Subtropical wet forest

Variation in Susceptibility to Hurricane Damage as a Function of Storm Intensity in Puerto Rican Tree Species

Canham, Charles D.; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Uriarte, Maria. 2010 Variation in Susceptibility to Hurricane Damage as a Function of Storm Intensity in Puerto Rican Tree Species. Biotropica, 42 (1). 87-94. 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00545.x

Abstract: 
One of the most significant challenges in developing a predictive understanding of the long-term effects of hurricanes on tropical forests is the development of quantitative models of the relationships between variation in storm intensity and the resulting severity of tree damage and mortality. There have been many comparative studies of interspecific variation in resistance of trees to wind damage based on aggregate responses to individual storms. We use a new approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to fit quantitative models of the susceptibility of a tree species to different levels of damage across an explicit range of hurricane intensity. Our approach simultaneously estimates both the local intensity of the storm within a plot and the susceptibility to storm damage of different tree species within plots. Using the spatial variation of storm intensity embedded in two hurricanes (Hugo in 1989 and Georges in 1998) that struck the 16 ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot in eastern Puerto Rico, we show that variation in susceptibility to storm damage is an important aspect of life history differentiation. Pioneers such as Cecropia schreberiana are highly susceptible to stem damage, while the late successional species Dacryodes excelsa suffered very little stem damage but significant crown damage. There was a surprisingly weak relationship between tree diameter and the susceptibility to damage for most of the 12 species examined. This may be due to the effects of repeated storms and trade winds on the architecture of trees and forest stands in this Puerto Rican subtropical wet forest.

Natural disturbance and human land use as determinants of tropical forest dynamics: results from a forest simulator

Uriarte, M., C. D. Canham, J. Thompson, J. K. Zimmerman,
L. Murphy, A. M. Sabat, N. Fetcher, and B. L.
Haines. 2009. Natural disturbance and human land
use as determinants of tropical forest dynamics:
results from a forest simulator. Ecological Monographs
79:423–443.

Abstract: 
Forests are often subject to multiple, compounded disturbances, representing both natural and human-induced processes. Predicting forest dynamics requires that we consider how these disturbances interact to affect species demography. Here we present results of an individual-based, spatially explicit forest simulator that we developed to analyze the compounded effects of hurricane disturbance and land use legacies on the dynamics of a subtropical forest. We used data from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot in Puerto Rico, together with a reconstruction of historical wind damage, to parameterize the simulator. We used the model to ask two questions. (1) What are the implications of variation in hurricane frequency and severity for the long-term dynamics of forest composition, diversity, and structure? Both storm severity and frequency had striking effects on forest dynamics, composition, and structure. The periodicity of disturbance also played an important role, with periods of high hurricane activity fostering the establishment of species that may become rare in the absence of severe storms and quiescent periods allowing these species to reach reproductive size. Species responses to hurricane disturbance could not be predicted from their life history attributes. However, species perceived to be primary forest species exhibited low temporal variation in abundance through the simulations. (2) How do hurricanes and legacies from human land use interact to determine community structure and composition? Our results suggest that, over time, regardless of the storm regime, land use legacies will become less apparent but will lead to a forest community that contains a mixture of secondary and primary forest species formerly dominant in areas of different land use. In the long term, hurricane disturbance generated two communities with slightly greater similarity than those not subject to storms. Thus, the inclusion of hurricane disturbance does not alter the prediction that land use legacies in this tropical forest will diminish over time. Our simulations also highlight the contingent effects of human legacies on subsequent community dynamics, including the response to hurricane disturbance, therefore supporting the notion that compounded disturbances can interact in ways that cannot be predicted by the study of single disturbances. The widespread importance of land use as a large-scale disturbance makes it imperative that it be addressed as a fundamental ecological process.

Leaffall Phenology in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: From Species to Community Patterns

Zalamea, M. & González, G. (2008) Leaffall phenology in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto
Rico: from species to community patterns. Biotropica, 40, 295-304.

