slope

biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon entering streams

Kaplan, L. A., and J. D. Newbold, Biogeochemistry of dissolved organic
carbon entering streams, in Aquatic Microbiology: An Ecological Approach,
edited by T. E. Ford, pp. 139 – 165, Blackwell Sci., Malden,
Mass., 1993.

Map showing susceptibility to earthquake-induced landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

Santiago Marilyn, Map showing susceptibility to earthquake-induced landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, 2 plate.em>

Abstract: 
Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 66 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area (SJMA) has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the SJMA is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (23 percent) of the SJMA is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the SJMA where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquakeinduced landslide susceptibility may indicate that the southern portions of the SJMA may be at greatest risk.

predicting landslide vegetation in patches on landscape gradients in puerto rico

Myster, R.W., Thomlinson, J.R., and Larsen, M.C., 1997, Predicting landslide vegetation in patches on landscape gradients in Puerto Rico: Landscape Ecology, v. 12 p. 299-307.

Abstract: 
We explored the predictive value of common landscape characteristics for landslide vegetative stages in the LuquilloExperimental Forest of Puerto Rico using four different analyses. Maximum likelihood logistic regression showed that aspect, age, and substrate type could be used to predict vegetative structural stage. In addition it showed that the structural complexity of the vegetation was greater in landslides (1) facing the southeast (away from the dominant wind direction of recent hurricanes), (2) that were older, and (3) that had volcaniclastic rather than dioritic substrate. Multiple regression indicated that both elevation and age could be used to predict the current vegetation, and that vegetation complexity was greater both at lower elevation and in older landslides. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients showed that (1) the presence of volcaniclastic substrate in landslides was negatively correlated with aspect, age, and elevation, (2) that road association and age were positively correlated and (3) that slope was negatively correlated with area. Finally, principal components analysis showed that landslides were differentiated on axes defined primarily by age, aspect class, and elevation in the positive direction, and by volcaniclastic substrate in the negative direction. Because several statistical techniques indicated that age, aspect, elevation, and substrate were important in determining vegetation complexity on landslides, we conclude that landslide succession is influenced by variation in these landscape traits. In particular, we would expect to find more successional development on landslides which are older, face away from hurricane winds, are at lower elevation, and are on volcaniclastic substrate. Finally, our results lead into a hierarchical conceptual model of succession on landscapes where the biota respond first to either gradients or disturbance depending on their relative severity, and then to more local biotic mechanisms such as dispersal, predation and competition.
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