Courses for Fall 2020

Title Instructor Location Time All taxonomy terms Description Section Description Cross Listings Fulfills Registration Notes Syllabus Syllabus URL Course Syllabus URL
ANTH 002-001 ANTHROPOLOGY, RACE, AND THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD THOMAS, DEBORAH MW 1000AM-1100AM Anthropology as a field is the study of human beings - past, present, and future. It asks questions about what it means to be human, and whether there are universal aspects to human existence. What do we share and how do we differ? What is "natural" and what is "cultural"? What is the relationship between the past and the present? This course is designed to investigate the ways anthropology, as a discipline, emerged in conjunction with European (and later, American) imperialism, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the will to know and categorize difference across the world. We will probe the relationships between anthropology and modern race-making by investigating how anthropologists have studied key institutions and systems that structure human life: family and kinship, inequality and hierarchy, race and ethnicity, ritual and symbolic systems, gender and sexuality, reciprocity and exchange, and globalization and social change. The course fundamentally probes how the material and ideological constellations of any given moment shape the questions we ask and the knowledge we produce about human existence.
    Society sector (all classes) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; SOCIETY SECTOR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS; SENIOR ASSOCIATES
    ANTH 002-601 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology SPOONER, BRIAN R 0430PM-0730PM Anthropology as a field is the study of human beings - past, present, and future. It asks questions about what it means to be human, and whether there are universal aspects to human existence. What do we share and how do we differ? What is "natural" and what is "cultural"? What is the relationship between the past and the present? This course is designed to investigate the ways anthropology, as a discipline, emerged in conjunction with European (and later, American) imperialism, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the will to know and categorize difference across the world. We will probe the relationships between anthropology and modern race-making by investigating how anthropologists have studied key institutions and systems that structure human life: family and kinship, inequality and hierarchy, race and ethnicity, ritual and symbolic systems, gender and sexuality, reciprocity and exchange, and globalization and social change. The course fundamentally probes how the material and ideological constellations of any given moment shape the questions we ask and the knowledge we produce about human existence.
      Society sector (all classes)
      ANTH 003-001 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTION MONGE, JANET TR 0130PM-0230PM How did humans evolve? When did humans start to walk on two legs? How are humans related to non-human primates? This course focuses on the scientific study of human evolution describing the emergence, development, and diversification of our species, Homo sapiens. First we cover the fundamental principles of evolutionary theory and some of the basics of genetics and heredity as they relate to human morphological, physiological, and genetic variation. We then examine what studies of nonhuman primates (monkeys and apes) can reveal about our own evolutionary past, reviewing the behavioral and ecological diversity seen among living primates. We conclude the course examining the "hard" evidence of human evolution - the fossil and material culture record of human history from our earliest primate ancestors to the emergence of modern Homo sapiens. You will also have the opportunity, during recitations, to conduct hands-on exercises collecting and analyzing behavioral, morphological, and genetic data on both humans and nonhuman primates and working with the Department of Anthropology's extensive collection of fossil casts.
        Living World Sector (all classes) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; LIVING WORLD SECTOR
        ANTH 005-601 GREAT TRANSFORMATIONS OLSZEWSKI, DEBORAH TR 0430PM-0600PM This course explores the history and archaeology of the last 20,000 years from the development of agriculture to the industrial revolution. Why did people across the world abandon foraging for farming? How and why did cities and states develop? Why did societies succeed or fail? How have humans transformed themselves and the natural world, including the landscape and the climate? We will explore the methods that archaeologists use to consider these questions and analyze evidence for social and economic change from the Middle East, the Americas, Asia, Africa, Australia and Europe. In addition, students will have a chance to conduct hands-on exercises with artifacts from the Penn Museum during practicums.
          History & Tradition Sector (all classes) HISTORY & TRADITION SECTOR
          ANTH 012-401 GLOBALIZATION AND ITS HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE SPOONER, BRIAN
          GUILLEN, MAURO
          M 0200PM-0400PM This course describes and analyses the current state of globalization and sets it in historical perspective. It applies the concepts and methods of anthropology, history, political economy and sociology to the analysis and interpretation of what is actually happening in the course of the semester that relates to the progress of globalization. We focus on a series of questions not only about what is happening but about the growing awareness of it and the consequences of the increasing awareness. In answering these questions we distinguish between active campaigns to cover the world (e.g. Christian and Muslim proselytism, free-trade agreements, democratization) and the unplanned diffusion of new ways of organizing trade, capital flows, tourism and remote interaction via the Internet. The body of the course deals with particular dimensions of globalization, reviewing both the early and recent history of each. The overall approach is historical and comparative, setting globalization on the larger stage of the economic, political and cultural development of various parts of the modern world. The course is taught collaboratively by an anthropologist, an historian, and a sociologist, offering the opportunity to compare and contrast distinct disciplinary approaches. It seeks to develop a general social-science-based theoretical understanding of the various historical dimensions of globalization: economic, political, social and cultural.
            Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
            ANTH 022-401 WORLD MUSICS & CULTURES MWF 1200PM-0100PM This course examines how we as consumers in the "Western" world engage with musical difference largely through the products of the global entertainment industry. We examine music cultures in contact in a variety of ways-- particularly as traditions in transformation. Students gain an understanding of traditional music as live, meaningful person-to-person music making, by examining the music in its original site of production, and then considering its transformation once it is removed, and recontextualized in a variety of ways. The purpose of the course is to enable students to become informed and critical consumers of "World Music" by telling a series of stories about particular recordings made with, or using the music of, peoples culturally and geographically distant from the US. Students come to understand that not all music downloads containing music from unfamiliar places are the same, and that particular recordings may be embedded in intriguing and controversial narratives of production and consumption. At the very least, students should emerge from the class with a clear understanding that the production, distribution, and consumption of world music is rarely a neutral process. Fulfills College Cross Cultural Foundational Requirement.
              Arts & Letters Sector (all classes) CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; ARTS & LETTERS SECTOR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
              ANTH 022-402 WORLD MUSICS & CULTURES MWF 1000AM-1100AM This course examines how we as consumers in the "Western" world engage with musical difference largely through the products of the global entertainment industry. We examine music cultures in contact in a variety of ways-- particularly as traditions in transformation. Students gain an understanding of traditional music as live, meaningful person-to-person music making, by examining the music in its original site of production, and then considering its transformation once it is removed, and recontextualized in a variety of ways. The purpose of the course is to enable students to become informed and critical consumers of "World Music" by telling a series of stories about particular recordings made with, or using the music of, peoples culturally and geographically distant from the US. Students come to understand that not all music downloads containing music from unfamiliar places are the same, and that particular recordings may be embedded in intriguing and controversial narratives of production and consumption. At the very least, students should emerge from the class with a clear understanding that the production, distribution, and consumption of world music is rarely a neutral process. Fulfills College Cross Cultural Foundational Requirement.
                Arts & Letters Sector (all classes) CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; ARTS & LETTERS SECTOR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
                ANTH 026-401 BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN TR 0130PM-0300PM This first-year seminar provides an introduction to the histories, cultures, and societies of Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and the successor states of Yugoslavia. Through a selection of articles and essays written by anthropologists and sociologists and based on their extended fieldwork in the region, students will explore both the ethnographic method and the experience of everyday life during and after the communist era. Topics will include: popular music under socialism, food and wine, environmental concerns, the status of Muslim minorities, socialist aesthetics, public memory and cultures of commemoration, privatization, advertising, women's rights, gender and sexuality, emergent nationalisms, and the rise of income inequality and homelessness. All readings and assignments in English.
                  CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; FRESHMAN SEMINAR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                  ANTH 045-301 HOW OUR ENVIRONMENT HAS SHAPED US BATES, JENNIFER TR 0300PM-0430PM From our earliest ancestors to the recent warming of our planet, the history and future of humans is fundamentally influenced by our relationship with the world around us. This intimate connection makes it a necessity for us to understand how humans have used, adapted to, altered and are in turn affected by our environment. How has climate change affected the development of human society? How have people adapted to their environments in the past and how have they shaped these environments in turn? What does it mean to develop "sustainable" approaches to our environments over the short and long term? Environmental archaeology is the study of these questions. By the end of this course you will have the tools to interpret human-environment interactions in the past and the present, and suggest ways we can change our thinking and actions in the future.
