The problem: visual memoryOur research is focused on determining the neural correlates of visual memory in the context of well-defined tasks that have parallels in humans and animals. What inspires us to pursue these topics is our own remarkable visual memory capabilities, which have been documented in a number of ways.
Massive capacity, single-trial memory for pictures - We store memories of the objects and scenes we have encountered after viewing thousands, each only once and for a few seconds. Early illustrations of this include a classic 1973 paper by Lionel Standing, "Learning 10,000 pictures". More contemporary work by Aude Oliva's group at MIT has determined that these memories are stored with considerable visual specificity. This type of memory is often probed with the the question, "Have you seen this before?" and it is commonly called "recognition memory".
The "Memory Palace", also called the "Method of Loci" - This memory technique was employed by the Greeks and Romans and it continues to be used in memory competitions today. The technique involves enhancing our ability to remember things we are typically bad at (such as strings of numbers) by mapping them onto something we are really good at - remembering pictures! Joshua Foer's "Moonwalking with Einstein" is a wonderful account of both the history of the technique as well as his personal experience with it.
Our everyday experience - We have all had the experience of walking down the street, encountering someone, and remembering that we know them but not being able to recall any other details (at least for a few moments). This experience illustrates the distinction between the percept of "familiarity" and the "recollection" of facts, and considerable evidence suggests that these percepts do in fact map onto different memory systems in the brain. We also experience the percept of familiarity during déjà vu, but in that case we have the eerie, conflicting feeling that something is both familiar to us and that cannot be true.