Archaeobotanical Reports from Syria and Related Items

accumulated by Naomi F. Miller, University of Pennsylvania Museum
February 2022

Arranz-Otaegui, A.
2017 Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains: Implications for the reconstruction of past vegetation and identification of firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North (south Syria). Quaternary International 457: 60-73. Syria//T. Qarassa//9M//8M

Arranz, Amaia, Andrea Balbo, Frank Braemer, Juan José Ibañez, Eneko Iriarte, and Lydia Zapata
2011 Anthracological analysis of an Early PPNB roof from Tell Qarassa North (southern Syria). 5th International Meeting of Charcoal Analysis: Charcoal as Cultural and Biological Heritage SAGVNTVM 11, Extra:125-126. Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia.
Syria//T. Qarassa North//9M//Early PPNB

Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia, Sue Colledge, Juan José Ibañez, and Lydia Zapata
2016 Crop husbandry activities and wild plant gathering, use and consumption at the EPPNB Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) Vegetation History and Archaeobotany DOI: 10.1007/s00334-016-0564-0.
Syria//T. Qarassa North//9M//Early PPNB

Balbo, Andrea L, Eneko Iriarte, Amaia Arranz, Lydia Zapata, Carla Lancelotti, Marco Madella, Luis Teira, Miguel Jiménez, Frank Braemer, Juan José Ibáñez
2012 Squaring the circle. Social and environmental implications of Pre-Pottery Neolithic building technology at Tell Qarassa (South Syria). PLOS One 7(7): e42109
Syria//T. Qarassa//9M//Early PPNB

Bouchaud, Charlène
2013 Productions végétales régionales et acquisition du combustible sur le plateau du Hauran: Analyse archéobotanique du chantier BAT de Bosra. Territoires, architecture et matériel au Levant. Presses de l'Institut français du Proche-Orient.

Buxó, R.
2006 Les prélèvements paléobotaniquies. In Chagar Bazar (Syrie) I. Les sondages préhistoriques, eds. O. Tunca and A. Baghdo, pp. 105-108. Peeters, Louvain.
Syria//Chagar Bazar//4M

Buxó, Ramon and Núria Rovira
20xx Tell Halula: arquebotánica de los restos de semillas y frutos. In Tell Halula: un poblado de los primeros agricultores en el valle del Éufrates, Siria, co-ord. M. Molist, pp. 359-389. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte

Cappers, René T.J.
2014 The cultivated and wild plant remains. In Excavations at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, eds. P.M.M.G. Akkermans, M. L. Brüning, H.O. Huigens, O.P. Nieuwenhuyse, pp. 233-246. Brepols, Turnhout.
Syria//T. Sabi Abyad//7M//6M

Caracuta, Valentina and Girolamo Fiorentino
2013 Forests near and far, an anthracological perspective on Ebla. In Ebla and Its Landscape. Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East, eds. P. Matthiae and N. Marchetti, pp. 403-412. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California.

Caracuta, Valentina and Girolamo Fiorentino
2014 Garbage disposal in the Middle Bronze Age in Tell Mardikh-Ebla (NW Syria): Using plant remains to investigate midden formation processes. In Tell Tuqan Excavations and Regional Perspectives, Cultural Developments in Inner Syria from the Early Bronze Age to the Persian/Hellenistic Period, eds. F. Baffi, R. Fiorentino, and L. Peyronel, pp. 485-506. Congedo Editore.

Charles, Mike, and Amy Bogaard
2001 Third Millennium BC charred plant remains from Tell Brak. In Excavations at Tell Brak Vol. 2: Nagar in the 3rd Millennium BC, ed.D. Oates, J. Oates and H. McDonald, pp. 301-326. McDonaldInstitute for Archaeological Research/British School of Archaeology, Cambridge.
Syria//T. Brak//3M

Charles, Mike and Mette Marie Hald
2003 Crop production and use in 4th millennium BC Tell Brak. Iraq 65:26-32. [entire article on-line]
Syria//T. Brak//4M

Charles, Mike, Mette Marie Hald, Jill Weber, and Henry T. Wright
2001 The forecourt of the Niched Building (Brak TWB 18): Preliminary note on an interdisciplinary study. Iraq 63:25-31. [ entire article on-line]
Syria//T. Brak//4M

Colledge, S.
1998 Identifying pre-domestication cultivation using multivariate analysis. In The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, eds. A.B. Damania, J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, and C.O. Qualset, pp. 121-131. ICARDA, Aleppo.
Syria//Mureybit//Ghoraifé//Ramad//Ras Shamra//9M//8M//7M

Colledge, Sue
2001 Contextual analysis of the use of space at two Near Eastern Bronze Age sites. Part 4: Final Report on the Archaeobotanical Analyses. Available through ads ArchSearch, Contextual analysis of the use of space at two Near Eastern Bronze Age sites, by R. J. Matthews and J. N. Postgate [verified August 14, 2012]
Syria//T. Brak//4M//3M//2M [also Kilise Tepe, Turkey]

Colledge, Sue
2004 Plants and people. In Excavations at Tell Brak. Vol. 4: Exploring an Upper Mesopotamian Regional Centre, 1994-1996, ed. Roger Matthews, pp. 389-416. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research/British School of Archaeology in Iraq, Cambridge.
Syria//T. Brak//4M//3M//2M

Crawford, Patricia L.
1999 Botanical remains. In The Iron Age Settlement at 'Ain Dara, Syria, by E.C. Stone and P.E. Zimansky, pp. 113-121. BAR International Series 786, Oxford.
Syria//'Ain Dara//1M

Deckers, Kathleen
2005 Anthracological research at the archaeological site of Emar on the Middle Euphrates, Syria. Paléorient 31.2:153-168.

