Rome in the Thirteenth Century


 Political contexts


Cultural contexts


Role of pope

   Increasing role in regulating behavior of all Christians

      1215-16 Lateran IV


  Compare: Kingship in 13th c  

   Curia                       notaries

  New forms of spirituality

  Mendicant orders: Dominicans and Franciscans

   From Innocent III to Boniface VIII


  Role of Papacy in European political world

   A long-term pattern: pope versus emperor  

  (Hohen)Staufen dynasty and Frederick   II 1194-1250

       Frederick Barbarossa (d. 1190)

      Henry VI (d. 1197) m. Constance of Sicily (d. 1198)

      Guardian: Innocent III  (r. 1196-1216) ( tutor became Honorius III, r. 1216-1227)

       Crusade and Kingdom of Jerusalem

            --excommunication (temporary)

      Enmity of Papacy (Innocent IV, r. 1243-54)

               excommunicated, declared deposed


After death of Frederick

    Legitimate heir Conrad d. 1254

   No king in Germany again until 1273

   No imperial coronation until  1312: Henry VII (house of Luxemburg)

   Guelf-Ghibelline    (Welf-Waiblingen)

      Illegitimate heir:  Manfred (d. 1266)



Manfred Crowned king of Sicily, 1258.

Giovanni Villani, Cronaca. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Chigi L VIII 296, fol. 85r.


 1266: Battle of Benevento

      Death, defeat of Manfred

      Charles of Anjou (brother: Louis IX)

 1268 defeat of Conradin (son of Conrad)


Alliance pattern: Rome, Naples/Sicily, Florence, France


 1282: Sicilian Vespers: Peter of Aragon


Rome and pilgrims



Undated miscellany; Oratio de sancta Veronica followed by Mirabilia

Rome, Bibliotheca Hertziana: Dg 450-891 Coll. rom. fol. 15v


Mirabilia. Rome: Blado, 1516




“The Veronica: (Sudarium): at Hospital of Santo Spirito (Borgo), to St Peters 1297



Pilgrim with Veronica at top of his hat. Detail: Triumph of the Church Militant (1366-7), Spanish Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence


Fifteenth-century pilgrim badge. London, British Museum


Fifteenth-century pilgrim badge. London, Museum of London






1300 Jubilee: Boniface VIII


Boniface VIII  (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), pope from Dec. 1294

   Caetani family  

  feud with Colonna family (Palestrina)

   feud with Philip IV: taxes, authority

       1296 Clericis laicos

        1302 Unam sanctam  

Benedict XI  


 Clement V


Maps from Krautheimer