Rise of Print 
What changes with  print?
    the look of a book: typeface, paratext
spread of knowledge and information  the book business             Printers, authors, illustrators Legal issues:
Privilege Index of Forbidden Books Development of markets  
Rise and spread  of print

Early printing: wood blocks
Paper Playing cards Religious prints

(Metropolitan Museum of Art. Burgundy, ca 1475-80)

    EX: Biblia Pauperum
Movable Type: Johannes Gutenberg (Mainz) ca. 1440
1550 ca first press
1555 Bible

Gutenberg Bible. Copy at the Library of Congress


   Replica of Gutenberg press, Featherbed Alley, Bermuda

 Spread of printing: Italy: Subiaco 
                Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz
                 Latin  Grammar
                 Cicero, De oratore; Lactantius; St Augustine
               1467  S & P move to Rome
   1469 printing in Venice. Venice becomes printing center
               urban literacy (demand)
               authors, editors (supply)
               distribution networks
    Process of printing:


copy stick and type

Garamond type ligature

               alphabet;  punch; matrix—letters cast 
               Letter cases (upper-lower): 
               copy text; copy stick
            print runs: by  1500, ca 1000  
               Printer’s bookshops
               other shops
               Book fairs (ex: Frankfurt)
     Control of property?
             privilege, begun by 1480s
Fonts and typefaces: Gothic, Roman    
Aldus Manutius  (1449-1515)
      humanist ed with Guarino, friend of Pico
      former student Alberto Pio (prince of Carpi) offers financial  backing
      1490: Venice.  Cretan scholars
manuzio Aldus Manutius, Grammar


Politics Greek

Aristotle, Politics

     Dante,  Commedia. Venice: Aldus, 1502. Italic type

Robert Estienne and Estienne Press 
     Robert 1503-1559 
          Bible edition   (1527-28) 
                 1531:Latin dictionary 
            connections with King
          Royal privilege      
           King’s printer for Hebrew, Latin works 1539,  Greek 1540 
         official typeface: 1541  Claude Garamond

Thesaurus linguae sanctae. Paris: Stephanus, 1548 

Christophe Plantin (1520-89)


Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp

  Controls on new business

    England: Stationers Company (founded 1403)
       1557 exclusive right to print in England
       1586 print in London only except Oxford, Cambridge (1 press each)

    1559: Roman Index of Forbidden Books

    Market segmentation
       Natural Philosophy, medicine
       Legal notices
       Music (double printing)


Josquin des Prez, Adieu mes amours. Harmonice Musices Odhecaton. Venice: Ottaviano Petrucci, 1501.

Calendars; Almanacs; manuals for home remedies; humor


Nostradamus Levellers



Religious: devotional; controversial

    Vernacular: greater standardization of written languages

USTC Universal Short Title Catalogue