Deckers, K.
2010 Vegetation and wood use in the Bronze Age based on charcoals from Emar. In Emar after the closure of the Tabqa Dam. The Syrian-German excavations 1996-2002. Volume I: Late Roman and Medieval Cemeteries and Environmental Studies, eds. U. Finkbeiner and F. Sakal. Subartu XXV:225-244.

Deckers, K.
2010 Anthracological research at Tell Mozan. In Development of the Environment, Subsistence and settlement of the city of Urkes and its Region, eds. K. Deckers, M. Doll, P. Pälzner and S. Riehl, pp. 361-378.

Deckers, K.
2011 Wood use in the palace of Qatna. In Holocene Landscapes through Time in the Fertile Crescent, ed. K. Deckers, pp. 157-172. Subartu XXVIII, Brepols.

Deckers, Katleen
2019 13. Charcoal remains from 3rd millennium BC Tell el-'Abd. In Final Reports of the Syrian-German Excavations at Tell el-'Abd, Volume III, ed. U. Finkbeiner, pp. 187-190. Marru 5/2. Zaphon Verlag, Münster.
Syria//T. el-'Abd//3M

Deckers, Katleen and Nicholas J. Conard
2011 Vegetation and wood-use from the Pleistocene to the Holocene in the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon. In Holocene Landscapes through Time in the Fertile Crescent, ed. K. Deckers, pp. 1-15. Subartu XXVIII, Brepols.
Syria//Baaz rockshelter//Kaus Kozah rockshelter//Paleolithic

Deckers, K. and H. Pessin
2010 Vegetation development in relation to human occupation and climatic change in the Middle Euphrates and Upper Jazirah (Syria/Turkey) during the Bronze Age. Quaternary Research 74:216-226.
Syria//Horum H.//Tilbeshar//T. Shiukh Fawqani//Emar//T. Mozan//3M//2M

Deckers, Katleen and Hugues Pessin
2011 Vegetation development in relation to human occupation and climatic change in the Middle Euphrates and Upper Jazirah (Syria/Turkey) during the Bronze Age. In Holocene Landscapes through Time in the Fertile Crescent, ed. K. Deckers, pp. 33-48. Subartu XXVIII, Brepols.
Syria//Turkey//Horum H.//Tilbeshar//Jerablus//Shiukh Fawqani//T. Emar//3M//2M

Deckers, Kathleen and Simone Riehl
2007 An evaluation of botanical assemblages from the third to second millennium B.C. in northern Syria. In Sociétés humaines et changement climatique à la fin du troisième millénaire : une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en Haute Mésopotamie?, eds. C. Kuzucuoğlu and C. Marro, pp. 481-502. Du Boccard, Paris.
Syria//T. Mozan//T. Jerablus Tahtani//Emar//3M//2M

de Moulins, Dominique
1997 Agricultural changes at Euphrates and steppe sites in the mid-8th to the 6th millennium B.C. BAR International Series 683, Oxford.
Syria//Turkey//El Kowm II-Caracol//Abu Hureyra//Cafer//8M//7M//6M

de Moulins, Dominique
2000 Abu Hureyra 2: Plant remains from the Neolithic. In Village on the Euphrates, by A.M.T. Moore, G.C. Hillman, and A.J. Legge, pp. 399-422 Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Syria//Abu Hureyra//8M//7M//6M

de Moulins, Dominique
2000 Les restes de plantes carbonisées d'El Kowm 2. In El Kowm 2, une île dans le désert, ed. D. Stordeur, pp. 281-300. CNRS Editions, Paris.
Syria//El Kowm 2//Neolithic

Douché, C. and G. Willcox
2018 New archaeobotanical data from the Early Neolithic sites of Dja'de el-Mughara and Tell Aswad (Syria): A comparison between the Northern and the Southern Levant. Paléorient 44.2: 45-57.
Syria// Dja'de//T. Aswad//10M//9M//8M

Fairbairn, Andrew
2003 Archaeobotany. In "Jebel Khalid: the 2002 Season," by G. Clarke, H. Jackson, A. Fairbairn, and L. Mairs. Mediterranean Archaeology 16: 182-183.
Syria//Jebel Khalid//1M//AD//Seleucid

Fiorentino, Girolamo and Valentina Caracuta
2010 The use of plants in a ritual well at Ebla (Tell Mardikh) - North-western Syria. In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East,vol. 1, eds. P Matthiae, F. Pinnock, L. Nigro, and N. Marchetti, pp. 307-320. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Fiorentino, Girolamo and Valentina Caracuta
2013 Use of Wood and Environment in Bronze Age Ebla (NW Syria): Results of the Anthracological Analyses. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Meeting of Anthracology (2008), ed. F. Damblon, pp. 93-102. BAR International Series 2486. Archaeopress, Oxford.

