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Seasonal changes in sea surface temperature and salinity during the little ice age in the caribbean sea deduced from Mg/Ca and O-18/O-16 ratios in corals

Watanabe, T., A. Winter, and T. Oba. 2001. Seasonal changes in sea surface temperature and salinity during the little ice age in the caribbean sea deduced from Mg/Ca and O-18/O-16 ratios in corals. Marine Geology 173 (1-4) (MAR 15): 21-35.

Abstract: 
The oxygen isotropic composition (delta 18O) of coral skeletons reflects a combination of sea surface temperature (SST) and the delta 18O of seawater, which is related to sea surface salinity (SSS). In contrast, the magnesium/Calcium (Mg/Ca) ratio of a coral skeleton reflects SST independent of Salinity. by using the relationships among coral Mg/Ca ratios, coral delta 18), seawater delta 18O and SST, it is possible to determine past SST and SS uniquely. Such determinations were made and calibrated using the Mg/Ca ratio and the delta 18O of the modern part of a 3 m long coral core (Monastrea faveolata) collected from the southwest coast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea where both SST and SSS changes seasonally and the seawater delta 18O measured at the coral site....
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