                    FRESHMAN SEMINAR; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                    ANTH 058-401 DOING RESEARCH: QUALITATIVE METHODS AND RESEARCH MITCHELL, LISA TR 1030AM-1200PM This interdisciplinary course introduces students to qualitative research methods and frameworks in the social sciences and humanities. The goals of the semester will be for each student to develop their own research proposal for a specific project that they could imagine pursuing over the summer or later in their undergraduate career,and to develop a web-based exhibit of one Penn-based research collection of interest. Students will be introduced to a range of textual, archival and media collections and databases available at Penn, with particular attention to South Asia and other specific regions of interest to course participants. The class will visit the Penn Musuem object collections and archives, the Art library, the Kislak Center for Rare Books and Manuscripts, Film Archives, and other special collections on campus, and meet with a representative from the Center for Undergraduate Research Funding (CURF). Students will learn how to frame an effective research question, situate it in relation to existing research, select the most appropriate methods for addressing the question, and develop an effective research plan. Each week students will be introduced to a new set of frameworks for analysis, see specific examples of their application drawn from anthropological, historical, and related scholarship and have opportunities to practice applying and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of specific methodological tools. Students will also have the opportunity to identify sources of funding for summer research projects and prepare applications for these opportunities as part of the course. The course is ideal as an introduction to both the excellent libraries and research collections housed at Penn, and to a wide range of intellectual frameworks for engaging with these collections - a great way to kick off your undergraduate experience at Penn! Prerequisite: Topic varies by semester, see subtitle and Professor.
                      CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; FRESHMAN SEMINAR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                      ANTH 086-301 DESIRE AND DEMAND DIGGS-THOMPSON, MARILYNNE M 0200PM-0500PM Does consumption shape culture or does culture shape consumption? As even the most mundane purchase becomes socially symbolic and culturally meaningful we can persuasively argue that the concept of "need" has been transformed. Analyzing a variety of physical and virtual consumer venues, the goal of this seminar is to understand and to analyze historical and contemporary issues related to a culture of consumption. We investigate social and political-economic factors that impact when and how people purchase goods and argue that behavior attached to consumption includes a nexus of influences that may change periodically in response to external factors. Readings and research assignments are interdisciplinary and require a critical analysis of global/local linkages. The city of Philadelphia becomes the seminar's laboratory as we ask: how have issues of culture, consumption, and global capitalism become intertwined around the world?
                        CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; FOR FRESHMEN ONLY; FRESHMAN SEMINAR; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                        ANTH 091-401 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURE IN LATIN AMERICA GIMENEZ, TERESA MW 0200PM-0330PM This interdisciplinary course is a Global Seminar that exposes students to the three dimensions of sustainable development -environmental, economic, and social- through an examination of three products -peyote, coca, and coffee- that are crucial in shaping modern identity in areas of Latin America. The course integrates this analysis of sustainable development in relation to cultural sustainability and cultural practices associated with peyote, coca, and coffee and their rich, traditional heritage and place in literature, film, and the arts. The course also includes a one-week immersive experience in Costa Rica. While immersed in Costa Rican culture, students explore firsthand the biodiversity of the coffee fields, the science behind coffee production, and its impact on soil, water, and wildlife. Through site visits to sustainable, conventional, and transitional coffee farms and cooperatives, to roasters and point-of-sale locations, the course analyzes the practices employed in the production and consumption of various types of coffee and their impact on sustainability and biological diversity.
                          PENN GLOBAL SEMINAR; PERMISSION NEEDED FROM DEPARTMENT
                          ANTH 110-401 MID EAST WATER IN HIST HAMMER, EMILY TR 1030AM-1200PM Water scarcity is one of most important problems facing much of the Middle Eastand North Africa today. These are arid regions, but human and natural systems have interacted to determine relative water scarcity and abundance at different times and places. This course examines the distribution of water resources throughout the Middle East and the archaeology and anthropology of water exploitation and management over the last 9000 years, looking at continuities and changes through time. Students will learn to make basic digital maps representing Middle Eastern hydro-geography and arguments about modern and historic water resources in the region. The class will cooperatively play an "irrigation management game" designed to familiarize personnel involved in the operation of irrigation schemes with the logistical and social issues involved in water management. We will engage with a variety of media, including academic readings, popular journalism, films, satellite imagery, and digital maps, in our quest to explore whether or not the past can inform present efforts to better manage modern water resources. The course is structured in units focused on each of the major hydro-environmental zones of the Middle East: the river valleys of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Levant, the internal basins of western Central Asia and the Levant, the deserts of Arabia and North Africa, highland zones in Yemen and Iran, and coastal marsh areas along the Persian Gulf. We will examine irrigation systems, water supply systems, and ways of life surrounding water sources known from ethnographic studies, history, and archaeological excavations. These data will allow us to engage with debates in Middle Eastern anthropology, including those concerning the relationship between water and political power, the environment in which the world's earliest cities arose, and the relevance of "lessons of the past" for present and potential future water crises and "water wars." In our final weeks, we will discuss archaeology and historical anthropology's contribution to conceptions of water "sustainability" and examine attempts to revive traditional/ancient technologies and attitudes about water.
                            Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR; FRESHMAN SEMINAR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                            ANTH 111-401 Introduction to Mediterranean Archaeology BOWES, KIMBERLY MW 1100AM-1200PM The cultures of Greece and Rome, what we call classical antiquity, span over a thousand years of multicultural achievement in the Mediterranean. This course tells the story of what it was like to live in the complex societies of ancient Greece and Rome. This story is told principally using the art, architecture, pottery and coins produced by these societies. We will examine both the bold and sexy, and the small and humble, from the Parthenon to wooden huts, from the Aphrodite of Knidos to the bones of a fisherman named Peter.
                              History & Tradition Sector (all classes) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; HISTORY & TRADITION SECTOR; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
                              ANTH 114-001 MIGRATION AND BORDERS CARRUTHERS, ANDREW TR 0130PM-0300PM We live in an interconnected world of ever-intensifying flows of people, goods, and ideas. Rather than giving rise to a "borderless world," however, these flows have instead led to the proliferation and elaboration of borders on a planetary scale. This introductory course explores this paradox, evaluating the links between migration and borders in different contexts across the globe. We ask a number of related questions: What is migration? What is a border? What is the relationship between migration and borders? How might anthropology - the study of what it means to be human - shed light on this relationship? In so doing, we explore a number of case studies from archaeological, biological, cultural, and linguistic perspectives to better understand migration and borders as conjoined anthropological phenomena.
                                ANTH 118-401 LECTURE ST.GEORGE, ROBERT MW 0100PM-0200PM This course explores world witchcraft and possession from the persecutions of the early seventeenth century through the rise of Wicca in the twentieth century. The mere mention of these terms, or of such close cousins as demonology, sorcery, exorcism, magic, and the witches Sabbath, raises clear ethnographic and historical challenges. How can the analysis of witchcraft-- including beliefs, patterns of accusation, the general social position of victims, the intensity and timing of witch hunts, and its relation to religious practice, law, language, gender, social marginalization, and property--lead us to a more humane understanding of belief and action? Films such as The Exorcist, The Blair Witch Project, The Crucible, and Three Sovereigns for Sarah will focus discussion.
                                  Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR
                                  ANTH 139-401 ANCIENT CIVS OF THE WRLD ZETTLER, RICHARD TR 0130PM-0300PM This course explores the archaeology (material culture) of early complex societies or civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Aegean. According to the traditional paradigm, civilization first emerged during the fourth millennium BCE in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In the Mediterranean, state-level societies first appeared in Crete and mainland Greece in the early second millennium BCE. This course investigates how and why these civilizations developed, as well as their appearance and structure in the early historic (or literate) phases of their existence. A comparative perspective will illustrate what these early civilizations have in common and the ways in which they are unique. This course will consist largely of lectures which will outline classic archaeological and anthropological theories on state formation, before turning to examine the available archaeological (and textual) data on emerging complexity in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Aegean. This course does not presuppose any knowledge of archaeology or ancient languages; the instructor will provide any background necessary. Because this is a course on material culture, some of the class periods will be spent at the Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. These will consist of a guided tour of a relevant gallery, as well as a hands-on object-based lab with archaeological materials selected by the instructor. This course meets the General Education Curriculums Cross Cultural Analysis f oundational approach, whose aim is to help students understand and interpret t he cultures of peoples (even long-dead peoples) with histories different from their own; it also fulfills the History and Tradition Sector breadth requirement.
