freshwater shrimp

Do small-scale exclosure/enclosure experiments predict the eVects of large-scale extirpation of freshwater migratory fauna?

Do Small-Scale Exclosure/Enclosure Experiments Predict the Effects of Large-Scale Extirpation of Freshwater Migratory Fauna?
Effie A. Greathouse, Catherine M. Pringle and William H. McDowell
Oecologia
Vol. 149, No. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 709-717

Abstract: 
A variety of theoretical and empirical studies indicate that the abilities of small-scale experiments to predict responses to large-scale perturbations vary. Small-scale experiments often do not predict the directions of large-scale responses, and relatively few empirical studies have examined whether small-scale experiments predict the magnitudes of large-scale responses. Here we present an empirical example of small-scale manipulations predicting not only the directions but also the magnitudes of the eVects of whole-catchment, decades-long decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp populations. In streams of Puerto Rico (USA), we used arena sizes of < 2 m2 in 1- to 4-week exclosure/enclosure experiments. EVects of small-scale experiments largely matched those of largescale shrimp loss above dams for a variety of response variables (abiotic and biotic factors including epilithic Wne sediments, algae and organic matter, and invertebrate grazers, detritivores, and predators). The results of our extrapolation contrast with studies of small- versus large-scale perturbations in the temperate zone. Our Wndings are likely explained by: a set of response variables that are more dominated by within-patch processes than exchange processes, an experimental manipulation that encompassed the characteristic scales of response variables, our use of open arenas lacking cage artifacts, and/or our combination of two distinct experimental approaches (exclosures and enclosures). Based on our study design, we suggest that extrapolation across experimental scales can be greatly enhanced by embedding open arenas within large-scale conditions that represent all treatment levels.

On the relative importance of pool morphology and woody debris to distributions of shrimp in a Puerto Rican headwater stream

Pyron, M., Covich, A.P. and Black, R.W. 1999. On the relative importance of pool morphology and
woody debris to distributions of shrimp in a Puerto Rican headwater stream. Hydrobiologia, 402:
207–215.

Abstract: 
In this paper, we report the sizes and distributional orientation of woody debris in a headwater rainforest stream in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. We also provide results of a 4-month study of a wood addition experiment designed to increase cover for benthic macroinvertebrates (freshwater shrimp). We added branch-sized woody debris to 20 pools in three streams.We trapped four species of freshwater shrimp (two species of benthic detritivores and two predatory shrimp species) during each of the 4 months following wood additions. An analysis of pool morphology (maximum depth, surface area and volume) provided a useful predictor of shrimp abundances. In general, numbers of shrimps increased with sizes of stream pools. A repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of woody debris additions on total numbers of shrimp per pool area. Two detritivore species (Atya lanipes, a filter feeder and Xiphocaris elongata, a shredder) decreased in abundance with increased woody debris and there was no statistical relationship between woody debris additions and predators (Macrobrachium carcinus and M. crenulatum). Small woody debris additions may have altered flow velocities that were important to filter-feeding Atya at the microhabitat scale, although the overall velocities within pools were not altered by wood additions. Lower numbers of Atya and Xiphocaris in two of the three streams may result from the occurrence of two predaceous fishes (American eel and mountainmullet) and more predatoryMacrobrachium in these streams. One likely interpretation of the results of this study is that the stream pools in these study reaches had sufficient habitat structure provided by numerous rock crevices (among large rocks and boulders) to provide refuge from predators. Addition of woody debris did not add significantly to the existing structure. These results may not apply to stream channels with sand and gravel substrata where crevices and undercut banks are lacking and where woody debris often plays a major role by providing structure and refuge.

Effects of different types of conditioning on rates of leaf-litter shredding by Xiphocaris elongata, a Neotropical freshwater shrimp

Crowl, Todd A.; Welsh, Vanessa; Heartsill-Scalley, Tamara 2006. Effects of different types of conditioning on rates of leaf-litter shredding by Xiphocaris elongata, a Neotropical freshwater shrimp.. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 25(1):198-208.

Abstract: 
Temperate headwater streams with closed canopies rely on inputs of terrestrially derived organic matter to provide the major energy basis for their food webs. Microbial colonization, or conditioning, makes leaf litter more nutritional and palatable to stream detritivores, but few studies have investigated the relative importance of litter source to macroshredders in tropical streams. We determined the source (terrestrial, aquatic, or aerial), quantity, and species composition of allochthonous inputs into the Quebrada Prieta, a tropical headwater stream in Puerto Rico, as a first step toward understanding the importance of conditioning history to rates of tropical leaf-litter processing by decapod consumers. Fresh leaves of 4 common species of leaves were treated by exposing them to different conditions for 2 wk. These exposure treatments (conditioning histories) represented routes by which leaves might enter streams and included submersion (aquatic input), incubation on the streambank soil (terrestrial input), and suspension above the ground (aerial input). Conditioned leaves were placed in small experimental microcosms with or without shrimp (Xiphocaris elongata) for 20 d. Shrimp significantly increased the rate of decomposition of all leaf species independent of conditioning history. Conditioning history had little effect on breakdown rates independent of the presence of shrimp. One species (Rourea surinamensis) had faster mass loss when the leaves were conditioned as aquatic inputs rather than as terrestrial or aerial inputs. Our results indicate that conditioning history has little effect on the ability of some macroconsumers to alter detrital foodweb dynamics in tropical streams. Tropical stream ecosystems may function differently from temperate ecosystems because of the dominance of large detritivores such as shrimps.

INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO

GREATHOUSE, EFFIE A.; PRINGLE, CATHERINE M.; MCDOWELL, WILLIAM H.; HOLMQUIST, JEFF G. 2006. INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO. Ecological Applications, 16(1), :339-352.

Abstract: 
Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In high-gradient streams above large dams, native shrimps and fishes were extremely rare, whereas similar sites without large dams had high abundances of native consumers. Losses of native fauna above dams dramatically altered their basal food resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. Compared to pools in high-gradient streams with no large dams, pool epilithon above dams had nine times more algal biomass, 20 times more fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), 65 times more fine benthic inorganic matter (FBIM), 28 times more carbon, 19 times more nitrogen, and four times more non-decapod invertebrate biomass. High-gradient riffles upstream from large dams had five times more FBIM than did undammed riffles but showed no difference in algal abundance, FBOM, or non-decapod invertebrate biomass. For epilithon of lowgradient streams, differences in basal resources between pools above large dams vs. without large dams were considerably smaller in magnitude than those observed for pools in highgradient sites. These results match previous stream experiments in which the strength of native shrimp and fish effects increased with stream gradient. Our results demonstrate that dams can indirectly affect upstream free-flowing reaches by eliminating strong top-down effects of consumers. Migratory omnivorous shrimps and fishes occur throughout the tropics, and the consequences of their declines upstream from many tropical dams are likely to be similar to those in Puerto Rico. Thus, ecological effects of migratory fauna loss upstream from dams encompass a wider variety of species interactions and biomes than the bottom-up effects (i.e., elimination of salmonid nutrient subsidies) recognized for northern temperate systems.
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