Frey, Wolfgang, Christian Jagiella, and Harald Krschner
1991 Holzkohlefunde in Dur-Katlimmu/Tall Seh Hamad und ihre Interpretation. In Die rezente Umwelt von Tall Seh Hamad und Daten zur Umweltrekonstruktion der assyrischen Stadt Dur-Katlimmu, ed. H. Kuhne, pp. 137-161.

Genequand, H., H. Amoroso, M. Haldemann, et al.
2008 Rapport préliminaire des travaux de la mission archéologique syro-suisse à Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi en 2007. SLSA Schweizerisch-Liechtensteinische Stiftung für archäologische Forschungen im Ausland Jahresbreicht 2007(2008): 141-178.
Syria//Qasr al-Hayr al Sharqi//AD

Gilligan, Nikolah
2012 Diet and Storage at Tell Shiyukh Tahtani, Northern Syria. MSc. Dissertation, University College, London.
Syria//T. Shiyukh Tahtani//3M//2M

Hald, Mette Marie
2001 Plant remains from the 2000 excavation at Tell Brak, Area TC: Preliminary results. Iraq 63:40-45.
Syria//T. Brak//3M

Hald, M.M.
2008 A thousand years of farming: Late Chalcolithic agricultural practices at Tell Brak in northern Mesopotamia. BAR International Report 1880. Archaeopress, Oxford. BAR International Report 1880.
Syria//T. Brak//4M

Hald, M.M.
2008 Storage of crops during the fourth and third millennia B.C. at the settlement mound of Tell Brak, NE Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17(1):35-41.
Syria//T. Brak//4M//3M

Hald, M.M & M. Charles
2007 Brak preliminary archaeobotanical report. In "Excavations at Tell Brak 2006-7," eds. A. McMahon and J. Oates. Iraq 69: 22-23.
Syria//T. Brak//4M//3M

Helbaek, Hans
1948 Les empreintes des céréales. In Hama (les cimitières à crémation), P.J. Riis, pp. 205-207, Appendix I.

Helbaek, Hans
1962 Les grains carbonisés de la 48ème couche de fouilles de Tell Soukas. Annales Archéologiques de la Syrie 11-12: 185-186.
Syria//T. Soukas//2M?

Herveux, Linda
2004 Étude archéobotanique préliminaire de tell al-Rawda, site de la fin du Bronze ancien en Syrie intériere. Akkadica 125:79-91.

Syria//T. al-Rawda//3M

Herveux, Linda
2007 La crise de 2100 av. J.-C. a-t-elle eu lieu? Indices archéobotaniques au Levant nord. In Sociétés humaines et changement climatique à la fin du troisième millénaire: une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en Haute Mésopotamia?, eds. C. Kuzucuoğlu and C. Marro, pp. 549-555. Du Boccard, Paris.

Hide, C. M.
1990 Archaeobotanical Remains from Tell es-Sweyhat, Northwest Syria. M.A. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Hillman, Gordon C.
1975 Appendix A. The plant remains from Tell Abu Hureyra: A preliminary report. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 41: 70-73.
Syria//Abu Hureyra//Epipaleo//Neolithic

Hillman, Gordon C.
1981 The barleys from Iron Age Rifa'at. In The River Qoueiq, Northern Syria, and Its Catchment. Studies Arising from the Tell Rifa'at Survey 1977-1979, ed. J. Matthews, pp. 508-510, App. C. BAR International Series 98. Oxford.
Syria//Rifa'at//Iron Age

Hillman, Gordon C.
1981 Cereal remains from Tell Ilbol and Tell Qaramel. In The River Qoueiq, Northern Syria, and Its Catchment. Studies Arising from the Tell Rifa'at Survey 1977-1979, ed. J. Matthews. BAR International Series 98. Oxford.
Syria//Tell Ilbol//Tell Qaramel

Hillman, Gordon C.
2000 Abu Hureyra 1: The Epipaleolithic. In Village on the Euphrates, by A.M.T. Moore, G.C. Hillman, and A.J. Legge, pp. 327-399. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Syria//Abu Hureyra//10M//9M

Hillman, Gordon C., Susan M. Colledge and David R. Harris
1989 Plant food economy during the Epipaleolithic period at Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria: Dietary diversity, seasonality and modes of exploitation. In Foraging and Farming, The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, eds. D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman, pp. 240-268. London: Unwin Hyman.
Syria //Abu Hureyra//Epipaleo

Jarl, Johan, Simone Riehl, Katleen Deckers, and Jrg Adam Becker
2020 Plant cultivation under climatic fluctuations during the sixth and fifth millennia BC at Tell Tawila (northern Syria). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 12: 266. (
Syria//T. Tawila//6M//5M

Küster, Hansjörg
1989 Bronzezeitliche Pflanzenreste aus Tall Munbaqa. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 121: 9591.
Syria//T. Munbaqa//3M