                                    History & Tradition Sector (all classes) HISTORY & TRADITION SECTOR
                                    ANTH 140-401 HISTORIES OF RACE AND SCIENCE IN PHILADELPHIA MITCHELL, PAUL W 0200PM-0500PM The history of race and science has its American epicenter in Philadelphia. Throughout this Academically-Based Community Service (ABCS) course, we will interrogate the past and legacy of racial science in the United States; the broad themes we broach will be met concretely in direct engagement with Penn and the Philadelphia community. As an extended case study, students will undertake independent research projects using primary source documents from local archives, tracing the global history of hundreds of human skulls in the 19th century Samuel G. Morton cranial collection at the Penn Museum, a foundational and controversial anthropological collection in the scientific study of race. These projects will be formed through an ongoing partnership with a Philadelphia high school in which Penn students will collaborate with high school students on the research and design of a public-facing website on the Morton collection and the legacy of race and science in America. In our seminar, we will read foundational texts on the study of racial difference and discuss anti-racist responses and resistance to racial science from the 19th century to the present. Throughout, we will work directly with both primary and secondary sources, critically interrogating how both science and histories of science and its impacts on society are constructed. Throughout this course, we will explore interrelated questions about Penn and Philadelphia's outsize role in the history of racial science, about decolonization and ethics in scholarly and scientific practice, about the politics of knowledge and public-facing scholarship, and about enduring legacies of racial science and racial ideologies. All students are welcome and there are no prerequisites, save for intellectual curiosity and commitment to the course. This course will be of particular interest to those interested in race, American history and the history of science, anthropology, museum studies, education, and social justice.
                                      SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US
                                      ANTH 140-402 FIELDWORK MITCHELL, PAUL TBA TBA- The history of race and science has its American epicenter in Philadelphia. Throughout this Academically-Based Community Service (ABCS) course, we will interrogate the past and legacy of racial science in the United States; the broad themes we broach will be met concretely in direct engagement with Penn and the Philadelphia community. As an extended case study, students will undertake independent research projects using primary source documents from local archives, tracing the global history of hundreds of human skulls in the 19th century Samuel G. Morton cranial collection at the Penn Museum, a foundational and controversial anthropological collection in the scientific study of race. These projects will be formed through an ongoing partnership with a Philadelphia high school in which Penn students will collaborate with high school students on the research and design of a public-facing website on the Morton collection and the legacy of race and science in America. In our seminar, we will read foundational texts on the study of racial difference and discuss anti-racist responses and resistance to racial science from the 19th century to the present. Throughout, we will work directly with both primary and secondary sources, critically interrogating how both science and histories of science and its impacts on society are constructed. Throughout this course, we will explore interrelated questions about Penn and Philadelphia's outsize role in the history of racial science, about decolonization and ethics in scholarly and scientific practice, about the politics of knowledge and public-facing scholarship, and about enduring legacies of racial science and racial ideologies. All students are welcome and there are no prerequisites, save for intellectual curiosity and commitment to the course. This course will be of particular interest to those interested in race, American history and the history of science, anthropology, museum studies, education, and social justice.
                                        SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US
                                        ANTH 141-401 PUBLIC POLICY, MUSEUMS, AND THE ETHICS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE LEVENTHAL, RICHARD TR 1030AM-1200PM This course will focus upon and examine the ethics of international heritage and the role that Museums play in the preservation of identity and cultural heritage. The mission of this course will be to inform and educate students about the role of Museums within the 21st century. What is the role and position of antiquities and important cultural objects in Museums? How should Museums acquire these objects and when should they be returned to countries and cultural groups? Examples from current issues will be included in the reading and discussions along with objects and issues within the Penn Museum.
                                          ANTH 148-401 FOOD AND FIRE MOORE, KATHERINE MW 0100PM-0200PM This course will let students explore the essential heritage of human technology through archaeology. People have been transforming their environment from the first use of fire for cooking. Since then, humans have adapted to the world they created using the resources around them. We use artifacts to understand how the archaeological record can be used to trace breakthroughs such as breaking stone and bone, baking bread, weaving cloth and firing pottery and metals. The seminar will meet in the Penn Museum's Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials. Students will become familiar with the Museum's collections and the scientific methods used to study different materials. Class sessions will include discussions, guest presentations, museum field trips, and hands-on experience in the laboratory.
                                            Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR
                                            ANTH 151-401 ARCHAEOLOGY OF AMERICAN HISTORY: THE COLONIAL PERIOD SCHUYLER, ROBERT R 0130PM-0430PM Anthropology 151/752 is a lecture-seminar that is open to all students. This course will explore American history through a different range of information. Over the last seventy five years the new field of Historical Archaeology (academically first developed at Penn) has excavated numerous sites dating from the 16th, the 17th, and the 18th centuries in what is now the United States. Recovered archaeological remains combined with archival sources are giving us a different view of the rise of America as a distinctive society. This class is focused on the Colonial Period from the earliest explorations by Europeans to the eve of the American Revolution. Discoveries of early European intrusions into the continent, especially the Spanish and English, will be reviewed along with the reaction of Native Peoples to such contact. Successful settlements on the East Coast in La Florida and at Jamestown as well as in the Rio Grande Valley in the Southwest will be explored along with later colonization of the Middle Atlantic and New England regions. Mature 18th century colonial society as seen in Philadelphia and Annapolis along with the distinctive subject of African American sites will also be covered.
                                              History & Tradition Sector (all classes) HISTORY & TRADITION SECTOR
                                              ANTH 153-001 CULTURE AND COMMERCE: THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE ECONOMY SMIT, DOUGLAS TR 0130PM-0300PM What is the difference between a farmer's market in West Philadelphia and a bazaar in Cairo? What is the meaning of a gift between friends? What about gifts between enemies? What are the origins, meaning, and purpose of money? What is the relationship between politics and the economy? This course will begin to answer these questions by introducing the field of economic anthropology. The economy is not an isolated phenomenon: it is interconnected with socio-cultural and political factors, thus challenging our conception of what is truly considered to be economic. By highlighting the cultural diversity of economic systems across time and space, including our own contemporary, global economy, students will learn what can be considered natural about the economy, and what is contingent on historical factors of culture, society, or politics. Prior economic coursework is not required, nor will this course entail much quantitative analysis. This is not a course in traditional economics or finance. Instead, we will examine socio-cultural, historical, and biological aspects of different economic arrangements, and discuss how anthropological approaches to the economy draw from larger theoretical perspectives (e.g. Smithian, Marxian, Polanyian, Austrian, etc) Case studies will vary widely and include topics such as gift-giving economies of the South Pacific, power and redistribution of the European BronzeAge, social relationships among 21st century Wall-Street traders, and many others that highlight the diversity of economic practices among human societies. Students will be evaluated on short written responses to readings, a midterm and non-cumulative final exam, and a research paper.
                                                CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
                                                ANTH 155-301 GLOBALIZATION: CAUSES AND EFFECTS SPOONER, BRIAN T 0130PM-0430PM Class sessions will be devoted to discussion of the dynamics of globalization with the objective of illuminating the world-historical context of the changes that are happening around us unevenly in different parts of the world today, and developing critical approaches to the available research methodologies and explanatory theories. Weekly readings will be selected from the major researchers in the field, and students will test their ideas in short research projects of their own on questions arising from the discussions. The overall approach will be historical and comparative. Apart from weekly assigned readings and participation in class discussions, requirements for the course include three short research papers.
                                                  FOR FRESHMEN ONLY; FRESHMAN SEMINAR; FRESHMAN SEMINAR
                                                  ANTH 169-401 WORLDS OF INDIAN OCEAN PETRIE, IAN TR 0300PM-0430PM Do oceans serve to divide and demarcate distinct cultures and regions? Or do they facilitate exchange, connection and cosmopolitanism? This course will explore the manner in which the Indian Ocean has played both roles throughout history, and how the nature of those divisions and connections has changed over time from the ancient to the modern world. We will reconstruct the intertwined mercantile, religious and kinship networks that spanned the Indian Ocean world, across the Middle East, East Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and China, illuminating the histories of Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam, while also considering the role of successive imperial political formations, from Rome to Britain. Throughout the semester we will seek to understand the Indian Ocean through the people who lived and worked in its milieu - from consuls and military commanders, to traders, brokers, sailors, prisoners and slaves. Course materials will draw on a variety of disciplines (anthropology, archaeology, material culture, religious studies) to construct the cultural, economic, and environmental history of the Indian Ocean.
