Culvert flow in small drainages in montane tropical forests: observations from the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico.

Scatena, F. N. 1990. Culvert flow in small drainages in montane tropical forests: observations from the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. . Tropical Hydrology and Caribbean Water Resources. :237-246.

Abstract: 
This paper describe the hydraulics of unsubmerged flow for 5 culverts in the Luiquillo Esperimental Forest of Puerto Rico. A General equation based on empirical data is presented to estimate culvert discharge during unsubmerged conditions. Large culverts are needed in humid tropical montane areas than in humid temperatute watersheds and are usually appropriate only for drainage less than 1km2.