Leroi-Gourhan, Arlette
1974 Études palynologiques des derniers 11.000 ans en Syrie sémi-désertiques. Paléorient 2: 443-451.
Syria //Mureybit//pollen

Linseele, Veerle, Elena Marinova, Bea de Cupere, Jan van der Valk, Patricia Vandorpe and Wim Van Neer
2019 Bronze and Iron Age palaeo-economy in a changing environment. The bioarchaeology of Tell Tweini, on the northern Levantine coast. In About Tell Tweini (Syria): Artefacts, Ecofacts and Landscape, eds. J. Bretschneider and G. Jans, pp. 417-617. Peeters, Leuven.
Syria//T. Tweini//2M//1M

McCorriston, Joy
1992 The Halaf environment and human activities in the Khabur Drainage, Syria. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 315-333.
Syria//Umm Qseir//Tell Aqab//Halaf//5M

McCorriston, Joy
1995 Preliminary archaeobotanical analysis in the Middle Habur Valley, Syria and studies of socioeconomic change in the early Third Millennium BC. Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 29: 33-46.
Syria//Tell Atij//Tell Kerma//3M

McCorriston, Joy
2007 Cultural and Environmental History in Archaeological Charred Woods from the Khabur Drainage, Upper Mesopotamia. In Sociétés humaines et changement climatique à la fin du troisième millénaire : une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en Haute Mésopotamie?, eds. C. Kuzucuoğlu and C. Marro, pp. 503-522. Du Boccard, Paris.
Syria//Feyda//Kashkashok//T. Halaf//Umm Qseir//T. Aqab// Mashnaqa//Ziyada//T. Kuran//KS 160// T. Brak//T. 'Atij//T. Judeida//T. Bderi//7M//6M//5M//4M//3M//2M//1M

McCorriston, Joy
2016 Botanical remains: Charred plant remains from Ziyadeh In Homesteads on the Khabur. Tell Ziyadeh and Other Settlements, eds. F. Hole and Y. Tonoike, pp. 255-285. BAR International Series 2827.
Syria//T. Ziyadeh//5M//4M

McCorriston, Joy and Sanford Weisbert
2002 Spatial and temporal variation in Mesopotamian agricultural practices in the Khabur Basin, Syrian Jazira. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:485-498.
Syria//Khabur sites//6M//5M//4M//3M

McLaren, Frances
1998 Douara Cave, Syria: The botanical evidence from a Paleolithic site in an arid zone. In Life on the Edge, eds. C.M. Mills and G. Coles, pp. 179-187. Oxbow, Oxford.
Syria//Douara Cave//Paleolithic

Matilla Siquer, Gonzalo and Diego Rivera Nunez
1993 Estudio paleoetnobotanico de Tell Qara Quzaq-I. In Qara Quzaq-I, Campanas I-III (1989-1991), by Emilia Olavarri et al., pp. 151-181. Aula Orientalis Supplementa 4. Editorial AUSA, Barcelona.
Syria//Qara Quzaq-I//3M//2M//Roman

Matilla Séiquer, Gonzalo, Diego Rivera Nuñéz, and Concepción Obón de Castro
2001 Éstudio paleoetnobotánico de Tell Qara Qúzaq (II): las plantas sinantrópicas. In Qara Qúzaq-II. Campañas IV-VI (1992 -1994), eds. G. del Olmo Lete, J.-L. Montero Fenollos and V. Pereiro, pp. 403-453. Aula Orientalis Supplement 17. Editorial AUSA, Barcelona.
Syria//Qara Quzaq//2M//1M

Matsutani, Akiko
1979 Microscopic study of the amorphous silica and charcoal from the Douara Cave. In Paleolithic Site of Douara Cave and Paleogeography of Palmyra Basin in Syria. Part II: Prehistoric Occurrences and Chronology in Palmyra Basin, eds. K. Hanihara and T. Akazawa, pp. 225-233 + plates. University Museum, University of Tokyo Bulletin 16. Tokyo. [on-line]
Syria//Douara Cave// Middle Paleo

Matsutani, Akiko
1987 Plant remains from the 1984 excavations at Douara Cave. In Paleolithic Site of Douara Cave and Paleogeography of Palmyra Basin in Syria. Part IV: 1984 Excavations, eds. T. Akazawa and Y. Sakaguchi, pp. 117-122 + plates. University Museum, University of Tokyo Bulletin 29. Tokyo. [on-line]
Syria//Douara Cave// Middle Paleo

Miller, Naomi F.
1997 Sweyhat and Hajji Ibrahim: Some archaeobotanical samples from the 1991 and 1993 seasons. In Subsistence and Settlement in a Marginal Environment: Tell es-Sweyhat, 1989-1995 Preliminary Report, by R.L. Zettler, pp. 95-122. MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology 14. Philadelphia. [Download pdf]
Syria//Sweyhat//Hajji Ibrahim//3M//2M

Miller, Naomi F.
2004 Flotation samples from the 1992 excavation at Tell Jouweif. In On the Margin of the Euphrates: Settlement and Land Use at Tell es-Sweyhat and in the Upper Lake Assad Area, Syria, by T.J. Wilkinson, pp. 157-165. Oriental Institute Publication 124. Chicago. [Entire book on-line!]
Syria//Tell Jouweif//2M

Moffett, Lisa
1989 Early Bronze Age plant remains from Tell Nebi Mend-A preliminary report. Appendix to "The Early Phases at Tell Nebi Mend: A Preliminary Account," by V.T. Mathias and P.J. Parr, pp. 13-32. Levant 21:29-32.
Syria//T. Nebi Mend//3M

Moffet, Lisa
2003 Wild and cultivated food plants and the evidence for crop processing activities at Arjoune. In Excavations at Arjoune, Syria, ed. P.J. Parr, pp. 241-249. BAR International Series 1134. Oxford.

