soil oxygen


Controls of Primary Productivity: Lessons from the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico
Robert B. Waide, Jess K. Zimmerman and F. N. Scatena
Vol. 79, No. 1 (Jan., 1998), pp. 31-37

The Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico are used as a case study to evaluate possible single- or multiple-factor controls of productivity in montane forests. A review of published studies from the Luquillo Mountains revealed that canopy height, productivity, and species richness decline while stem density increases with elevation, as is typical of other montane forests. A mid-elevation floodplain palm stand with high levels of productivity provides a notable exception to this pattern. Previous basic and applied studies of productivity in the Luquillo Mountains have consistently considered the overall gradient in productivity to be important in understanding forest structure and function. Recent observational and experimental studies have determined that disturbance of all types is an important factor mediating productivity in both low- and high-elevation (cloud) forests. For example, low-elevation forest recovers more quickly from hurricane disturbance and is more responsive to nutrient additions than is cloud forest. All of the factors proposed for limiting productivity are supported in one way or another by research in the Luquillo Mountains. What is critically lacking is both an appreciation for the way that these factors interact and experiments appropriate to evaluate multiple controls acting simultaneously.

Soil Oxygen Availability and Biogeochemistry along Rainfall and Topographic Gradients in Upland Wet Tropical Forest Soils

Silver W, Lugo AE, Keller M (1999) Soil oxygen availability and
biogeochemistry along rainfall and topographical gradients in
upland wet tropical forest soils. Biogeochemistry 44:301–

We measured soil oxygen concentrations at 10 and 35 cm depths and indices of biogeochemical cycling in upland forest soils along a rainfall and elevation gradient (3500– 5000 mm y−1; 350–1050 masl) and along topographic gradients (ridge to valley, 150 m) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Along the rainfall gradient, soil O2 availability decreased significantly with increasing annual rainfall, and reached very low levels (<3%) in individual chambers for up to 25 consecutive weeks over 82 weeks of study. Along localized topographic gradients, soil O2 concentrations were variable and decreased significantly from ridges to valleys. In the valleys, up to 35% of the observations at 10–35 cm depth were <3% soil O2. Cross correlation analyses showed that soil O2 concentrations were significantly positively correlated along the topographic gradient, and were sensitive to rainfall and hydrologic output. Soil O2 concentrations in valley soils were correlated with rainfall from the previous day, while ridge sites were correlated with cumulative rainfall inputs over 4 weeks. Soils at the wettest point along the rainfall gradient had very high soil methane concentrations (3–24%) indicating a strong influence of anaerobic processes.We measured net methane emission to the atmosphere at the wettest sites of the rainfall gradient, and in the valleys along topographic gradients. Other measures of biogeochemical function such as soil organic matter content and P availability were sensitive to chronic O2 depletion along the rainfall gradient, but less sensitive to the variable soil O2 environment exhibited at lower elevations along topographic gradients.
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