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Numbers of Speakers

  1. 6 million in Caribbean & W. Africa (Sierra Leone, other Portuguese Creole)

  2. 3 million in S. Africa (Afrikaans?)

  3. English-based Creoles in Africa, W. Indies, Netherlands Antilles (Sranan Saramaccan 88,000 in Surinam); Gullah (Georgia, S. Carolina offshore islands) Neo-Melanesian (New Guinea) may be undergoing Creolization; Hawaii (H. `pidgin' is really Creole).

  4. Dutch Cr: Negerhollands (Virgin Isl), Afrikaans, ...
  5. Spanish, Portuguese-based Crl: Asia, Cap Verde, São Tomé, Papiamento (Curaçao) became Dutch territory in 1634 so now much relexification with Dutch, English, Portuguese/Spanish vocabulary. Hard to keep Sp/Portuguese C/P's apart, since borrowing is often inaccurate. Many Pidgin(s)/Creole(s) have a lexical item similar to English `piccaninny' (`child') which comes either from Spanish `pequeño niño' or from Portuguese `pequen(o) ninho' but how can we tell which?

Harold Schiffman
Tue Mar 25 08:54:40 EST 1997