Male-female Phonetic Bibliography

Prepared by Henry Rogers

This is a posting on Linguist 12.2276 of the bibliographic items received on the subject of male-female phonetic differences.

  1. Atkinson, M. 1984. Our Masters' voices; The Language and Body Language of Politics. London: Methuen

  2. Bladon, R. A. W., Henton, C. G., & Pickering, J. B. 1984. Towards an auditory theory of speech normalization. Language and Communication, 4(1), 59-69.

  3. Brend, R.M. 1975. "Male-female intonation patterns in American English." In B. Thorne and N. Henly, etc. Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. pp. 84-87

  4. Brown, W. S., jr. and S.H. Feinstein. 1977. 'Speaker sex identification utilizing a constant laryngeal source'. Folia phoniatrica 29.240-8.

  5. Byrd, D. 1994. Relations of sex and dialect to reduction. Speech Communication, 15(1), 39-54.

  6. Carleton, M. & Ohala, J.J. 1980. "The effect of pitch of voice on perceived personality traits". Meeting of Kroeber Anthropological Society, Berkeley: University of California.

  7. Chambers, J. K. 1992. Linguistic correlates of gender and sex. English World-Wide, 13(2), 173-218.

  8. Childers, D.G. and K. Wu. 1991. Gender recogniton from speech: Part II. Fine analysis' JASA 90.1841-56.

  9. Coleman, Ralph O. 1971. 'Male and female voice quality and its relationship to vowel formant frequencies'. JSHR 14.565-77.

  10. Coleman, Ralph O. 1973. 'Speaker identification in the absence of inter-subject differences in glottal source charactersistics'. JASA 53.1741-3.

  11. Coleman, Ralph O. 1976. 'A comparison of the contributions of two voice quality characteristics to the perception of maleness and femaleness in the voice'. JSHR 19.168-80.

  12. Deterding D 1990. Speaker Normalisation for Automatic Speech Recognition. Unpublished PhD thesis, Cambridge University.

  13. Deterding, D. 1997 The Formants of Monophthong Vowels in Standard Southern British English Pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 27, 47-55.

  14. Eckert, P. 1989. The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change, 1, 245-267.

  15. Ecklund, Ingegerd and Hartmut Traunmüller. 1997. 'Comparative study of male and female whispered and phonated versions of the long vowels of Swedish'. Phonetica 54.1-21.

  16. Gibb, G. D. 1869. "The character of the voice in the nations of Asia and Africa contrasted with that of the nations of Europe". Journal of the Anthropological Society, april: 244-59.

  17. Gordon, Matthew and Jeffrey Heath. 1998. 'Sex, Sound Symbolism, and Sociolinguistics' Current Anthropology_ 39.4: 421-49.

  18. Graddol, D. & Swann, J 2d ed, 1991. The Voice of Authority. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  19. Graddol, D. & Swann, J. 1983. "Speaking in fundamental frequency: some social and physical correlates". Language and Speech, 26:351-66.

  20. Graddol, D. & Swann, J. 1991. Gender Voices. "The Voice of Authority" and "Accents of feminity". Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  21. Graddol, D. J. 1983. "Three experiments in the perception of speaking fundamental frequency". Paper given to the Institute of Accoustics Speech Group, Nottingham printed in Gender Voices.

  22. Graddol, D. J. 1986. "Discourse specific pitch behavior" in John-Lewis, C. (ed.). Intonation in Discourse, London: Croom Helm.

  23. Hagiwara, R. 1994. Three types of American /r/. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 88, 55-61.

  24. Hagiwara, R. 1995. Acoustic realizations of American /r/ as produced by women and men. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 90.

  25. Hagiwara, R. 1997. Dialect variation and formant frequency: the American English vowels revisited. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102(1), 655-658.

  26. Henton, C. 'Cross-language variation in the vowels of female and male speakers'. Proc. 13 ICPhS, vol 4.420-3. Stockholm.

  27. Henton, C. 1983. Changes in the vowels of received pronunciation. Journal of Phonetics, 11, 353-371.

  28. Henton, C. 1985. A Comparative Study of Phonetic Sex-specific Differences across Languages. Dphil thesis. Oxford University

  29. Henton, C. 1987. Phonetic considerations for th synthesis of female voices. Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, 270-273.

