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Primarily attitudinal aspectual verbs.
The aspectual verbs that express, in addition to various aspectual
notions, notions about the speaker's attitude toward actions or other
speakers, are, as mentioned taLLu `distributive', tole
`riddance', pooDu `malicious intent', and some others that we
will deal with later.
taLLu `distributive', `riddance.'
The main verb that this AV is derived from is taLLu `push, shove.' In addition to
its basic aspectual notion implying completion, taLLu also gives the notion that an
action `got rid of' something; this may range from the satisfaction of having cleaned up some
sort of mess to that of giving all one's wealth to the poor. There is also the notion that
the recipients of this distribution are unspecified. That is, a
sentence like raaman pustahangaLek kuDuttu taLLinaan `Raman gave away his books' will
not have a dative-marked recipient.
- naan anda
kaDidatte paDiccu taLLneen `I read that letter [and got the
task over and done with, out of the way.]
- avan aDutta viiTTu kaaran vaangna
kaDane eRudi taLLnaan `He wrote off [as a bad debt] the loan
[taken, i.e.] owed [him] by his next-door neighbor.'
This verb has an analogous lexical verb pooDu which means
`put, drop, serve (food)' or `put on' clothes. There is a semantic
notion of some lack of care with this verb, so if deliberate careful
placing or setting is intended, vayyi is used instead. This verb
is used for serving food, and it is appropriate since in order to avoid
contact (and pollution), food
is often `dropped' on the plate, rather
than placed carefully. The AV pooDu varies semantically more
than some AV's; for many the notion conveyed is that of bad faith, bad
motives, or even malicious intent. Annamalai (1985) calls this AV the
verb of casualness; for him the main notion is that speakers
attribute motives of `lack of care, inconsiderateness' etc. to others
when using this AV. For other speakers the main notion implied by the use of
pooDu is that speakers think of other speakers' motives as
involving careless disregard for the likes and desires of others,
i.e. their motives are malicious, etc. English translations for these
AV's seem to be most felicitous when attributing bad motives such as by
the use of expletives or pejorative adjectives, etc.
- neettu varakkuuDaadu -NNu sonneenee. aanaa, neettu paattu
"I told them not to come yesterday, but they deliberately came anyway
- tiruDanga en naaye konnupooTTaanga `[Those
dirty rotten] thieves [deliberately and in cold blood] went and killed my dog.']
- koRande taale kiRiccu pooTTadu `The child [carelessly] tore the
- avan ajaakkradeyaa kadave tirandu pooTTuTTu
pooyirukkaan `He has gone out, carelessly leaving the door ajar.'
tole impatience, disgust.
This verb is related to the lexical verbs tole 2 intr `come to
an end, die, be ruined' and 6b tr, `finish, exhaust, destroy, kill,
rout'. There is a nominalization of this verb tolle , which
means `trouble, care, vexation, perplexity. The use of the AV
tole expresses the speaker's impatience or even disgust with
another person's actions, and in some cases, even their general personal
attributes, the speech event, etc. In English this would also often be
translated by some expletive, or pejorative adjective. The intransitive
tole is usually used with intransitive verbs, and probably
originally the transitive was used only with transitive main verbs. But
now transitive tole may occur with intransitive main verbs;
there is variability according to dialect. Even though this AV expresses
impatience and disgust and must be used with caution, it does not
necessarily express lack of respect, since it may be used by wives to
husbands, with politeness markers. When so used, the antipathy is toward
the event rather than the person.
Note that verbs with tole and pooDu added, as in some
of these examples, can be also marked with completive (v)iDu for
extra definitiveness; tole and pooDu are thus not as
emphatically completive as (v)iDu is; or, the implicature of completeness is not full
- tiisas innum muDiccu tolekkalleyaa ? `Haven't you
finished [that troublesome] thesis yet, slowpoke?'
- pooy tole, engeyaavadu pooy tole! `Oh all right go on,
go, go somewhere, what (the hell) do I care!'
- ade saappiTTuTTu pooy
tolenga! `Eat it and get a move on! [or there'll be even more botheration.]
- kaaru tondaravu koDuttukkiTTirundadu; ade
vittu toleccuTTeen. `My
car was giving me trouble; I sold it [and got rid of the dumb thing.]
- avan sondakkaaranaa veeru
irundu tolekkraan. `He happens to be a
relative of mine [so there's no way to get out of helping the jerk.]
- ellaarum biir kuDikka -NNum -ngraanga.
naanum kuDiccu tolecceen. `Everyone was drinking beer [which I don't
like], [but] I drank some too [to avoid making a fuss.]
- avan namma viSayatte dairakTarkiTTu solli
tolecciTTaan `Mr. Bigmouth has spilled the beans about our little
caper to the Director [and boy, are we in hot water.]
Feb 8, 2005