Diagram/Photo and Animation References


1. Mars.Science.Program.Synthesis.Group, Mars Exploration Strategy 2009-2020, McCleese, D., ed., Retrieved March 10, 2005 from

2. Ellery, Alex and Wynn-Williams, David (2003), Methodologies and Techniques for Detecting Extraterrestrial (Microbial) Life, Astrobiology, Volume 3, Number 3 pgs. 565-579, 2003.

3. Hollas, Michael (2002), Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Molecular Vibrations (pgs 75-88), Wiley Inter-Science, 2002.

4. Moog, Richard S., James N. Spencer and John J. Farrell.  Physical Chemistry: A Guided Inquiry Atoms, Molecules, and Spectroscopy.  Boston,  Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.

5. Kaiser Optical Systems, (n.d.), Raman Tutorial, Retrieved January 18, 2005 from

6.  Smith, Ewen, Modern Raman Spectroscopy - A Practical Approach,  Chapter 1, Wiley, 2005

7. Sridhar, Narasi, et. al., Development of a Raman Probe for In Situ Analysis of Mars Samples, Retrieved, March 15, 2005 from

8.  Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., et. al., (2001),  Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging, Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 72, Number 12, pgs. 4452-4459, December 2001.

9. Asher, Sanford and Murno, Calium H., UV Lasers Revolutionize Raman Spectroscopy, Laser Focus World, Vol. 33, Issue 7, July 1997.

10. Siegel, Lee, (2001), Life's Chemical Fingerprints, NAI Features Archive, April 9, 2001, NASA Astrobiology Institute, Retrieved January 18, 2005 from, .

11. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, Development of the Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS), a flight system for planetary missions, Retrieved
January 18, 2005 from,

12. Raeburn, Paul, Uncovering the Secrets of The Red Planet, National Geographic Society, 1998.

13. Edwards, Howell, Raman Spectroscopic Protocol for the Molecular Recognition of Key Biomarkers in Astrobiolog
ical Exploration, Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 3-11, 2004

14. Kuebler, K., Can we detect carbonate and sulfate minerals on the surface of Mars by Raman spectroscopy?, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Washington Univerity, St. Louis, MO.

15. Hartman, William, K., A Traveler's Guide to Mars, Workman Publishing, New York, 2003.

16. Author Unknown, (n.d.), DeltaNu, Tutorial, Retrieved March 21 from

17. Tanabe, K. and Hiraishi, J. (Raman), Spectral Database for Organic Compounds, SDBS, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology,  Retrieved, March 2005 from

18. WebMO, Retrieved January-March, 2005,

Other References

Lewis, Ian and Davis, Kevin, Modular Designs advance Raman Spectrometers, Optoelectronics World, pgs. S13-S20, August, 2001

Tedesco, Jim and Slater, Joe, 785-nm laser benefits Raman Spectroscopy, Laser Focus World, pgs. 161-162, September 2000.

Messenger, Heather, Raman Imaging Revels Details of Mars Meteorite Composition, Laser Focus World, Vol. 33, Issue 11, November 1997.

Author Unknown, (n.d.) Real Time Analyzers, What is Raman Spectroscopy? Retrieved January 21, 2005 from

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following individuals:

Dr. Susan Phillips, Chemistry Department, University of Pennsylvania

Ray Groller, Teaching Assistant, University of Pennsylvania

Mr. Glenn Smith, WebMaster, Black Horse Pike Regional School District

Ms. Sharon Sobel, Library and Media Specialist, Triton Regional High School

Mr. Stephen Rulli, Computer Consultant

Page: Searching for Signs of Life on Mars, the Role of Spectroscopy
Photo1: The horizon of Mars, part of the first color image from the rover Spirit. (NASA/JPL),

Page: Raman Spectroscopy
Figure 1: Spring and Ball model - Three modes of vibration for H2O and CO2, Smith, Ewin, Modern Raman Spectroscopy- A Practical Approach, Wiley, 2005, p. 8.
Animation 1: Vibrational modes of H2O,
Animation 2 : Vibrational Modes for CO2,
Figure 2: Diagram adapted from:
Figure 3: IR and Raman active vibrations of H2S, Smith, Ewin, Modern Raman Spectroscopy- A Practical Approach, Wiley, 2005, p. 10.
Figure 4:  A Raman Sctrophotometer employing SERS Technology,

Page: Searching For Signs of Life
Figure 5:  The Raman Active Carbonate Stretch WebMO,
Figure 6: The structure of phenylalanine,
Figure 7: The benzene ring breathing vibrationWebMO,
Figure 8: The structure of Glycine,
Figure 9: The Raman active stretch at 3014 cm-1         WebMO,
Page: The Raman Spectrophotometer
Link 1: The Virtual Raman Tour,
Figure 10: Raman Spectroscopy Primer- An Introduction to JASCO Raman Spectrometers and the Raman technique,
Figure 11: Proposed design for Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS),
Photo 2: Mars Rover during desert testing,

Page: Why Mars ?
Figure 12: Huygens' 1659 drawing of Mars (from Mars, The Lure of the Red Planet )
Figure 13: Schiaparelli's map of Mars (from Mars, The Lure of the Red Planet)
Photo 3: his is the first close-up view of the Martian surface recorded by Viking I, July, 1976,
Photo 4: This view of Mars was taken by the Hubble telescope in 1995 when the planett was in opposition to the Earth.
Photo 5: Orignal Viking 1 photo, 1976.
Photo 6:  Viking 1 photo from 1976, Mars Global surveyor photo from 1998 and April, 2001,

Page: Raman - An Historical Perspective
Photo 7: C.V. Raman, 
Figure 14: Raman, A light of a different color,       

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