  30. Henton, C. 1988, November-December. Vocal discord. UC Davis Magazine, 18-21,28.

  31. Henton, C. 1989. "Fact and fiction in the description of female and male pitch". Language and Communication 9:299-311

  32. Henton, C. 1990. One vowel's life (and death?) across languages: the moribundity and prestige of /(turned-v)/. Journal of Phonetics, 18, 203-227.

  33. Henton, C. 1992. The abnormality of male speech. In G. Wolf (Ed.), New Departures in Linguistics. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc.

  34. Henton, C. 1995. "Pitch Dynamism in Male and Female Speech". Language and Communication 15:43-61

  35. Henton, C. G., & Bladon, R. A. W. 1985. Breathiness in normal female speech: inefficiency versus desirability. Language and Communication, 5(3),221-227.

  36. Henton, C., & Bladon, A. 1988. Creak as a sociophonetic marker. In L. M. Hyman & C. N. Li (Eds.), Language, Speech and Mind: Studies in honour of

  37. Hillenbrand, J. M., Getty, L. A., Clark, M., J., & Wheeler, K. 1995.Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5), 3099-3111.

  38. Hinton, L., Moonwomon, B., Bremner, S., Luthin, H., Van Clay, M., Lerner,J., & Corcoran, H. 1987. It's not just the Valley Girls: a study of California English. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 117-128.

  39. Holmberg, E.B., R.E. Hillman, and J.J. Perkell 1988. 'Glottal airflow and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female speakers.' JASA 84.511-29.

  40. Ingenmann, F. 1968. Identification of the speaker's sex from voiceless fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 44(4), 1142-1144

  41. Johansson, I. 1983. "Sex-related and sex-directed features in questions of adults to six-year-old children". From sounds to words. Umea: Humanisthusets reprocentral.

  42. Johnson, K. 1990. The role of perceived speaker identity in F0 normalization of vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,88(2), 642-654.

  43. Johnson, K., Ladefoged, P., & Lindau, M. 1993. Individual differences invowel production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94(2),701-714.

  44. Karlsson, I. 1991 Female voices in speech synthesis. Journal of Phonetics19(1), 111-120/

  45. Klatt, D. H., & Klatt, L. C. 1990. Analysis, synthesis, and perception of voice quality variations among female and male talkers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 87, 820-857.

  46. Koenig, L. L. 2000. Laryngeal factors in voiceless consonant production in men, women, and 5-year-olds. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 1211-1228.

  47. Ladefoged, P. and D. Broadbent. 1957. 'Information conveyed by vowels.' JASA 29.98-104.

  48. Lakoff, Robin. 1975. Language and Woman's place. New-York, Harper and Row.

  49. Laver J, and P. Trudgill. 1979. "Phonetic and Linguistic Markers in Speech" in Scherer, K.R. & Giles H. (eds). Social Markers in Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  50. Laver, J. 1980. The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  51. Léon P. 1980. "BB ou la voix 'charmeuse', 'petite fille'et 'coquette'. Problemes de prosodie. vol 2: experimentations, modeles et fonctions. Studia phonetica.

  52. Linke, C.E. 1973. 'A study of pitch characteristics of female voices and their relationship to vocal effectiveness.' Folia phoniat. 25.173-85.

  53. Loveday, L. 1981. "Pitch, politeness and sexual role: an explotary investigation". Language and Speech, 24:71-88

  54. Majewski, W. & al. 1972. "Speaking Fundamental Frequencies of Polish Adult Males". Phonetica, 225:119-25.

  55. McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 1978. 'Intonation in a man's world'. Signs. 3, 541-59. Reprinted in Thorne, Kramerae, and Henley (eds.) Language, Gender, and Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. pp. 69-88

  56. Moonwomon, B. 1991 Sound change in San Francisco English (CaliforniaEnglish. UC Berkeley Ph.D. Dissertation.

  57. Mora, Elsa. 1989. "Phonostylistique de l'intonation differenciations dues au milieu social et au sexe des locuteurs". Revue Québécoise de linguistique Appliquée.

