Climate is affected more by maritime than by continental land use change: A multiple scale analysis

Van der Molen, M. K., Dolman, A. J.,Waterloo, M. J. and Bruijnzeel, L.
A. 2006. Climate is affected more by maritime than by continental land
use change: A multiple scale analysis. Global and Planetary Change,
54, 128–149.

Tropical deforestation appears to have larger impacts on local, regional and global climate when it occurs under maritime conditions rather then under continental conditions. At the local scale, we compare results from a field experiment in Puerto Rico with other long-term studies of the changes in surface fluxes after deforestation. Changes in surface fluxes are larger in maritime situations because a number of feedback mechanisms appears less relevant (e.g. the dependency of soil moisture on recycling of water and the larger reduction of net radiation in the wet season due to clouds in continental regions). Pastures may evaporate at similarly high rates as forests when soil moisture is sufficient, which has a strong reducing effect on the sensible heat flux after deforestation. At the regional scale (∼102 km2), model simulations show that the meso-scale sea breeze circulation under maritime conditions is more effective in transporting heat and moisture to the upper troposphere than convection is in the continental case. Thus islands function as triggers of convection, whereas the intensity of the sea breeze-trigger is sensitive to land use change. At the global scale, using satellite-derived latent heating rates of the upper troposphere, it is shown that 40% of the latent heating associated with deep convection takes place in the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and surroundings) and may be produced mostly by small islands. Continents contribute only 20% of the latent heating of the upper troposphere. Thus, sea breeze circulations exert significant influence on the Hadley cell circulation. These results imply that, from a climate perspective, further deforestation studies would do well to focus more on maritime conditions.

Luquillo Mountains Puerto Rico A water energy and biogeochemical budgets program site

Larsen MC, Stallard RF. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico–a water,
energy, and biogeochemical budgets program site. US geological
survey fact sheet. Washington, D.C.7 U.S. Geological
Survey; 2000. p. 163– 99.

The Puerto Rico research site consists of the 113 square-kilometer Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), administered by the U.S. Forest Service, and the nearby Río Grande de Loíza drainage basin, an urbanized and agriculturally- developed watershed. This combined region serves as a terrestrial laboratory for the study of issues related to the global loss of tropical forest, and the associated changes in land-use practices. Findings from the WEBB research help scientists understand how vegetation, landscape, and people interact to affect the quantity and quality of water and the erosion of the landscape. The results of this work can be applied not only to Puerto Rico, but also to many other regions, where deforestation and rapid land-use change are issues.
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