In the case of Tamil, it was the missionary gramarians such as Caldwell who helped establish the notion that Tamil and the Dravidian languages were separate genetically from Sanskrit, but it was Tamil `orientalists' such as U. Ve. Cuvaminataiyar who `rediscovered' ancient Tamil literature and made it available to a wide audience. Before 1881, when U. Ve. Cu. first laid eyes on manuscripts written in a kind of Tamil he had never seen before, few in the Tamil tradition knew of any pre-Aryan Tamil culture. The subsequent development of the Pure Tamil Movement ( tanit-tamir iyakkam), the renaissance of Tamil literature, and the development of a Dravidian political movement (Justice Party, DK, DMK) must be seen both as stimulated by and reactions against the rise of English education and the work of `orientalist' missionary-grammarians. We deal with this in more detail in the next Chapter, that devoted to Tamilnadu.