Introduction to the Bible
Ancient tefillin on graph paper, all from Qumran. Those on left are
head tefillin, the one on the right an arm tefillin. Unlike modern
tefillin, which are square, the ancient ones were rectangular. Note the
various widths. (the bottom one is only 3/4 preserved and would have been
the widest). The widest ones illustrate Jesus' reference to showy people
making their phylacteries "broad" to flaunt their piety (Matthew 23: 5).
Before we discovered that ancient tefillin were rectangular, we didn't
know what he meant by "making broad."