Abstract: 
leaffall periodicity has been related to rainfall regime and dry season length. In weakly seasonal forests, where there is no marked dry season, other climatic factors could trigger leaf shed. In this study, we aimed to determine if other climatic variables (wind speed, solar radiation, photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD], day length, temperature, and relative humidity) could be better correlated with patterns of litter and leaffall in a weakly seasonal subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. Leaffall patterns were correlated mainly with solar radiation, PPFD, day length, and temperature; and secondarily with rainfall. Two main peaks of leaffall were observed: April–June and August–September, coinciding with the periods of major solar radiation at this latitude. Community leaffall patterns were the result of overlapping peaks of individual species. Of the 32 species analyzed, 21 showed phenological patterns, either unimodal (16 species), bimodal (three species), or multimodal (two species). Lianas also presented leaffall seasonality, suggesting that they are subject to the same constraints and triggering factors affecting trees. In addition to solar radiation as a main determinant of leaffall timing in tropical forests, our findings highlight the importance of interannual variation and asynchrony, suggesting that leaffall is the result of a complex interaction between environmental and physiological factors.

Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico

Heartsill-Scalley, T.; Scatena,F.N.; Estrada,C.; McDowell,W.H.;Lugo,A.E. 2007. Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. Journal of Hydrology 333, :472- 485.

Abstract: 
Nutrient fluxes in rainfall and throughfall were measured weekly in a mature subtropical wet forest in NE Puerto Rico over a 15-year period that included the effects of 10 named tropical storms, several prolonged dry periods, and volcanic activity in the region. Mean annual rainfall and throughfall were 3482 and 2131 mm yr1, respectively. Average annual rainfall and throughfall fluxes of K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, and SO4–S were similar but somewhat larger than those reported for most tropical forests. Rainfall inputs of nitrogen were comparatively low and reflect the relative isolation of the airshed. More constituents had seasonal differences in rainfall fluxes (6 out of 12) than throughfall fluxes (4 out of 12) and all volume weighted throughfall enrichment ratios calculated for the 15-year period were greater than one. However, median weekly enrichment ratios were less than 1 for sea salts and dissolved organic carbon, between 1 and 2 for Mg, Ca, SiO2 and SO4–S, and greater than 10 for NH4–N, PO4–P, and K. Droughts tended to reduce enrichment ratios of cations and sea-salts, but increased enrichment ratios of NH4–N, PO4–P, and K. In the weeks following hurricanes and tropical storms, relative throughfall tended to be higher and enrichment ratios tended to be lower. Saharan dust and the activity of Caribbean volcanoes can also be detected in the time series. Nevertheless, the impacts of particular events are variable and modified by the magnitude of the event, the preand post-event rainfall, and the time since the previous event. Rainfall, throughfall, rainfall pH, and rainfall fluxes of seven constituents had decreasing trends over the 15-year period. However, these decreases were small, less than inter-annual and annual varia-tions, and not considered to be ecologically significant. These long-term observations indicate that physical and biological processes associated with water passing through the canopy act to buffer internal nutrient cycles from inter-annual and seasonal variations in rainfall inputs.

An Annotated List of the Flora of the Bisley Area, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992

Chinea, J. D., R. J. Beymer, C. Rivera, I. Sastre de Jesu´ s, and F.
N. Scatena. 1993. An annotated list of the flora of the Bisley
Area, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992.
General Technical Report SO-94:1–12. U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans.

Abstract: 
Known species of plants, including bryophytes and ferns, are listed for the area of the Bisley experimental watershed area, a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico.

The effects of the frog Eleutherodactylus coqui on invertebrates and ecosystem processes at two scales in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

The Effects of the Frog Eleutherodactylus coqui on Invertebrates and Ecosystem Processes at Two Scales in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico
Karen H. Beard, Anne K. Eschtruth, Kristiina A. Vogt, Daniel J. Vogt and Frederick N. Scatena
Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 19, No. 6 (Nov., 2003), pp. 607-617

Abstract: 
Determining the ubiquity of top-down control effects of predators on their prey and ecosystem processes is important for understanding community and ecosystem-level consequences that may result from predator loss. We conducted experiments at two spatial scales to investigate the effects of terrestrial frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) on aerial and litter invertebrates, plant growth and herbivory, and litter decomposition. At both scales, frogs reduced aerial invertebrates and leaf herbivory, but had no effect on litter invertebrates. At the smaller scale, frogs increased foliage production rates, measured as the number of new leaves and new leaf area produced, by 80% and decomposition rates by 20%. The influence of E. coqui on increasing primary productivity and decomposition rates at the smaller scale appeared to be a result of elimination and excretion rather than of controlling prey. While the results provide evidence for frogs controlling herbivorous prey at both scales, species effects on ecosystem processes were only detectable at the smaller scale. The results highlight the difficulties in conducting experiments at large spatial scales. The findings from this study imply that the loss of amphibians and other species of higher trophic levels may affect nutrient cycling rates in tropical forests.
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