                                                    CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
                                                    ANTH 177-401 COLONIAL PASTS & INDIGENOUS FUTURES: A HISTORY OF BELIZE & CENTRAL AMERICA LEVENTHAL, RICHARD R 0130PM-0430PM The small country of Belize (formerly British Honduras) represents the past history and ongoing story of Central America and the region. Belize has a colonial past and present with strong ties to the UK and emerging connections to the US. At the same time, there is a growing post-colonial debate within the country about the role of indigenous Maya people in the past, present and future of the country. This course will be the first of two courses which will lead to active work in Belize during the summer of 2021 with the development and creation of a Community Museum within the Maya village of Indian Creek in southern Belize. This course will be taught by Richard M. Leventhal who has worked in Belize for the past 20 years. Leventhal will be joined by 3 Maya activists from Belize who will co-teach the class for 5-6 weeks out of the semester.
                                                      ANTH 180-401 FROM AYAHUASCA TO ZOLOFT: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO DRUGS & DRUG USE HOKE, MORGAN MW 0330PM-0500PM In this course we will consider the cultural, social, political, medical, and biological aspects of drugs (legal, illegal, pharmaceutical, botanical, and otherwise) through space and time. We will take a broad approach, thinking critically about what, who, and under what circumstances a given substance becomes a "drug." In doing so, we will be able to interrogate the linguistic dimensions of drugs, considering the way in which language creates social worlds and social meanings. We will explore different kinds of drugs, their origins, biochemical properties, and the biological pathways through which they affect us. We will also think about how drugs and drug use has changed over time, taking a cross-cultural and materialist perspective to investigate drug use past and present. Topics we will address include debates over the commercialization, criminalization, and decriminalization of hallucinogenic plants such as marijuana, the recent use of drugs ranging from LSD to magic mushrooms to treat depression and other mental illnesses, the legacies of colonialism and botanical migrations, the ethics of the pharmaceutical industry, and comparative explorations of the language about and approaches to addressing both the "crack epidemic" of the early 80s and 90s and the current opioid crisis. We will read both classic anthropological texts including ethnographies as well as works from other disciplines including science studies, biology, history, ethnobotany, and sociology.
                                                        ANTH 190-401 INTRODUCTION TO AFRICA AMPONSAH, DAVID MW 1000AM-1130AM This course provides an introduction to the study of Africa in all its diversity and complexity. Our focus is cultural, geographical, and historical: we will seek to understand Africa's current place in the world political and economic order and learn about the various social and physical factors that have influenced the historical trajectory of the continent. We study the cultural formations and empires that emerged in Africa before European colonial invasion and then how colonialism reshaped those sociocultural forms. We'll learn about the unique kinds of kinship and religion in precolonial Africa and the changes brought about by the spread of Islam and Christianity. Finally, we'll take a close look at contemporary issues such as ethnic violence, migration, popular culture and poverty, and we'll debate the various approaches to understanding those issues.
                                                          Society sector (all classes) SOCIETY SECTOR
                                                          ANTH 202-001 LANGUAGE, MIGRATION, DIASPORA CARRUTHERS, ANDREW CANCELED Centering on the relation between language, migration, and diaspora, this course uses linguistic anthropological approaches to understand how the 'very big' is reflected in the 'very small.' We will approach language use as a process that unfolds in the microclimate of everyday interaction, but whose effects extend to and shape large-scale social processes. We will ask a number of interrelated questions: How does language use shape global phenomena like transnationalism and diasporic populations? How do globalizing forces impact and shape language structure and use? How are mobility and (im)migration enabled or constrained through everyday communicative interaction? We begin by exploring the ideologies inherent in everyday speech, evaluating how language is linked to social identities like class, race, gender, and sexuality, and to social personae like 'the migrant,' 'the refugee,' 'the foreigner,' or to the 'diasporic subject' more generally. We then explore the cultural politics of languages in and across nation-states, attending to their uses and values in unprecedented global flows of information, goods, and people.
                                                            ANTH 220-401 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT F 0900AM-1200PM Follow-up for ANTH 219. Students may enroll in either or both courses, and in any sequence; however, preference will be given to those previously enrolled in ANTH 219 that Fall. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays or Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                              Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only)
                                                              ANTH 220-402 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT F 0100PM-0400PM Follow-up for ANTH 219. Students may enroll in either or both courses, and in any sequence; however, preference will be given to those previously enrolled in ANTH 219 that Fall. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays or Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only)
                                                                ANTH 220-403 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT S 0900AM-1200PM Follow-up for ANTH 219. Students may enroll in either or both courses, and in any sequence; however, preference will be given to those previously enrolled in ANTH 219 that Fall. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays or Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                  Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only)
                                                                  ANTH 220-404 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT S 0100PM-0400PM Follow-up for ANTH 219. Students may enroll in either or both courses, and in any sequence; however, preference will be given to those previously enrolled in ANTH 219 that Fall. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays or Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                    Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only)
                                                                    ANTH 221-401 THE MATERIAL WORLD IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE OLSZEWSKI, DEBORAH
                                                                    BOILEAU, MARIE-CLAUDE
                                                                    JANSEN, JAN
                                                                    TR 1030AM-1200PM By focusing on the scientific analysis of inorganic archaeological materials, this course will explore processes of creation in the past. ANTH 221/521 will take place in the Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials (CAAM) and will be team taught in three modules: analysis of lithics, analysis of ceramics and analysis of metals. Each module will combine laboratory and classroom exercises to give students hands-on experience with archaeological materials. We will examine how the transformation of materials into objects provides key information about past human behaviors and the socio-economic contexts of production, distribution, exchange and use. Discussion topics will include invention and adoption of new technologies, change and innovation, use of fire, and craft specialization.
                                                                      CONTACT DEPT or INSTRUCTOR FOR CLASSRM INFO
                                                                      ANTH 223-401 STORYTELLING IN AFRICA BLAKELY, PAMELA T 0430PM-0730PM African storytellers entertain, educate, and comment obliquely on sensitive andcontroversial issues in artful performance. The course considers motifs, structures, and interpretations of trickster tales and other folktales, storytellers' performance skills, and challenges to presenting oral narrative in written and film texts. The course also explores ways traditional storytelling has inspired African social reformers and artists, particularly filmmakers. Students will have opportunities to view films in class.
                                                                        CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS; CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS
                                                                        ANTH 234-301 PHARMACEUTICALS AND GLOBAL HEALTH JOINER, MICHAEL M 0500PM-0800PM In some parts of the world, spending on pharmaceuticals is astronomical. In others, people do not have access to basic or life-saving drugs. Individuals struggle to afford medications; whole populations are neglected, considered too poor to constitute profitable markets for the development and distribution of necessary drugs. This seminar analyzes the dynamics of the burgeoning international pharmaceutical trade and the global inequalities that emerge from and are reinforced by market-driven medicine. Questions about who will be treated and who will not filter through every phase of pharmaceutical production --from preclinical research to human testing, marketing, distribution, prescription, and consumption. Whether considering how the pharmaceutical industry shapes popular understandings of mental illness in North America and Great Britain, how Brazil has created a model of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment program, or how the urban pooer in Delhi understand and access healthcare, the seminar draws on anthropological case studies to illuminate the roles of corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, and individuals in relation to global pharmaceuticals. As we analyze each case and gain famliarity with tehnographic methods, we will ask how individual and group health is shaped by new medical technologies and their evolving regulatory regimes and markets. The course familiarizes students with critical debates on globalization and with local responses to globalizing processes; and it contributes to ethical and political debates on the development and access to new medical technologies.
                                                                          ANTH 238-401 INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY BARG, FRANCES MW 0100PM-0200PM Introduction to Medical Anthropology takes central concepts in anthropology -- culture, adaptation, human variation, belief, political economy, the body -- and applies them to human health and illness. Students explore key elements of healing systems including healing technologies and healer-patient relationships. Modern day applications for medical anthropology are stressed.
                                                                            Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED; HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR
                                                                            ANTH 242-401 MUS/REL/RITUAL S&SE ASIA SYKES, JIM R 0130PM-0430PM What role does music play in articulating religious identities and spaces? What is the importance of ritual musics as they persist and change in the modern world? How does music reflect and articulate religious ways of thinking and acting? In this course, we explore these and other questions about the interrelations between music, religion, and ritual in South and Southeast Asia. Focusing on India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia, the course emphasizes musics from Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Christian traditions; nevertheless, it draws widely to touch upon sacred musics in Pakistan, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and among some indigenous peoples in the region. Throughout, we explore ontologies of sound; sonic occurrences in religious structures, public processions, and pilgrimage sites; the construction of religion and ritual as ideas forged through colonial encounter and modern scholarship on religion; the politics of sacred sounds in today's public spaces and contemporary media, such as television and online; and the surprising fluidity between popular and sacred musical genres.