Moore, A.M.T., G.C. Hillman, and A.J. Legge
2000 Village on the Euphrates. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Syria//Abu Hureyra//10M//9M//8M//7M//6M

Mueller-Bieniek, Aldona, Krystyna Wasylikowa, and Anna Smogorzewska
2015 Plant macrofossils from the site of Tell Arbid, northeast Syria (3rd-2nd millennium BC). Preliminary report. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 24/1: 657-674.
Syria//T. Arbid//3M//2M

Peltenburg, E., D. Bolger, S. Campbell, M. A. Murray and R. Tipping
1996 Jerablus-Tahtani, Syria, 1995: Preliminary report. Levant 28: 1-25 (20-21).

Peltenburg, E., S. Campbell, P. Croft, D. Lunt, M. A. Murray and M. E. Watt
1995 Jerablus-Tahtani, Syria, 1992-4: Preliminary report. Levant 27: 1-28 (24-25).

Peña-Chocorro, Leonor and Mauro Rottoli
2007 Crop husbandry practices during the Bronze and Iron Ages in Tell Mishrifeh (Central-Western Syria). In Urban and Natural Landscapes of an Ancient Syrian Capital. Settlement and Environment at Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna and in Central-Western Syria, ed. D.M. Bonacossi, pp. 123-143. Studi archeologici su Qatna 1. Forum, Udine.
Syria//Qatna//T. Mishrifeh//3M//2M//1M

Pessin, H.
2002 Preliminary report on the charcoal analysis of Tell Shiukh Fawqani (Middle-Euphrates, Syria), IIIrd-Ist Millenniua BC. In Charcoal Analysis. Methodological Approaches, Palaeoecological Results and Wood Uses, ed. S. Thiebault, pp. 147-150. BAR International Series 1063. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Syria//T. Shiukh Fawqani//3M//2M//1M

Peyronel, Luca, Agnese Vacca, Claudia Wachter-Sarkady
2014 Food and drink preparation at Ebla, Syria. New data from the Royal Palace G (c. 2450-2300 BC). Food & History 12: 2-38.

Riehl, Simone
2000 Erste Ergebnisse der archäobotanischen Untersuchungen in der zentralen Oberstadt von Tall Mozan/Urkesh. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 132:229-238. Available online, go to website.
Syria//T. Mozan//Urkesh//2M

Riehl, Simone
2001 Vorbericht der archäobotanischen Bestandaufnahme in Emar (Syria). Baghdader Mitteilungen 32:157-172, Taf. 1-2. Available online, go to website.

Riehl, Simone
2007 Preliminary archaeobotanical results from the palace at Qatna (Tell Mishrifeh). In In Urban and Natural Landscapes of an Ancient Syrian Capital. Settlement and Environment at Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna and in Central-Western Syria, ed. D.M. Bonacossi, pp. 145-152. Studi archeologici su Qatna 1. Forum, Udine.
Syria//Qatna//T. Mishrifeh//3M//2M//1M

Riehl, Simone
2010 Plant production in a changing environment: The archaeobotanical remains from Tell Mozan. In Development of the Environment, Subsistence and Settlement of the City of Urkes and Its Region, by K. Deckers, M. Doll, P. Pfäzner, and S. Riehl, pp. 13-158. Studien zur Urbanisierung Nordmesopotamiens, Serie A. Ausgrabungen 1998-2001 in der Zentralen Oberstadt von Tall Mozan / Urkes. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Riehl, S. and Deckers, K.
2009 Vorbericht zu einigen eisenzeitlichen und mittelalterlichen Pflanzenresten vom Tell Halaf. In Tell Halaf: Vorberichte ber die erste und zweite syrisch-deutsche Grabungskampagne, eds. A. Baghdo, L. Martin, M. Novak, and W. Orthmann, pp. 105-118. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Syria//T. Halaf//1M//AD

Riehl, Simone and Katleen Deckers
2019 Die Umwelt des Königspalastes: Eine Synthese der archäologischen Untersuchungen. In Der Königspalast von Qatna. Teil I: Chronologie, Grundriss, Baugeschicht und Bautechniken, by P. Pfälzner and J. Schmid, pp. 79-87. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Roitel, V. and G. Willcox
2000 Analysis of charcoal from Abu Hureyra 1. In Village on the Euphrates, by A.M.T. Moore, G.C. Hillman, and A.J. Legge, pp. 544-547. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Syria//Abu Hureyra//10M//9M

Samuel, Delwen
1986 Plant remains from the Northwest Tell at Busra. Berytus 34: 83-96.

