Charts of variables, New York

  1. The following table shows variability of post-vocalic /r/ in New York City speech. The settings range from A to D', with D' being the most 'formal' and A the least formal. In the most formal settings, /r/ is pronounced much more often. Note how speakers of 'lower-middle-class' groups exceed and surpass other groups in their overcompensation on this variable, ending up as the highest group at the end.

  2. The following table showing the decreasing use of the /th/ variable from high use on the left end of the scale to lower use, i.e. merger with /t/, on the right.