Contributed by Laura Miller

  1. Bernstein, Alison R. American Indians and World War II: Toward a New Era in Indian Affairs Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

  2. Bixler, Margaret T. Winds of Freedom: The Story of the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Darien, CT: Two Bytes Pub. Co., 1992.

  3. "Comanches Again Called for Army Code Service." New York Times (13 Dec. 1940): 16.

  4. Davis, Goode, Jr. "Proud Tradition of the Marines' Navajo Code Talkers: They Fought With Words-Words No Japanese Could Fathom." Marine Corps League 46, no.1 (Spring 1990): 16-26.

  5. "DOD Hails Indian Code Talkers." Sea Services Weekly (27 Nov. 1992): 9-10.

  6. Donovan, Bill. "Navajo Code Talkers Made History Without Knowing It." Arizona Republic (14 Aug. 1992): B6.

  7. Hafford, William E. "The Navajo Code Talkers." Arizona Highways 65, no.2 (Feb. 1989): 36-45.

  8. Jere, Franco. Patriotism on Trial: Native Americans in World War II. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International,1990.

  9. Kahn, David. The Codebreakers. New York: Macmillan, 1967. See pp. 549-50.

  10. Kawano, Kenji. Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Pub. Co., 1990.

  11. King, Jodi A. "DOD Dedicates Code Talkers Display" Pentagram (24 Sep. 1992): 3.

  12. Langille, Vernon. "Indian War Call." Leatherneck 31, No.3 (Mar.1948): 37-40.

  13. Marder, Murrey. "Navajo Code Talkers." Marine Corps Gazette (Sep. 1945): 10-11.

  14. McCoy, Ron. "Navajo Code Talkers of World War II: Indian Marines Befuddled the Enemy." American West 18, no.6 (Nov./Dec. 1981): 67-73, 75.

  15. Paul, Doris Atkinson. The Navajo Code Talkers. Philadelphia: Dorance, 1973.

  16. "Pentagon Ceremony Praises American Indians." Crosswind (13 Nov.1992): 14-15.

  17. "Pentagon Honors Navajos, Code Nobody Could Break." Arizona Republic (18 Sep. 1992): A9.

  18. USMC. Navajo Dictionary. 15 June 1945. (Code word dictionary).

  19. Watson, Bruce. "Navajo Code Talkers: A Few Good Men." Smithsonian 24, no.5 (Aug. 1993): 34-40, 42-43.



  1. Reference Section, History and Museums Division, HQMC. "Navajo Code Talkers in World War II." 14 May 1982. 2 pp.

  2. Reagan, Ronald. "Certificate of Appreciation to the Navajo Code Talkers." December 1981. [photocopy of 1-page document].


  1. Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC. 20374-0580. Tel.(202)433-3841.

  2. Oral interviews with former Navajo code talkers during the first reunion of Navajo Code Talkers of World War II at Window Rock AZ, 9-10 July 1971.

  3. Marine Corps Oral History Program: John Benally, 32 pp; Judge W. Dean Wilson (William Dean Yazzie), 20 pp; Paul Blatchford, 27 pp; Sidney

  4. Bedoni, 13 pp; Alex Williams, Sr., 21 pp; Carl Gorman, 3 pp; Wilfred Billey, 13 pp, Jimmy King, Sr.,36 pp.

  5. Duke University Indian Oral History Project: Dan Akee, 16 pp; Sidney Bedoni, 29 pp; Thomas Claw, 27 pp; Teddy Draper, 42 pp; Harold Y. Foster, 14 pp; Rev. R.O. Hawthorn, 29 pp; Samuel T. Holiday, 20 pp; Dennie Hosteen, 31 pp; William McCabe, 56 pp; James Nahkai, Jr., 34 pp; Pete Sandovall, 29 pp; Samuel J. Smith, Sr. 45 pp; George B. Soce, 44 pp.; Frank Thompson, 20 pp; Raphael Yazzie, 61 pp.

  6. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA):

  7. Records located at Washington National Records Center (WNRC) Suitland MD (records will be relocated to College Park MD). Tel.(301)763-7410.

  8. Record located at Military Reference Branch, Washington DC 20408. Tel.(202) 501-5671.

    Utilization of American Indians as Communications Linguists. Special Research History (SRH) #120, 107pp, RG457 (declassified by National Security Agency).