Locative fusion in Tamil

Negative Fusion in Kannada

  1. Tamil -ee "emphatic" in locative expressions:

    Literary Tamil
    Gloss Spoken Tamil
    viiTT-il in the house viiTTul e
    meel on top meele
    kiiR below kiiRe
    anku there ange
    enku where enge
    inku here inge
    vaDakku (to the) north vaDakke
    meerku (to the) west meekke
    terku (to the) south tekke
    kiRakku (to the) east keRakke
    veLi outside veLiye

    When the LT and ST forms are compared, the ST forms appear with a final -e(e) which traditional grammarians analyze as the "emphatic particle" and simply state that ST locatives all have to appear with this final emphatic. In fact, however, if emphasis is needed, an additional e(e) has to be added: ange-y-ee "right there" etc. What has happened is that the emphatic e(e) has been incorporated into (fused with) the locative, and has in some sense become the marker of locative, since it is the common feature of all the ST forms above, whether explicitly marked with le or not, as in "semantically locative" forms (most of the above: postpositions, points of the compass, etc.). Note also how the points of the compass are marked with a now redundant dative marker ( -ku ). The emphatic has now been fused with the locative, and bracketing between it and the locative is gone. The points of the compass are, in the case of 'east' and 'west' built upon and incorporate the locational postpositions meel 'up' and kiiR 'down' (since the geography of Tamilnadu is such that west is 'uphill' and east is 'downhill.') (Cf. perhaps Kannada forms? Cf. Gai etc.)

  2. Kannada Future Negative. Another example of fusion: Kannada maaDu-v-ud-illa originally a negative verbal noun with future marking:. maaDu-v-udu 'making' from maaDu 'make' + -vu 'future' + -du 'thing' + illa 'negative' meaning 'not going to make or do'. Through reduction this has become:

    This contrasts with past negative maaDlilla 'didn't/doesn't make/do'. Reduction and deletion of the intervocalic lax consonants results in a short form without the previous overt future marking or verbal noun marking, but the meaning is the same.