Samuel, Delwen
1989 Archaeobotanical work at Tell Zagan and Tell Hwes, 1987. Part of "The AUB-IFEAD Habur Village Project Preliminary Report: Rural Settlement in the Syrian Gazira from Prehistoric to Modern Times," by H. Seeden and J. Wilson, pp. 1-31, Plates 1-4. Damaszener Mitteilungen 4:19-23.
Syria//T. Zagan//3M//T. Hwes//2M

Samuel, Delwen
2001 Archaeobotanical evidence and analysis. In Peuplement rural et aménagements hydroagricôles dans la moyenne vallée de l'Euphrate fin VIIe-XIXe siecle, by S. Berthier, pp. 347-481. Institut Français d'&eacutE;tudes Arabes de Damas, Damascus. [on-line]
Syria//Tell Guftan//Qaryat Medad//Diban//Shheil//Safat ez Zerr//AD

Schwartz, Glenn M., Hans H. Curvers, Fokke A. Gerritsen, Jennifer A. MacCormack, Naomi F. Miller, and Jill A. Weber
2000 Excavation and survey in the Jabbul Plain, western Syria: The Umm el-Marra Project 1996-1997. American Journal of Archaeology 104: 419-462. [plant remains pp. 438-447]
Syria//Umm el-Marra//3M//2M

Schwartz, Glenn M. and Naomi F. Miller
2007 The "crisis" of the Late Third Millennium B.C.: Ecofactual and artifactual evidence from Umm el-Marra and the Jabbul Plain. In Sociétés humaines et changement climatique à la fin du troisième millénaire : une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en Haute Mésopotamiae, eds. C. Kuzucuoğlu and C. Marro, pp. 179-201. Du Boccard, Paris.
Syria//Umm el-Marra//3M//2M

Smith, Alexia
2005 Climate, Culture, and Agriculture: Examining Change in the Near East during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University.
Syria//T. Qarqur//3M//2M//1M

Smith, Alexia
2012 Akkadian and Post-Akkadian plant use at Tell Leilan. In Seven Generations Since the Fall of Akkad, ed. Harvey Weiss, pp. 225-240. Studia Chaburensia 3. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Smith, Alexia, Philip J. Graham, and Gil Stein
2015 Ubaid Plant Use at Tell Zeidan, Syria. Paléorient 41.2: 51-69.
Syria//T. Zeidan//6M//5M//4M

Smith, Katherine and Lisa Moffett
2015 The charred plant remains. In Excavations at Tell Nebi Mend, Syria, vol. 1, ed. P.J. Parr, pp. 336-343. Levant Supplementary Series 16, Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Syria//Tell Nebi Mend//6M

Tanno, Ken-ichi and George Willcox
2006 The origins of cultivation of Cicer arietinum L. and Vicia faba L.: Early finds from Tell el-Kerkh, north-west Syria, late 10th millennium B.P. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15: 197-204.
Syria//T. el-Kherkh//10M

Tanno, Ken-ichi, George Willcox, Sultan Muhesen, Yoshihiro Nishiaki, Yousef Kanjo, and Takeru Akazawa
2013 Preliminary results from analyses of charred plant Remains from a burnt Natufian building at Dederiyeh Cave in northwest Syria. In Natufian Foragers in the Levant. Terminal Pleistocene Social Changes in Western Asia, eds. O. Bar-Yosef and F.R. Valla, pp. 83-87. International Monographs in Prehistory, Archaeological Series 19. [available online]
Syria//Dederiyeh Cave//11M//Epipaleo

van Zeist, Willem
1970 The Oriental Institute excavations at Mureybit, Syria: Preliminary report on the 1965 campaign. Part III: The paleobotany. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 29: 167-176.
Syria //Mureybit//Epipaleo

van Zeist, Willem
1979-80 Examen des graines de Tell es Sinn. Anatolica 7: 55-59.
Syria//Tell es Sinn

van Zeist, Willem
1986 Appendix: Plant remains from Neolithic El Kowm, central Syria. In A Neolithic village at Tell El Kowm in the Syrian desert, Rudolph H. Dornemann, pp. 65-68. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 43. Oriental Institute, Chicago.
Syria //El Kowm//Neolithic

van Zeist, Willem
1993 Archaeobotanical evidence of the Bronze Age field-weed flora of northern Syria. Dissertaciones Botanicae 196: 499-511.
Syria //3M//weeds

van Zeist, Willem
1994 Some notes on second millennium B.C. plant cultivation in the Syrian jazira. In Cinquante-deux reflexions sur le proche-orient ancien, pp. 541-553. Mesopotamian History and Environment, Occasional Publications 2. Peeters, Leuven.
Syria//Hadidi//Hammam et-Turkmam//Sabi Abyad//Sheykh Hamad//2M

van Zeist, Willem
1999/2000 (2001) Third to first millennium BC plant cultivation on the Khabur, north-eastern Syria. Palaeohistoria 41/42: 111-125.
Syria//T. al-Raqa'i//T. Bderi//T. Schech Hamad//Sheykh Hamad//3M//2M//1M

van Zeist, Willem
2000 Cultivated and wild food plants from Tell Ramad. In Ramad, site néolithique en Damascène (Syrie) aux VIIIe et VIIe millénaires avant l'è chrétienne, by H. de Contenson. Institut Franç d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, Beirut.

