vegetation parameterization

Improving Parameterization of Scalar Transport through Vegetation in a Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model

Link P.A., Improving Parameterization of Scalar Transport through Vegetation in a Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model. PhD Thesis, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract: 
Several regional-scale ecosystem models currently parameterize subcanopy scalar transport using a rough-wall boundary eddy diffusivity formulation. This formulation predicts unreasonably high soil evaporation beneath tall, dense forests and low soil evaporation beneath short, sparse grass. This study investigates alternative formulations by reviewing literature on flow and scalar transport in canopies, taking field measurements of subcanopy latent heat flux, and testing alternative model formulations in constrained numerical experiments. A field campaign was conducted in a dense rainforest in Luquillo National Forest, Puerto Rico, to measure wind and fluxes with eddy covariance devices. Wind velocities and fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and momentum were found to be much smaller below the canopy than above it. Modeling experiments tested a mixing-layer-based formulation of eddy diffusivity and a soil evaporation cutoff based on vortex penetration depth. The vortex penetration cutoff was found to be the most physically accurate and computationally simple option, and this study recommends that ecosystem and land-surface models adopt this formulation for subcanopy scalar transport.

Meteorological Impacts of Land Use Change in the Maritime Tropics

Abstract: 
The island Puerto Rico is the smallest of the Greater Antilles. Measuring roughly 180 x 60 km, it is situated in the eastern Caribbean at 18o15’N and 66o30’W (figure 1.1). Apart from the coastal plains on the north and south coast, the island is mountainous, with the highest peaks in the central and north-eastern part of the island rising to elevations of 1000-1300 ma:s:l: (figure 1.2).
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