  58. Nittrouer, S., McGowan, R. S., Milenkovic, P. H., & Beehler, D. 1990. Acoustic measurements of men's and women's voices: A study of context effects and covariation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 761-775.

  59. Ohala J.J. 1983. "Cross-language use of pitch: an ethological view". Phonetica, 40,1-18

  60. Ohala J.J. 1984. "An ethological perspective on common cross-language utilization of F0 of voice". Phonetica, 41, 1-16.

  61. Philips, Susan U., Susan Steele, & Christine Tanz (eds). 1987 Language Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. London: Cambrige University Press.

  62. Ryalls, John, Allison Zipprer, and Penelope Baldauff. 1997. 'A preliminary investigation of the effects of gender and race on voice onset time.' Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 40.642-5.

  63. Sachs, J. 1975. "Cues to the identification of sex in children's speech". Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Barrie THORNE and Nancy HENLEY (ed). Massachussets: Newbury House Publisher,152-177.

  64. Schwartz, M.F. 1968. Identification of speaker sex from isolated voiceless fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 43(5), 1178-1179.

  65. Schwartz, M.F. and H.E. Rine. 1968. 'Identificaiton of speaker sex from isolated, whispered vowels'. JASA 44.1736-7.

  66. Smith, P. M. 1985. Language, the Sexes and Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  67. Spender, Dale. 1985 2d ed Man-made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  68. Stathopoulos, E. T., & Sapienza, C. 1993. Respiratory and laryngeal function of women and men during vocal intensity variation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36(1), 64-75.

  69. Strand, E. A. 1999. Uncovering the role of gender stereotypes in speech perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18(1), 86-99.

  70. Swartz, Bradford L. 1992. 'Gender differences in voice onset time'. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75.983-92.

  71. Sweeting, P.M. and R.J. Baken. 1982. 'Voice onset time in a normal-aged population.' JSHR 25.129-34.

  72. Terango, L. 1966. "Pitch and duration characteristics of the oral reading of males on a masculinity-feminity dimension". Journal of Speech and Hearing research, 9, 590-95

  73. Thorne, Barrie, Cheris Kramarae & Nancy Henley.1983. Language, Gender and Society. Massachussets, Newbury Publishers.

  74. Titze, I. R. 1989. Physiologic and acoustic differences between male and female voices. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85(4), 1699-1707.

  75. Van Bezooijen. R. 1995. 'Sociocultural aspects of pitch differences between Japanese and Dutch women'. Language and Speech 38.253-65.

  76. Vuorenkoski et al. 1978. "Fundamental voice frequency during normal and abnormal growth and after androgen treatment". Archives of Disease in Childhood, 53, 201-9.

  77. Weinberg, B. and S. Bennett. Speaker sex recognition of 5- and 6-year old chilrens's voices'. JASA 50.1210-3.

  78. Whalen, D. H., and Levitt, A. G. 1995. The universality of intrinsic F0 of vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 23.349-66.

  79. Whiteside, S.P. and J. Marshall. 2001. 'Developmental trands in voice onset time: Some evidence for sex differences'. Phonetica 58.196-210.

  80. Whiteside, Sandra P. and Caroline J. Irving. 1997. 'Speakers' sex differences in voice onset time: Some preliminary findings'. Peceptual and Motor Skills 85.459-63.

  81. Wu, K. and D.G. Childers. 1991. 'Gender recognition from speech: Part I. Coarse analysis.' JASA 90.1828-40.

  82. Yang, Byunggon. 1990. 'An acoustical study of Korean monophthongs produced by male and female speakers'. JASA 91.2280-3.

  83. Yang, Byunggon. 1996. 'A comparative study of American English and Korean vowels produced by male and female speakers'. Journal of Phonetics 24. 245-61.
Henry Rogers                      
6072 Robarts Library
Department of Linguistics           vox:  (416-) 978-1769
University of Toronto                  fax:    (416-) 971-2688
Toronto, Ontario,

Many thanks to those who replied: Doug Whalen, Jamil Daher, Baider
Fabienne, Robert Hagiwara, Laura L. Koenig, Nadia Brunetti, Anne Cutler,
David Deterding, Daniel Loehr, Matthew Gordon.