Variability of DOC and nitrate responses to storms in a small Mediterranean forested catchment

Bernal, S., A. Butturini, and F. Sabater (2002), Variability of DOC and
nitrate responses to storms in a small Mediterranean forested catchment,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 1031– 1041.

Severe drought periods followed by intense rainfall often leads to major floods in Mediterranean catchments. The resulting hydrology is complex and the response of solutes in the streams is often unpredictable. This study aimed to identify the most relevant factors controlling the hydrological responses to storms of an intermittent Mediterranean stream and to link those factors with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate during storm events. Measurements of climate, hydrology, DOC and nitrate concentrations during 26 storm events over three hydrological years were analysed. The contribution of the storm events to the total DOC and nitrate annual export was also calculated. Nitrate was mainly mobilised during high flow, while most of the DOC export occurred during baseflow. Solute concentrations peaked after drought periods and the solute export was maximal during the largest rainfalls (i.e.>100 L m-2). One single large storm contributed some 22% of the total annual export of DOC, and about 80% of that of nitrate. Discharge was a good predictor of neither DOC nor nitrate responses, so variables other than discharge were considered. Factor Analysis was used to identify the main factors controlling the biogeochemical responses. Antecedent moisture conditions and the magnitude of the storm event were the most relevant factors and accounted for 63% of the total variance. Solute responses during high flow were highly variable. However, solute concentration changes showed a significant and moderate relationship with the factors controlling the hydrological responses (i.e. Δ DOC v. the antecedent moisture conditions and Δ NO3-N v. the magnitude of the storm event).

Geomorphic effects of large debris flows and flash floods, northern Venezuela, 1999

Larsen, M.C. and Wieczorek, G.F., 2006. Geomorphic effects
of large debris flows and flash floods, northern Venezuela,
1999, Z. Geomorph. N.F., Suppl 145:147-175.

A rare, high-magnitude storm in northern Venezuela in December 1999 triggered debris flows and flash floods, and caused one of the worst natural disasters in the recorded history of the Americas. Some 15,000 people were killed. The debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities on alluvial fans at the mouths of a coastal mountain drainage network and destroyed property estimated at more than $2 billion. Landslides were abundant and widespread on steep slopes within areas underlain by schist and gneiss from near the coast to slightly over the crest of the mountain range. Some hillsides were entirely denuded by single or coalescing failures, which formed massive debris flows in river channels flowing out onto densely populated alluvial fans at the coast. The massive amount of sediment derived from 24 watersheds along 50 km of the coast during the storm and deposited on alluvial fans and beaches has been estimated at 15 to 20 million m3. Sediment yield for the 1999 storm from the approximately 200 km2 drainage area of watersheds upstream of the alluvial fans was as much as 100,000 m3/km2. Rapid economic development in this dynamic geomorphic environment close to the capital city of Caracas, in combination with a severe rain storm, resulted in the death of approximately 5% of the population (300,000 total prior to the storm) in the northern Venezuelan state of Vargas.
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