van Zeist, Willem
2003 The plant husbandry of Tell al Raqa'i. In Reports on Archaeobotanical Studies in the Old World, edited by W. van Zeist, pp. 7-31. Groningen.
Syria//T. Raqa'i//3M

van Zeist, Willem
2003 Comments on plant cultivation at two Sites on the Khabur, north-eastern Syria. In Reports on Archaeobotanical Studies in the Old World, ed. W. van Zeist, pp. 33-60. Groningen.
Syria//T. Bderi//T. Schech Hamad//3M//2M

van Zeist, Willem
2008 Comments on plant cultivation at two sites on the Khabur, north-eastern Syria. In Berichte der Ausgrabung von Tell Seh Hamad.Dur Katlimmu, vol. 8, ed. H. Kühne, with A. Mahmoud and W. Röllig, pp. 13-19. Reimer Verlag.
Syria//T. Bderi//T. Sheikh Hamad/Dur-Katlimmu//3M//2M//1M//AD

van Zeist, Willem
2015 The plant husbandry of Tell al-Raqa'i. In Rural Archaeology in Early Urban Northern Mesopotamia: Excavations at Tell al-Raqa'i, ed. Glenn M. Schwartz, pp. 551-569. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.
Syria//T. al-Raqa'i//3M

van Zeist, Willem and J.A.H. Bakker-Heeres
1979 Some economic and ecological aspects of the plant husbandry of Tell Aswad. Paléorient 5: 161-169.
Syria //Tell Aswad//Neolithic

van Zeist, Willem and J. A. H. Bakker-Heeres
1982(1985) Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant, 1. Neolithic sites in the Damascus Basin: Aswad, Ghoraifé, Ramad. Palaeohistoria 24: 165-256.

van Zeist, Willem and J. A. H. Bakker-Heeres
1984(1986) Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant, 2. Neolithic and Halaf levels at Ras Shamra. Palaeohistoria 26: 151-170.
Syria //Halaf//Ras Shamra//Neolithic

van Zeist, Willem and J. A. H. Bakker-Heeres
1984(1986) Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant, 3. Late-Paleolithic Mureybit. Palaeohistoria 26: 171-199.
Syria //Mureybit//Epipaleo

van Zeist, Willem and J. A. H. Bakker-Heeres
1985(1986) Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant, 4. Bronze Age sites on the North Syrian Euphrates. Palaeohistoria 27: 247-316.
Syria//Hadidi//Tell es-Sweyhat//Selenkahiye//3M

van Zeist, W. and S. Bottema
1966 Palaeobotanical investigations at Ramad. Annales archéologiques arabes syriennes 16: 179-180.

van Zeist, Willem and W.A. Casparie
1968 Wild einkorn wheat and barley from Tell Mureybit in northern Syria. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 17: 44-53.
Syria //Mureybit//Epipaleo

van Zeist, Willem, Gerrit Jan de Roller (and Sytze Bottema)
2000 The plant remains. In Tell Sabi Abyad II, The Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Settlement, eds. M. Verhouven and P.M.M.G. Akkermans, pp. 137-146. Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, Istanbul.
Syria//Sabi Abyad//PPNB

van Zeist, Willem and W. Waterbolk-van Rooijen
1985 The palaeobotany of Tell Bouqras, eastern Syria. Paléorient 11(2): 131-147.

van Zeist, Willem and W. Waterbolk-van Rooijen
1989 Plant remains from Tell Sabi Abyad, Prehistoric investigations in the Balikh Valley, northern Syria. In Excavations at Tell Sabi Abyad, ed. P.M.M.G. Akkermans, pp. 325-335. BAR International Series 468, Oxford.
Syria//Sabi Abyad//Halaf

van Zeist, Willem and W. Waterbolk-van Rooijen
1992 Two interesting floral finds from Third Millennium B.C. Tell Hammam et-Turkman, northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 1: 157-161.
Syria//Tell Hammam et-Turkman//3M//Carthamus tinctorius//Prunus mahaleb

van Zeist, Willem, and Willemina Waterbolk-van Rooijen
1996 The cultivated and wild plants. In Tell Sabi Abbyad: The Late Neolithic Settlement, vol. 2, ed. P.M.M.G. Akkermans, pp. 521-550. Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, Istanbul.
Syria//Sabi Abyad//6M//5M

van Zeist, W., W. Waterbolk-van Rooijen and S. Bottema
1988 Appendix 2: Some notes on the plant husbandry of Tell Hammam et-Turkman. In Hammam et-Turkman I. Report on the University of Amsterdam's 1981-84 Excavations in Syria, ed. M.N. van Loon, pp. 705-715. Istanbul.
Syria//Hammam et-Turkman

van Zeist, Willem, Willemina Waterbolk-van Rooijen, Rita M. Palfenier-Vegter, and Gerrit Jan de Roller
2003 Plant cultivation at Tell Hammam et-Turkman. In Reports on Archaeobotanical Studies in the Old World, edited by W. van Zeist, pp. 61-114. Groningen.
Syria//Hammam et-Turkman//6M//5M//4M//3M//2M//1M//AD

Wachter-Sarkady, Claudia
1998 Archaeobotanical investigations. In Tell Afis (Syria), Scavi sull'acropoli 1988-1992, by S.M. Ceccini and S. Mazzoni, pp. 451-480. Edizioni ETS, Pisa.
Syria//Tell Afis//4M//3M//2M//1M

Wasylikowa, Krystyna and Rafal Kolinski
2013 The role of plants in the economy of Tell Arbid, north-east Syria, in the Post- Akkadian Period and Middle Bronze Age. Acta Palaeobotanica 53(2): 263-293.
DOI: 10.2478/acpa-2013-0010; Online
Syria//T. Arbid//3M//2M

Wetterstrom, Wilma
2003 Ninevite 5 Period agriculture at Tell Leilan: Preliminary results. In The Origins of North Mesopotamian Civilization: Ninevite 5 Chronology, Economy, Society, eds. E. Rova and H. Weiss. Subartu IX: 387-400. Brepols, Turnhout.

Willcox, George
1996 Evidence for plant exploitation and vegetation history from three Early Neolithic Pre-Pottery sites on the Euphrates (Syria). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 5: 143-152. [click on 'publications' link]

Willcox, George
1999 Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria. Quaternary Science Reviews 18: 711-716. [ doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(98)00106-1]

Willcox, George
2002 Charred plant remains from a 10th Millennium B.P. kitchen at Jerf el Ahmar (Syria). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 11(1-2): 55-60.
Syria//Jerf el Ahmar//PPNA//10M

Willcox George
2002 Evidence for ancient forest cover and deforestation from charcoal analysis of ten archaeological sites on the Euphrates. In Charcoal Analysis, Methodological Approaches, Palaeoecological Results, and Wood Use, ed. S. Thiébault, pp. 141-145. BAR International Series 1863. [click on 'publications' link]
Syria//Turkey//Natufian to Bronze Age

Willcox, George
2003 Chalcolithic carbonised cereals from Ubaid burnt storage structures at Tell Kosak Shamali. Appendix by H. Pessin, Charcoal analysis from Tell Kosak Shamali. In Tell Kosak Shamali II. The Archaeolgoical Investigations on the Upper Euphrates, Syria. Chalcolithic Technology and Subsistence, eds. Y. Nishiaki & T. Matsutani, pp. 267-270. The University of Tokyo, The University Museum UM UT Monograph 2, Tokyo.
Syria//Kosak Shamali//5M

Willcox, G.
2003 L'économie végétale à Bosra et à Si' : résultats d'analyse de restes végétaux carbonisés des périodes romaine, byzantine et islamique. In Hauran II, vol. 1, eds. J. Dentzer-Feydy, J. M. Dentzer, P.-M. Blanc, pp. 177-184. IFPO, Beyrouth.

Willcox George
2008 Nouvelles données archéobotaniques de Mureybet et la néolithisation du moyen Euphrate. In Le site néolithique de Tell Mureybet (Syrie du Nord), en hommage à Jacques Cauvin, ed. J. Ibañez, pp. 103-114. BAR International Series, 1843 (1). [click on 'publications' link]

Willcox, George and Merc Catal
1996 Anlisis paleobotánico. InTell Halula (Siria), un yacimiento neolítico del valle del Eufrates, Campaas de 1991 y 1992, by M. Molist Montana, pp. 135-142. Ministerio del Educacion y Cultura, Madrid.
Syria //Halula//7M//6M//PPNB

Willcox, G. and L. Herveux
2013 Late Pleistocene/early Holocene charred plant remains: preliminary report. In Tell Qaramel 1999-2007. Protoneolithic and Early Pre-pottery Neolithic Settlement in Northern Syria, eds. R. F. Mazurowski and Y. Kanjou, pp. 120-128. PCMA, Warsaw. [available online]
Syria//T. Qaramel//10M//PPNA

Willcox, George, and Sandra Fornite
1999 Impressions of wild cereal chaff in pisé from the 10th millennium uncal. B.P. at Jerf el-Ahmar and Mureybet: northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: 21-24.
Syria//Jerf el Ahmar//Mureybit//PPNA

Willcox, George, Sandra Fornite, and Linda Herveux
2008 Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 313-325.
Syria//T. Qaramel//Jerf el Ahmar//Dja'de//T. 'Abr//Epipaleo

Willcox, G. and C. Roitel
1998 Rapport archéobotanique préliminaire de trois sites précéramiques du Moyen-Euphrate (Syrie). Cahiers de l'Euphrate 8: 65-79. Syria//Jerf el Ahmar//Dja'de//Halula//PPNA//PPNB//8M//7M

Yasuda, Yoshinori
1997 The rise and fall of olive cultivation in northwestern Syria-palaeoecological study of Tell Mastuma. Japan Review 8: 251-273.
Syria//T. Mastuma//3M

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