                                                                              ANTH 245-301 ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: NATURE, CULTURE, AND CONSERVATION IN THE WESTERN GHATS MORRISON, KATHLEEN CANCELED India, one of the world's most populous countries, also ranks as one of the most important centers of biodiversity, conservation, and environmental movements. Despite pervasive scholarly and popular narratives of inevitable ecological damage associated with population growth, human land use has, at times, enhanced biodiversity, preserved existing environments, and created new ones. In this course, students will examine long-term human and natural histories from a number of perspectives to develop more accurate, historically-informed understandings of how India's natural spaces have developed and how the spaces can be best sustained. them. During the travel component, students will visit India and work with local partners who are actively engaged in protecting human livelihoods, reducing human-wildlife conflict, and conserving biodiversity in the Western Ghat Mountains, a biodiversity hotspot.
                                                                                PENN GLOBAL SEMINAR; PERMISSION NEEDED FROM INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                ANTH 249-301 EVOLUTIONARY MEDICINE HOKE, MORGAN TR 0300PM-0430PM Evolutionary medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of health and disease in humans. In taking this approach, the course will explore the role that disease played in human evolution. We will examine both infectious and non-infectious diseases, and assess the way in which populations and disease organisms have co-evolved. Related issues to be examined are the nature of the virulence and pathogenicity of infectious agents, and their efforts to subvert the immune system's responses to infection. We will also explore the evolved responses that enable individuals to protect, heal and recuperate themselves from infections and injuries, such as fever and sickness behavior, and the fitness enhancing aspects of these processes. Finally, we will study how past adaptations of early humans to their environments now affects modern humans, who have very different diets, life expectancy, activity patterns, and hygiene than their ancestors.
                                                                                  ANTH 258-401 VISUALIZING THE PAST ERICKSON, CLARK
                                                                                  BADLER, NORMAN
                                                                                  MWF 1100AM-1200PM Most people's information about the Past is drawn from coffee table picture books, popular movies, video games, documentaries about discoveries of "ancient, mysterious, and lost" civilizations, and tours often lead by guides of limited or even dubious credentials. How are these ideas presented, formed, and circulated? Who creates and selects the information presented in this diverse media? Are these presentations accurate? Do they promote or hurt scientific explanations? Can the artistic, aesthetic, and scientific realms be bridged to effectively promote and interpret the past? How can modern technologies be applied to do a better job at presenting what is difficult to experience firsthand? This class will focus on case studies, c and methods of how archaeology and the past are created, presented and used in movies, museums, games, the internet, and art. Each year, the studio-seminar focuses on a project. In addition to exploring general concepts of archaeology and the media, students will work in teams to produce an interactive, digital media exhibit using the latest modeling visualization programs for presenting the sacred landscape of the Inca capitalof Cuzco, Peru. Cuzco is one of the most important UNESCO World Heritage sites and visited by nearly a million tourists a year. Potential class projectinclude fly-throughs of architectural and landscape renderings, simulations of astronomy and cosmology, modeling of human behavior within architectural and landscape settings, and study artifacts in the Penn Museum.
                                                                                    FORMAL REASONING COURSE; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINARS; CONTACT DEPT or INSTRUCTOR FOR CLASSRM INFO; FORMAL REASONING; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINAR
                                                                                    ANTH 268-301 ANTHROPOLOGY OF MUSEUMS BRUCHAC, MARGARET W 0200PM-0500PM This course examines museums as sites where issues of Indigenous identity, memory, place and power intersect. Museums have long been engaged in the selective preservation, representation, and contextualization of Indigenous objects, cultures, and histories. We will examine antiquarian impulses that inspired the collecting of curiosities, scientific studies that drove the collection of biological specimens, and nationalist ideals that shaped monuments to house imperialist memories. Museums are now sites for complex, often contentious discourse around Indigenous collections. Students will review histories of local and national collecting processes, with a particular focus on Native American collections and concerns. We will also consider how Indigenous curators and new kinds of museums have developed innovative displays and interpretations.
                                                                                      ANTH 297-401 NATURE CULTURE ENVIRONMENTALISM ANAND, NIKHIL MW 0200PM-0330PM Water wars, deforestation, climate change. Amidst many uncertain crises, in this course we will explore the emergent relationship between people and the environment in different parts of the world. How do people access the resources they need to live? How, when and for whom does 'nature' come to matter? Why does it matter? And what analytical tools we might use to think, mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change? Drawing together classical anthropological texts and some of the emergent debates in the field of climate studies and environmental justice, in this class we focus on the social-ecological processes through which different groups of humans imagine, produce and inhabit anthropogenic environments.
                                                                                        BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINARS; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINAR
                                                                                        ANTH 300-301 RESEARCH SEMINAR RISTVET, LAUREN F 0900AM-1200PM ANTH 300 is a Research Seminar for anthropology majors. It defines the Penn anthropology major by bringing together and inter-relating major threads from the different subfields of the Penn anthropology curriculum. Each session includes contributions from members of the standing faculty and seminar discussions of a research theme in which anthropological knowledge is currently progressing.
                                                                                          ANTH 308-301 ETHNOHISTORY OF THE NATIVE NORTHEAST BRUCHAC, MARGARET TR 0130PM-0300PM Ethnohistory is a multi-disciplinary form of ethnographic study and documentary research that employs both anthropological and historical approaches. This course examines the foundations of the ethnohistorical method as a means to interpret cross-cultural colonial interactions and conflicts, and to better understand the complex histories of Native American Indian peoples from Pennsylvania and northward and eastward. Students will develop skills and strategies for interpreting and contextualizing primary and secondary source materials, oral traditions, colonial records, historical maps, and material culture. Hands-on study will include visits to local archives and historical sites to view relevant documents and landscapes.
                                                                                            ANTH 309-401 PSYCHOANALYSIS AND ANTHROPOLOGY URBAN, GREGORY
                                                                                            BLUM, LAWRENCE
                                                                                            T 0300PM-0600PM This course will introduce students to the rich literature that has grown up around the encounter between psychoanalysis and anthropology, from totem and taboo, to studies of the Oedipus complex, child-rearing practices, ritual symbolism, mythology, and dreams. The class will also look to the future, endeavoring to examine as well such issues as the role of computers (are they self objects?) and the internet (including such online games as "Second Life"), dreams in space alien abduction narratives, sexuality in advertising, political psychology, and other contemporary issues. This course counts towards towards the Psychoanalytic Studies (PSYS) Minor.
                                                                                              ANTH 322-301 BODIES OF WATER: CONFLICTS AND COLLABORATIONS AROUND RIVERS, WETLANDS, AND WATERSHEDS LYONS, KRISTINA M 0200PM-0500PM In less than half a decade, the idea that "nature" possesses inalienable rights akin to human rights has gone from a strictly theoretical concept to the basis of policy changes in several countries and U.S. municipalities. This seminar will introduce students to current legal, political, ethical, and practical debates about the implementation and impacts of granting "rights to nature" in these different contexts with a particular focus on the rights associated with bodies of water. We will begin by examining how the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund (CELDF) supported citizens of Tamaqua, Pennsylvania to write the world's first local "rights of nature" ordinance. We will then go on to compare the politics of "rights of nature" cases in Ecuador, New Zealand, India, and Colombia paying special attention to the cases of rivers. We will focus on the ways biocentric constitutional moves may transform concepts and understandings of environmental justice and socio-environmental conflicts. In particular, how the recognition of "nature" as a victim of war may transform understandings of violence, and hence, approaches to constructing peace and engaging and reparative and restorative practices within the larger framework of planetary and community efforts to mitigate climate change, deforestation, and the degradation of watersheds and wetlands. Lastly, we will explore the possibilities and tensions between community decision-making, the "rights of nature," and national level policies regarding the intensification of extractive activities and questions of territorial ordinance as they relate to mulitiple bodies of water.
