||Diagram/Photo and Animation References|
1. Mars.Science.Program.Synthesis.Group, Mars Exploration Strategy 2009-2020, McCleese, D., ed., Retrieved March 10, 2005 from http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/MSPSG.pdf
2. Ellery, Alex and Wynn-Williams, David (2003), Methodologies and Techniques for Detecting Extraterrestrial (Microbial) Life, Astrobiology, Volume 3, Number 3 pgs. 565-579, 2003.
3. Hollas, Michael (2002), Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Molecular Vibrations (pgs 75-88), Wiley Inter-Science, 2002.
4. Moog, Richard S., James N. Spencer and John J. Farrell. Physical Chemistry: A Guided Inquiry Atoms, Molecules, and Spectroscopy.
5. Kaiser Optical Systems, (n.d.), Raman Tutorial, Retrieved January 18, 2005 from http://www.kosi.com/raman/resources/tutorial/
ical Exploration, Origins of Life and Evolution
of the Biosphere, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 3-11, 2004
14. Kuebler, K., Can we detect carbonate and sulfate minerals on the surface of Mars by Raman spectroscopy?, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Washington Univerity, St. Louis, MO.
15. Hartman, William, K., A Traveler's Guide to Mars, Workman Publishing, New York, 2003.
16. Author Unknown, (n.d.), DeltaNu, Tutorial, Retrieved March 21 from http://www.deltanu.com/tutorial.htm
17. Tanabe, K. and Hiraishi, J. (Raman), Spectral Database for Organic Compounds, SDBS, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Retrieved, March 2005 from http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/SDBS/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi
18. WebMO, Retrieved January-March, 2005, http://www.webmo.net/index.html
Lewis, Ian and Davis, Kevin, Modular Designs advance Raman Spectrometers, Optoelectronics World, pgs. S13-S20, August, 2001
Tedesco, Jim and Slater, Joe, 785-nm laser benefits Raman Spectroscopy, Laser Focus World, pgs. 161-162, September 2000.
Messenger, Heather, Raman Imaging Revels Details of Mars Meteorite Composition, Laser Focus World, Vol. 33, Issue 11, November 1997.
Author Unknown, (n.d.) Real Time Analyzers, What is Raman Spectroscopy? Retrieved January 21, 2005 from http://www.rta.biz/whatisraman.htm
The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following individuals:
Dr. Susan Phillips, Chemistry Department, University of Pennsylvania
Ray Groller, Teaching Assistant, University of Pennsylvania
Mr. Glenn Smith, WebMaster, Black Horse Pike Regional School District
Ms. Sharon Sobel, Library and Media Specialist, Triton Regional High School
Mr. Stephen Rulli, Computer Consultant
Page: Searching for Signs of Life on Mars, the Role of Spectroscopy
Photo1: The horizon of Mars, part of the first color image from the rover Spirit. (NASA/JPL), http://www.planetary.org/mars/mer-images.html
Page: Raman Spectroscopy
Figure 1: Spring and Ball model - Three modes of vibration for H2O and CO2, Smith, Ewin, Modern Raman Spectroscopy- A Practical Approach, Wiley, 2005, p. 8.
Animation 1: Vibrational modes of H2O, http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~edwin/MoleculeHTML/H2O_html/H2O_page.html
Animation 2 : Vibrational Modes for CO2, http://www.gps.caltech.edu/%7Eedwin/MoleculeHTML/CO2_html/CO2_page.html
Figure 2: Diagram adapted from: http://www.inphotonics.com/technote11.pdf
Figure 3: IR and Raman active vibrations of H2S, Smith, Ewin, Modern Raman Spectroscopy- A Practical Approach, Wiley, 2005, p. 10.
Figure 4: A Raman Sctrophotometer employing SERS Technology, http://epsc.wustl.edu/haskin-group/Raman/instrument.htm
Page: Searching For Signs of Life
Figure 5: The Raman Active Carbonate Stretch WebMO, http://www.webmo.net/index.html
Figure 6: The structure of phenylalanine, http://elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/561aminomolecfs.html
Figure 7: The benzene ring breathing vibrationWebMO, http://www.webmo.net/index.html
Figure 8: The structure of Glycine, http://elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/561aminomolecfs.html
Figure 9: The Raman active stretch at 3014 cm-1 WebMO, http://www.webmo.net/index.html
Page: The Raman Spectrophotometer
Link 1: The Virtual Raman Tour, http://www.umich.edu/%7Emorgroup/virtual/labeled/virtual.html
Figure 10: Raman Spectroscopy Primer- An Introduction to JASCO Raman Spectrometers and the Raman technique, http://www.jascoraman.com/pdfs/raman_primer.pdf
Figure 11: Proposed design for Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS), http://epsc.wustl.edu/haskin-group/Raman/instrument.htm
Photo 2: Mars Rover during desert testing, http://epsc.wustl.edu/haskin-group/photo.htm
Page: Why Mars ?
Figure 12: Huygens' 1659 drawing of Mars (from Mars, The Lure of the Red Planet ) http://www.etsu.edu/physics/etsuobs/starprty/032099bg/section1a.htm
Figure 13: Schiaparelli's map of Mars (from Mars, The Lure of the Red Planet) http://www.etsu.edu/physics/etsuobs/starprty/032099bg/section1a.htm
Photo 3: his is the first close-up view of the Martian surface recorded by Viking I, July, 1976, http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_best_021203-10.html
Photo 4: This view of Mars was taken by the Hubble telescope in 1995 when the planett was in opposition to the Earth.
Photo 5: Orignal Viking 1 photo, 1976. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_best_021203-10.html
Photo 6: Viking 1 photo from 1976, Mars Global surveyor photo from 1998 and April, 2001, http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_best_021203-10.html
Page: Raman - An Historical Perspective
Photo 7: C.V. Raman, http://www.deltanu.com/tutorial.htm
Figure 14: Raman, A light of a different color, http://www.deltanu.com/tutorial.htm