Professor Lapinski (Ph.D. Columbia University, 2000) is an associate professor in the department of Political Science at the University of Pennsylvania. He also works in the Elections Unit at NBC News and is the founder of the Penn Program on Opinion Research and Election Studies (PORES). Previously he was an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Yale University. His primary area of research is concerned with understanding lawmaking in Congress. He is also interested in congressional and presidential campaigns and elections as well as American political development. His research has appeared in the American Journal of Political Science, Perspectives on Politics, the Journal of Politics, and the British Journal of Politics. He is the co-editor of a volume, The Macropolitics of Congress which Princeton University Press published (2006). His research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, where he was a Resident Fellow for the 2004-05 academic year, the Dirksen Congressional Center, and the Institution for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. Professor Lapinski was co-director with David Mayhew for the History of Congress Conference and served as co-director of the Macropolitics of Congress Conference.