carbon monoxide

ozone peaks associated with a subtropical fold and with a subtropical tropopause fold and with the trade wind inversion: a case study from the airborne campaign TROPOZ II over the caribbean in winter

Gouget, H., J.-P. Cammas, A. Marenco, R. Rosset, and I. Jonquieres,
Ozone peaks associated with a subtropical tropopause
fold and with the trade wind inversion: a case study from the
airbone campaign TROPOZ II over the Caribbean in winter,
J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 25,979{25,993, 1996.

Abstract: 
Aircraft measurements of ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, relative humidity, and equivalent potential temperature were performed during the TROPOZII campaign. During the aircraft descent down to Pointe-á-Pitre (16.3°N, 61.5°W), at 2100 UTC on January 12, 1991, two ozone peaks (75 ppb) are observed, one at an altitude of 7.5 km and the other at 3.0 km. A physicochemical interpretation for each ozone peak is proposed in connection with the meteorological context, using radiosounding data, total ozone content from TOMS/NIMBUS 7 and diagnoses issued from analyses by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England. The stratospheric origin of the 7.5-km ozone peak is inferred from negative correlations between ozone and its precursors and from diagnoses based on potential vorticity and ageostrophic circulations depicting the structure of the tropopause fold embedded in the subtropical jet front system. Using an appropriate method to isolate cross- and along-front ageostrophic circulations, we show that much of the observed structure of the tropopause fold can be ascribed to transverse and vertical circulations associated with the irrotational part of the flow. Though the downward extent of the subtropical tropopause fold (400 hPa) is restricted in comparison with typical extratropical tropopause ones (700 hPa), the present results suggest that subtropical tropopause folds may significantly contribute to the global stratosphere-troposphere ozone exchange. The origin of the 3.0-km ozone peak trapped just below the trade wind inversion cannot be ascribed precisely. Analogies with other measurements of dust and aerosols transported over the Atlantic or Pacific in the summer season are discussed. Various possibilities are examined: (1) an earlier stratospheric intrusion event, (2) long-range transport by the trade winds of biomass burning species emitted over West Africa, and (3) fast photochemical ozone formation occurring just below the trade wind inversion within already polluted air parcels originating from remote regions (United States and Gulf of Mexico) after eastward and southward transport around the western Atlantic anticyclone.
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