                                                                                                ANTH 332-301 MEDICINE AND THE LANGUAGE OF PAIN CLAPP, JUSTIN W 0330PM-0630PM Pain can be a particularly complex and morally charged object of biomedicine. The interiority of pain- the deeply private nature of pain experience- complicates its communication. Pain, particularly its chronic form, defies purely biological explanation, troubling fundamental biomedical distinctions between mind and body, subject and object. And decisions about analgesia are fraught, as doctors and patients pursue relief from pain amidst a widespread epidemic of opiate abuse that infuses their interaction with concerns about addiction, drug seeking, culpability, and responsibility. This seminar seeks to shed light on these issues by using concepts from linguistic and medical anthropology to explore how we experience, think about, and talk about pain. As an interdisciplinary endeavor, the course is of relevance not only to anthropology but also to medical sociology, medical ethics, public health, health policy, and science and technology studies.
                                                                                                  ANTH 336-401 PEOPLING OF THE AMERICAS SCHURR, THEODORE W 0200PM-0500PM The peopling of the Americas is a question that has intrigued scholars and laymen for over 500 years. The origin of Native Americans was also a seminal issue during the emergence of American Anthropology as a discipline at the turn of the 20th century, with research on this topic animating current studies of ethnohistory, indigenous archeology, post-colonialism and repatriation. The proposed course will review the scholarship dedicated to describing this long history from an interdisciplinary perspective. It will explore their roots in the expansion of modern humans into Eurasia, evaluate the new archeological and genetic research that has fundamentally altered our understanding of the migration history and diversity of indigenous peoples in the American continents, and examine issues of identity, ethnicity and cultural heritage in contemporary Native populations that extend from this knowledge. The course will further draw on the instructor's fieldwork experience working with indigenous communities in Alaska, Canada, the Lower 48, Mexico and the Caribbean, as well as native Siberians in Russia, where the cultural and biological roots of ancestral Native American populations lie.
                                                                                                    ANTH 337-301 APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGY METHODS IN POLICY AND PRACTICE SAHOTA, PUNEET TR 0130PM-0300PM This course will introduce students to applied anthropology methods for doing research that can change policy and practices. Examples of policy and practice change include clinical practices in health care settings, social welfare policy, and legal advocacy. Students will be trained in multiple anthropology research methods, including brief participant-observation, presentation of self in the field, entering the field in diverse cultural environments, qualitative interviewing, life story interviewing, and ethnographic content analysis of textual material. Students will also learn how to use NVivo software for analyzing qualitative and some quantitative data from their field notes, interviews, and analysis of popular articles/websites. Finally, students will practice writing products for non-academic audiences, such as policymakers, the media, and the general public. The course will emphasize using anthropology research methods to address real-world problems in policy and practice in diverse cultural contexts. This course is a service learning class affiliated with the Netter Center and a Benjamin Franklin Scholars course.
                                                                                                      BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINARS; AN ACADEMICALLY BASED COMMUNITY SERV COURSE; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINAR
                                                                                                      ANTH 344-401 DOCUMENTARY EXPERIMENTS IN URBAN RESEARCH MENDELSOHN, BENJAMIN CANCELED What can video art, experimental documentary, and sensory ethnography teach us about the practice of urban research? How can we build on the traditions of first person and essay cinema to produce compelling documents of our own questions and findings? This course surveys a range of film and video works on themes such as the production of space, urban nature, infrastructure, and collective memory. Taken as a genre, these time-based works provide a powerful model for training scholars' observational skills, conceptualizing scales of analysis, and engaging broader publics in urban research. In this course, we will explore this audiovisual genre in dialogue with selected theoretical, ethnographic, and case study readings in urban studies. As an advanced theory-practice course, it combines seminar readings and discussion with regular screenings and a series of workshops on photo, video, audio, and postproduction skills. The course will provide a general fluency in contemporary urban research, with particular emphasis on urban political ecology. In dialogue with this scholarship, students will develop and situate their own experimental documentary research projects.
                                                                                                        SECTION ACTIVITY CO-REQUISITE REQUIRED
                                                                                                        ANTH 350-401 ARCHAEOLOGY OF CIVILIZATIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA ERICKSON, CLARK TR 0300PM-0430PM This course provides a basic survey of the archaeology of civilizations of South America (the Andean region of the central highland and coastal areas that today are Peru and Bolivia and parts of Ecuador, Chile, and Argentina). Topics include the history of South American archaeology, peopling of the continent, origins and evolution of agriculture, early village life, ceremonial and domestic architecture, prehistoric art and symbolism, Andean cosmology and astronomy, indigenous technology, the historical ecology of landscapes, outside contacts and relationships, economics and trade, social and political structure, state formation and urbanism, and early contacts with Europeans. The lectures and readings are based on recent archaeological investigations and interpretations combined with appropriate analogy from ethnohistory and ethnography. The prehistory of the Amazonian lowlands and northern South America will be covered in other courses.
                                                                                                          ANTH 362-401 INT DIGITAL ARCHAEOLOGY HERRMANN, JASON MW 0330PM-0530PM Digital methodologies are now an integral part of archaeological practice and archaeologists are now expected to possess basic computing skills and be familiar with a range of data collection, analysis and visualization techniques. This course will use case studies and applied learning opportunities centered on a course project to explore a broad array of digital approaches in archaeology. The technological underpinnings, professional procedures, and influences on archaeological practice and theory will be discussed for each method covered in the course. Applied learning opportunities in digital data collection methods will include aerial and satellite image analysis, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) survey, 3D scanning methods, close-range photogrammetry, and near-surface geophysical prospection. Students will also have opportunities for practical experience in digital database design and management, geographic information science (GIS) and 3D visualization. Students will communicate the results of the course project in a digital story that will be presented at the end of the term. Prior archaeological classwork and/or experience preferred.
                                                                                                            ANTH 377-401 BLACK SPECULATIVE FUTURES T 0130PM-0430PM Why do black cultural producers turn to the speculative? What, in turn, is speculative about blackness? These questions frame this seminar's exploration of how black artists, theorists, and activists imagine different futures, often in the service of critiquing power asymmetries and creating radical transformation in the present. We will explore how the speculative works differently across black literature, visual culture and performance. Additionally, inspired by the multi-disciplinary work that we encounter in the course, we will experiment with crafting our own embodied speculative art in order to better understand its function as both art practice and politics. The course will be divided between discussions centered on close reading of primary and secondary material and creative writing/movement exploration (no previous movement experience necessary). Occasional guest lectures with visiting artists will provide additional fodder for our critical and creative work.
                                                                                                              ANTH 440-401 PLANTS AND SOCIETY WHITE, CHANTEL T 0130PM-0430PM Interactions between humans and the living landscape around us have played - and continue to play - a fundamental role in shaping our worldview. This course is designed to introduce students to the diverse ways in which humans interact with plants. We will focus on the integration of ethnographic information and archaeological case studies in order to understand the range of interactions between humans and plants, as well as how plants and people have profoundly changed one another. Topics will include the origins of agriculture; cooking and plant processing; human health and the world of ethnomedicine; and poisonous and psychoactive plants. We will examine ancient plant material firsthand at the Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials (CAAM) and will handle botanical ecofacts from the Penn Museum's collections. Students will also carry out a substantial research project focused on an archaeological culture and plant species of their own interest.
                                                                                                                CONTACT DEPT or INSTRUCTOR FOR CLASSRM INFO
                                                                                                                ANTH 454-001 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA LYCETT, MARK TR 1030AM-1200PM This course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of how to work with and present quantitative data. Topics include graphical display of numerical data, probability, sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics (parametric and non-parametric two-and three group tests, regression and correlation). Using examples drawn from the social sciences and anthropology, the focus is on teaching the logic behind quantitative arguments and statistical tests, rather than on the mathematical formulas, making the course especially relevant for students who do not have a strong background in mathematics. This course fulfills the Colleges Quantitative Data Analysis requirement.
                                                                                                                  COLLEGE QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS REQ.; QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS COURSE
                                                                                                                  ANTH 511-401 ETHICS, ARCHAEOLOGY & CULTURAL HERITAGE LEVENTHAL, RICHARD T 0130PM-0430PM This seminar will explore some of the most important issues that are now a central part of archaeological, anthropological and historical research throughout the world. The identification and control of cultural heritage is a central part of the framework for research within other communities. Issues for this course will also include cultural identity, human rights, repatriation, colonialism, working with communities and many other topics. Field research today must be based upon a new series of ethical standards that will be discussed and examined within this class. Major topics include: cultural heritage - definitions and constructs, cosmopolitanism and collecting, archaeology and looting, cultural heritage preservation, museums - universal and national, museum acquisition policies, cultural identity, international conventions (including underwater issues), national laws of ownership, community based development, cultural tourism, development models, and human rights.
