime rates very similar to daytime rates, suggesting radiant energy is not the dominant controlling factor. A combination of advected energy from the nearby Atlantic Ocean, low aerodynamic resistance, plus frequent low-intensity rain is thought to be the most likely explanation of the observed discrepancy between measured and estimated Ei.

Natural disturbances and the hydrology of humid tropical forests

Scatena FN, Planos-Gutiérrez EO, Schellekens J. 2004. Natural disturbances
and the hydrology of humid tropical forests. In Forests,
Water, and People in the Humid Tropics, Bonell M, Bruijnzeel LA
(eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 5–28.

Humid tropical forests are highly dynamic ecosystems that are affected by a wide array of environmental processes and disturbances (Figure 19.1). Quantifying the magnitude, frequency, and impacts of natural disturbances is essential for designing hydraulic structures, developing water management strategies, and distinguishing between natural variation and man-made influences. A disturbance can be defined as any discrete event that transfers mass and energy from one part of a system to another in a manner that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resource availability or the physical environment (see White and Pickett 1985 for a detailed discussion). Natural disturbances can be driven by both external factors – hurricanes, meteor impacts, etc. – and the biological properties of the system such as senescence, pathogens, etc. The natural disturbances specified by the United Nations in the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction were earthquakes, windstorms, tsunamis, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, grasshopper and locust infestations, drought, and desertification (Board on Natural Disasters, 1999). Additional natural disturbances known to affect the hydrology of humid tropical forests are tree falls, pathogens, exotic invasions and meteor impacts. Quantifying the effects of disturbances on landform morphology and ecosystem development have been major themes in geomorphology and ecology (Wolman and Miller, 1960, Connell, 1978). This approach has led to the paradigm that landscapes are structured by the processes acting upon them (O’Neill et al., 1986, Urban et al., 1987, Scatena, 1995). It is now generally recognised that the ability of a disturbance to affect the morphology of a landscape or the structure of an ecosystem depends on: (1) the type of disturbance (e.g., flood, fire, landslide, biologic, anthropogenic etc.); (2) the force exerted (e.g. wind velocity and duration, rainfall magnitude and intensity, earthquake magnitude etc.); (3) the ecosystem component that is impacted directly (e.g. soil, biomass, leaf area etc.); (4) the area affected and the spatial distribution of impacts; (5) the return period or frequency of the event; (6) the condition of the system at the time of the disturbance (e.g. structure, regeneration phase, time since last disturbance); and (7) the magnitude of the constructive or restorative processes that occur between disturbances.

Stormflow generation in a small rain-forest catchment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

Schellekens,J.; Scatena, F. N.; Bruijnzee, L.A.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Groen, M. M. A.; van Hogezand, R. J. P. 2004. Stormflow generation in a small rainforest catchment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.. Hydrol. Process. 18, 505-530.

Various complementary techniques were used to investigate the stormflow generating processes in a small headwater catchment in northeastern Puerto Rico. Over 100 samples were taken of soil matrix water, macropore flow, streamflow and precipitation, mainly during two storms of contrasting magnitude, for the analysis of calcium, magnesium, silicon, potassium, sodium and chloride. These were combined with hydrometric information on streamflow, return flow, precipitation, throughfall and soil moisture to distinguish water following different flow paths. Geo-electric sounding was used to survey the subsurface structure of the catchment, revealing a weathering front that coincided with the elevation of the stream channel instead of running parallel to surface topography. The hydrometric data were used in combination with soil physical data, a one-dimensional soil water model (VAMPS) and a three-component chemical mass-balance mixing model to describe the stormflow response of the catchment. It is inferred that most stormflow travelled through macropores in the top 20 cm of the soil profile. During a large event, saturation overland flow also accounted for a considerable portion of the stormflow, although it was not possible to quantify the associated volume fully. Although the mass-balance mixing model approach gave valuable information about the various flow paths within the catchment, it was not possible to distill the full picture from the model alone; additional hydrometric and soil physical evidence was needed to aid in the interpretation of the model results

Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico

Schellekensa, J.; Scatenab,F.N.; Bruijnzeela,L.A.; Wickela,A.J. 1999. Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico. Journal of Hydrology 225 :168-184.

Recent surveys of tropical forest water use suggest that rainfall interception by the canopy is largest in wet maritime locations. To investigate the underlying processes at one such location—the Luquillo Experimental Forest in eastern Puerto Rico—66 days of detailed throughfall and above-canopy climatic data were collected in 1996 and analysed using the Rutter and Gash models of rainfall interception. Throughfall occurred on 80% of the days distributed over 80 rainfall events. Measured interception loss was 50% of gross precipitation. When Penman–Monteith based estimates for the wet canopy evaporation rate (0.11 mm h21 on average) and a canopy storage of 1.15 mm were used, both models severely underestimated measured interception loss. A detailed analysis of four storms using the Rutter model showed that optimizing the model for the wet canopy evaporation component yielded much better results than increasing the canopy storage capacity. However, the Rutter model failed to properly estimate throughfall amounts during an exceptionally large event. The analytical model, on the other hand, was capable of representing interception during the extreme event, but once again optimizing wet canopy evaporation rates produced a much better fit than optimizing the canopy storage capacity. As such, the present results support the idea that it is primarily a high rate of evaporation from a wet canopy that is responsible for the observed high interception losses.

Hydrological Processes in a humid Tropical Rain Forest: A Combined Experimental and Modelling Approach

Schellekens, J. 2000. Hydrological processes in a humid tropical rain
forest: a combined experimental and modeling approach. Ph.D.
Thesis, Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam University
Press, 158 p.

With populations growing explosively in the tropical parts of the world, and the per capita water demands increasing where living standards improve, optimisation of water resources is becoming increasingly important [Bonell et al., 1993]. Similarly, the strong demands for industrial wood (pulpwood, saw and veneer logs), fuelwood and charcoal, require the establishment of large areas of fast-growing plantation forests, often on land that is currently not forested [Evans, 1992; Brown et al., 1997]. Coupled with (i) the continued indiscriminate clearing of the world’s tropical forests [Jepma, 1995; Nepstad et al., 1999] which in many areas serve as the traditional supplier of high quality water; (ii) the associated deterioration of soil and water quality due to erosion and pollution [Oldeman, 1994], plus (iii) the possibility of gradually less dependable precipitation inputs and (in certain ‘maritime’ tropical areas away from the equator) an increasing frequency of devastating hurricanes due to ‘global change’ [Wasser and Harger, 1992], a sound understanding of the hydrological functioning of tropical forests is arguably even more important nowadays than ever before [cf. Bruijnzeel, 1990, 2000a]. Bruijnzeel and Abdul Rahim [1992] suggested that in a time of dwindling resources, additional forest hydrological research in the humid tropics could best be carried out at a limited number of carefully selected data-rich key locations that could be loosely joined together in a network that captures the environmental variability encountered in the humid tropics. Furthermore, Bruijnzeel [1993] and Bonell and Balek [1993] considered a catchment-based approach to offer the best framework for such research as this allows for the integration of hydrological, geomorphological, pedological and ecological observations in a spatial context, particularly if supplemented by process studies and physicallybased distributed modelling.
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