Cyrilla racemiflora

Growth Rings, Phenology, Hurricane Disturbance and Climate in Cyrilla racemiflora L., a Rain Forest Tree of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

Growth Rings, Phenology, Hurricane Disturbance and Climate in Cyrilla racemiflora L., a Rain Forest Tree of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico
Allan P. Drew
Biotropica
Vol. 30, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 35-49

Abstract: 
The growth phenology of Cyrilla racemiflora L., the dominant tree species of the montane rain forest, (subtropical lower montane rain forest, sensu Holdridge) of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico was studied intensively during 1989, and then semiannually through mid-1993 to determine the periodicity of changes in xylem structure. Four trees at 770 m were monitored for flowering, branch elongation, leaf litterfall, and xylem cell growth and differentiation in the lower stem, and these events were related to local seasonal patterns of rainfall and temperature. Hurricane Hugo defoliated study trees in September, 1989. Bud-break and branch elongation in March, 1989 were followed by earlywood xylem cell production in the lower stem in April and the onset of flowering in May. Leaf litterfall was greatest between April and June, coinciding with peak branch growth and new leaf formation. Latewood xylem was produced in December. The general phenological pattern was synchronized between trees and over study years. Vessel diameter and density were monitored along with thickness of earlywood and latewood and the former converted to vessel lumen area, a measure of xylem conductance capacity. Annual growth rings were formed with periods of earlywood and latewood production coinciding with traditional summer (rainy) and winter (dry) seasons, respectively, in the Luquillo Mountains. Hurricane defoliation was followed by heavy flowering in 1990, a year of reduced branch elongation and annual xylem ring width, and was associated with maximum vessel lumen area, as was flowering in 1989, prior to the hurricane. Hurricane Hugo provided a perturbation that, through its elicited stress response, allowed for the demonstration of the interplay between flowering, branching, structural growth of xylem, and xylem function.

Short-Term Disappearance of Foliar Litter in Three Species Before and After a Hurricane'

Short-Term Disappearance of Foliar Litter in Three Species before and after a Hurricane
Neal H. Sullivan, William B. Bowden and William H. McDowell
Biotropica
Vol. 31, No. 3 (Sep., 1999), pp. 382-393

Abstract: 
Litter disappearance was examined before (1989) and after (1990) Hurricane Hugo in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico using mesh litterbags containing abscised Cyrilla racemiflora or Dacryodes excelsa leaves or fresh Prestoea montana leaves. Biomass and nitrogen dynamics were compared among: (i) species; (ii) mid- and high elevation forest types; (iii) riparian and upland sites; and (iv) pre- and post-hurricane disturbed environments. Biomass disappearance was compared using multiple regression and negative exponential models in which the slopes were estimates of the decomposition rates subsequent to apparent leaching losses and the y-intercepts were indices of initial mass losses (leaching). Cyrilla racemiflora leaves with low nitrogen (0.39%) and high lignin (22.1%) content decayed at a low rate and immobilized available nitrogen. Dacryodes excelsa leaves had moderate nitrogen (0.67%) and lignin (16.6%) content, decayed at moderate rates, and maintained the initial nitrogen mass. Prestoea montana foliage had high nitrogen (1.76%) and moderate lignin (16.7%) content and rapidly lost both mass and nitrogen. There were no significant differences in litter disappearance and nitrogen dynamics among forest types and slope positions. Initial mass loss of C. racemiflora leaves was lower in 1990 but the subsequent decomposition rate did not change. Initial mass losses and the overall decomposition rates were lower in 1990 than in 1989 for Dacryodes excelsa. Dacryodes excelsa and C. racemiflora litter immobilized nitrogen in 1990 but released 10-15 percent of their initial nitrogen in 1989, whereas P. montana released nitrogen in both years (25-40%). Observed differences in litter disappearance rates between years may have been due to differences in the timing of precipitation. Foliar litter inputs during post-hurricane recovery of vegetation in Puerto Rico may serve to immobilize and conserve site nitrogen.
Syndicate content