                                                                                                                    UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                    ANTH 518-301 ANTHROPOLOGY AND PRAXIS SUESS, GRETCHEN T 0130PM-0430PM This course focuses on real world community problems, engaged scholarship, and the evaluation of actively-running Penn programs intended to improve social conditions in West Philadelphia. Two trends emerge in public interest social science that students will explore through research and evaluation: 1.) mergingproblem solving with theory and analysis in the interest of change motivated bya commitment to social justice, racial harmony, equality, and human rights; and 2.) engaging in public debate on human issues to make the research results accessible to a broad audience. As part of the course, students will learn the foundations of anthropology, social theory, and evaluation as they work with qualitative and quantitative data while conducting an evaluation based on community and partner need. Students will gain direct experience conducting evaluation research as a collaborative process and have an opportunity to engage in academically-based community service with a focus on social change.
                                                                                                                      ANTH 519-401 PSYCHOANALYSIS AND ANTHROPOLOGY URBAN, GREGORY
                                                                                                                      BLUM, LAWRENCE
                                                                                                                      T 0300PM-0600PM This course will introduce students to the rich literature that has grown up around the encounter between psychoanalysis and anthropology, from totem and taboo, to studies of the Oedipus complex, child-rearing practices, ritual symbolism, mythology, and dreams. The class will also look to the future, endeavoring to examine as well such issues as the role of computers (are they self objects?) and the internet (including such online games as "Second Life"), dreams in space alien abduction narratives, sexuality in advertising, political psychology, and other contemporary issues. This course counts towards towards the Psychoanalytic Studies (PSYS) Minor.
                                                                                                                        UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                        ANTH 521-401 THE MATERIAL WORLD IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE OLSZEWSKI, DEBORAH
                                                                                                                        BOILEAU, MARIE-CLAUDE
                                                                                                                        JANSEN, JAN
                                                                                                                        TR 1030AM-1200PM By focusing on the scientific analysis of inorganic archaeological materials, this course will explore processes of creation in the past. ANTH 221/521 will take place in the Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials (CAAM) and will be team taught in three modules: analysis of lithics, analysis of ceramics and analysis of metals. Each module will combine laboratory and classroom exercises to give students hands-on experience with archaeological materials. We will examine how the transformation of materials into objects provides key information about past human behaviors and the socio-economic contexts of production, distribution, exchange and use. Discussion topics will include invention and adoption of new technologies, change and innovation, use of fire, and craft specialization.
                                                                                                                          CONTACT DEPT or INSTRUCTOR FOR CLASSRM INFO; UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                          ANTH 536-401 PEOPLING OF THE AMERICAS SCHURR, THEODORE W 0200PM-0500PM The peopling of the Americas is a question that has intrigued scholars and laymen for over 500 years. The origin of Native Americans was also a seminal issue during the emergence of American Anthropology as a discipline at the turn of the 20th century, with research on this topic animating current studies of ethnohistory, indigenous archeology, post-colonialism and repatriation. The proposed course will review the scholarship dedicated to describing this long history from an interdisciplinary perspective. It will explore their roots in the expansion of modern humans into Eurasia, evaluate the new archeological and genetic research that has fundamentally altered our understanding of the migration history and diversity of indigenous peoples in the American continents, and examine issues of identity, ethnicity and cultural heritage in contemporary Native populations that extend from this knowledge. The course will further draw on the instructor's fieldwork experience working with indigenous communities in Alaska, Canada, the Lower 48, Mexico and the Caribbean, as well as native Siberians in Russia, where the cultural and biological roots of ancestral Native American populations lie.
                                                                                                                            UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                            ANTH 547-401 ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION POSECZNICK, ALEXANDER M 1200PM-0200PM An introduction to the intent, approach, and contribution of anthropology to the study of socialization and schooling in cross-cultural perspective. Education is examined in traditional, colonial, and complex industrial societies.
                                                                                                                              ANTH 560-401 CRITICAL ETHNOGRAPHY JOHNSON, JASMINE T 0130PM-0430PM "This graduate course introduces students to theories, practices, and critiques of critical ethnography. Ethnography -- an approach to the study of culture which anthropologist James Clifford described as a process that "translates experiences into text" - will have our full attention. This process of translation, although seemingly straightforward, requires layers of interpretation, selection, and the imposition of a viewpoint or politics. While ethnography is often narrowly conceived of as a methodology, this course considers ethnography as a mode of inquiry, as a philosophy, as an ongoing question and performance. We wrestle with notions of "the self" and "the other" at the intersection of imbricated cultural and performance worlds. Together we'll ask: How is ethnography both critical and performative? What is the relationship between theory and method? How can we evaluate ethnographic work? And finally, what kinds of ethnographers do we want to be? This course considers a range of ethnographic examples in order to analyze both the craft and the stakes of "translating experiences into text."
                                                                                                                                ANTH 562-401 INT DIGITAL ARCHAEOLOGY HERRMANN, JASON MW 0330PM-0530PM Digital methodologies are an integral part of contemporary archaeological practice, and demand that archaeologists to hold a new set of skills and knowledge fundamentals. This course will expose students to a broad range of digital approaches through a review of relevant literature and through applied learning opportunities centered on a course project. The technological underpinnings, best practices, and influences on archaeological practice and theory will be discussed for each method covered in the course. Applied learning opportunities in digital data collection methods will include: aerial and satellite remote sensing, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) survey, 3D scanning methods, close-range photogrammetry, and near-surface geophysical prospection. Students will also have opportunities for practical experience in digital database design and management, geographic information science (GIS) and 3D modeling and visualization. Students will communicate the results of the course project in a digital story that will be presented at the end of the term. Prior archaeological classwork and/or experience preferred.
                                                                                                                                  ANTH 565-301 POLITICAL ECONOMY OF EMPIRE SMIT, DOUGLAS W 0200PM-0500PM This reading intensive seminar will examine anthropological approaches to the political economy of colonialism, with a specific focus on the entanglements between European colonial projects and capitalist expansion over the past six hundred years. The course is open to different methodological approaches within anthropology and related fields, as we will discuss material, biological, linguistic, and cultural perspectives on the political economy of empire. Topics will include classic approaches that attempted to universalize the history of capital, as well as more recent correctives from feminist, postcolonial, and decolonial literatures. Through a consideration of case studies from the Americas, Africa, and South Asia, we will compare how scholars have analyzed the friction between global forces and local contingencies across different scales. Students will be assessed through short reading responses and a final assignment intended to help the student incorporate the course material in the development of their own research.
                                                                                                                                    UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                    ANTH 576-401 ANTHROMEDIALITIES: EXPERIMENTAL THEORY AND PRACTICE W 0200PM-0500PM In recent years much has been made of the "beyond text" turn in anthropology, specifically the need to re-evaluate the singular authority of "writing culture." Several new approaches advocate for non-textual medialities, with representations originating in both sonovisual media and performance. Less, however, has been theorized and advocated about intermediality and the multicompositional practices of transmediality and plurimediality, specifically their more transgressive multisensory epistemology. This course will examine these radical approaches to interacting textual, visual, sonic and performative mediations, theorizing their epistemic and ethical implications, collaborative potentials, affordances in narrative and non-narrative representation, and political and aesthetic investments. Students will both critically engage histories of transmedial anthropology, and produce projects that are multicompositional.
                                                                                                                                      UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                      ANTH 583-401 ETHNOGRAPHIC FILMMAKING DAS, AMITANSHU W 0200PM-0500PM This ethnographic methodology course considers filmmaking/videography as a tool in conducting ethnographic research as well as a medium for presenting academic research to scholarly and non-scholarly audiences. The course engages the methodological and theoretical implications of capturing data and crafting social scientific accounts/narratives in images and sounds. Students are required to put theory into practice by conducting ethnographic research and producing an ethnographic film as their final project. In service to that goal, students will read about ethnography (as a social scientific method and representational genre), learn and utilize ethnographic methods in fieldwork, watch non-fiction films (to be analyzed for formal properties and implicit assumptions about culture/sociality), and acquire rigorous training in the skills and craft of digital video production. This is an ABCS course, and students will produce short ethnographic films with students in Philadelphia high schools as part of a partnership project with the School District of Philadelphia. Due to the time needed for ethnographic film production, this is a year-long course, which will meet periodically in both the fall and spring semesters.
                                                                                                                                        AN ACADEMICALLY BASED COMMUNITY SERV COURSE; PERMISSION NEEDED FROM DEPARTMENT
                                                                                                                                        ANTH 598-640 ECONOMICS OF HERITAGE GOULD, PETER R 0530PM-0840PM Governmental resources for archaeological and heritage sites are declining worldwide while commercial and economic development initiatives are threatening the fabric of heritage and the larger landscape environment to ever greater degrees. As a consequence, the competition for resources to protect and preserve heritage is intensifying, as is the challenge to articulate the value of heritage resources vs. competing commercial or public projects. This is the context for understanding the issues surrounding the definition of the value of cultural heritage assets and the tools available for their measurement and management. This course explores in some depth issues relating to the economic analysis of heritage and culture. It is designed to provide students with a foundational understanding of the economics of heritage-related projects, the tools and techniques available for their analysis and the ethical and practical issues of public policy and private actions that determine the future of heritage resources. Readings and case studies will explore technical, practical and ethical issues that arise in cultural heritageeconomics. Relevant analytical techniques will be introduced and particular emphasis will be placed on commercial, government and community issues unique to heritage-related activities. Special emphasis will be placed upon developing pertinent strategies for the tourist industry. Students will produce one case-study project intended to integrate the technical and practical aspects of the course.
                                                                                                                                          ANTH 600-301 CONTEMPORARY ARCHAEOLOGY IN THEORY KASSABAUM, MEGAN M 0200PM-0500PM This graduate seminar addresses contemporary anthropological archaeology and considers the varied ways inferences are made about past and present human behavior from the archaeological record. It reviews such fundamental topics as the use of analogy, Middle Range theory, symbolism and meaning, social and cultural evolution, ideology and power, feminism and gender, and indigenous (non-Western) perspectives. It also foregrounds basic issues regarding heritage, looting, and ethics.
                                                                                                                                            UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                            ANTH 603-301 LANGUAGE IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY AGHA, ASIF MW 1000AM-1200PM First-year anthropology graduate students or Instructor Permission. Examination of properties of human language which enable social persons to interpret the cultural world and to act within it. Topics include: principles of lexical and grammatical organization; the role of language structure (grammar) and linguistic context (indexicality) in discursive activity; referential uses of language; social interaction; markers of social role, identity, and group-belonging; criteria by which models of linguistic form and function are formulated; the empirical limits within which different models have explanatory value.
                                                                                                                                              PERMISSION NEEDED FROM INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                                                                              ANTH 628-301 LANGUAGE IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY: SPECIAL TOPICS AGHA, ASIF R 1000AM-0100PM The course is devoted to a single research topic of contemporary interest in linguistic anthropology. Topics vary from year to year. Readings locate current debates in relation to longstanding assumptions in the literature and new directions in contemporary research.
                                                                                                                                                PERMISSION NEEDED FROM INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                                                                                ANTH 655-301 METHODS AND GRANTWRITING FOR ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH ANAND, NIKHIL
                                                                                                                                                MORRISON, KATHLEEN
                                                                                                                                                T 1000AM-0100PM This course is designed for third- and fourth-year graduate students in anthropology who are working on their dissertation research proposals and submitting grants. Graduate students from other departments who will be submitting grant proposals that include an ethnographic component are also welcome. Students will develop their proposals throughout the course of the semester, and will meet important fall submission deadlines. They will begin by working with various databases to search funding sources relevant to the research they plan to conduct. In class sessions, they will also work with the professor and their peers to refine their research questions, their methods, the relationship of any previous research to their dissertation fieldwork, and the broader theoretical and "real-world" significance of their proposed projects. Finally, students will also have the opportunity to have live "chats" with representatives from funding agencies, thereby gaining a better sense of what particular foundations are looking for in a proposal.
                                                                                                                                                  UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                  ANTH 677-401 BLACK SPECULATIVE FUTURES T 0130PM-0430PM Why do black cultural producers turn to the speculative? What, in turn, is speculative about blackness? These questions frame this seminar s exploration of how black artists, theorists, and activists imagine different futures, often in the service of critiquing power asymmetries and creating radical transformation in the present. We will explore how the speculative works differently across black literature, visual culture and performance. Additionally, inspired by the multi-disciplinary work that we encounter in the course, we will experiment with crafting our own embodied speculative art in order to better understand its function as both art practice and politics. The course will be divided between discussions centered on close reading of primary and secondary material and creative writing/movement exploration (no previous movement experience necessary). Occasional guest lectures with visiting artists will provide additional fodder for our critical and creative work.
                                                                                                                                                    UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                    ANTH 706-401 STATE,SOCTY&CULT S.ASIA MITCHELL, LISA F 0200PM-0500PM This interdisciplinary course introduces graduate students to both classic and more recent theoretical frameworks used in understanding and analyzing society, culture, and the state, with particular reference to South Asia. Topics include bureaucracy and the state; power and performance; hierarchy and individualism; caste, community, and domination; money and markets; credit and debt; globalization and consumption; economic liberalization and political transformations; local and trans-local contexts of meaning; the environment, politics, and urban and rural ecologies; and culture and the changing shape of politics. Particular emphasis will be placed on the ways in which recent ethnographic and historical monographs have positioned their interventions in relation to broader debates and scholarship, both within scholarship on South Asia and more generally.
                                                                                                                                                      UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                      ANTH 720-401 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT F 0900AM-1200PM Follow-up for ANTH 719 and parallel course to ANTH 220. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays and Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                                                                                                        UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                        ANTH 720-402 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT F 0100PM-0400PM Follow-up for ANTH 719 and parallel course to ANTH 220. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays and Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                                                                                                          UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                          ANTH 720-403 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT S 0900AM-1200PM Follow-up for ANTH 719 and parallel course to ANTH 220. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays and Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                                                                                                            UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                            ANTH 720-404 ARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY FIELD PROJECT SCHUYLER, ROBERT S 0100PM-0400PM Follow-up for ANTH 719 and parallel course to ANTH 220. Class will meet in three hour sections on Fridays and Saturdays and will involve the analysis of artifacts, documentary records, oral historic sources and period illustrations collected on Southern New Jersey historic sites that Fall. No previous archaeological or lab experience is required. (Robert L. Schuyler: schuyler@sas.upenn.edu; (215) 898-6965; UMuseum 412). Course may be repeated for credit.
                                                                                                                                                              UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                              ANTH 733-301 SENSE - COLLOQUIUM 2020-21 RISTVET, LAUREN
                                                                                                                                                              CARRUTHERS, ANDREW
                                                                                                                                                              M 1200PM-0300PM This graduate seminar is a full year course open to second year anthropology graduate students. Other interested students should contact the instructors for permission before enrolling. Topic changes each year, corresponding to the Penn Anthropology Department Colloquium series.
                                                                                                                                                                PERMISSION NEEDED FROM INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                                                                                                ANTH 741-301 ANTHROPOLOGY OF AFFECT URBAN, GREGORY F 1000AM-0100PM This course draws upon three anthropological literatures pertaining to affect. One, growing out of Darwin's observations in The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, looks at the evolutionary and neurobiological bases of affect. A second developed in connection with psychoanalysis, and centers upon insights gained through empathic and introspective processes. A third arose with cultural studies and reactions within anthropology to structuralism, including research on cross-cultural variation in the conceptualization of emotions. The course is appropriate for graduate students interested in exploring the linkages among these literatures, and who envision or are already actively undertaking research for which knowledge of them is pertinent. Students will be expected to lead discussions of specific works, as well as present aspects of their own present or proposed future research. Students outside of the Anthropology Department should contact the instructor to request a permit.
                                                                                                                                                                  CONTACT DEPT or INSTRUCTOR FOR CLASSRM INFO; UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                                                                                                                  ANTH 752-401 ARCHAEOLOGY OF AMERICAN HISTORY: THE COLONIAL PERIOD SCHUYLER, ROBERT R 0130PM-0430PM Over the last fifty years archaeologists have been exploring historic sites in the United States dating from both the Colonial Period and the 19th/20th centuries. What can archaeology now tell us about the origins of American society, the invasion of North America by various European peoples (Spanish, English, Dutch), the impact on native peoples, the rise of African American and Asian American cultures, major crisis (e.g. the revolution, Civil War, and the Great Depression), the settlement of the Far American West, and the final emergence of a truly national culture in the 20th century? A basic question will be how an American history based on both archaeology and archival sources is different and more complete than an image of the past drawn only from written sources.
                                                                                                                                                                    UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION