Courses for Fall 2017

Title Instructor Location Time All taxonomy terms Description Section Description Cross Listings Fulfills Registration Notes Syllabus Syllabus URL Course Syllabus URL
GSWS 002-001 GENDER & SOCIETY BEETHAM, GWENDOLYN COLLEGE HALL 200 TR 0300PM-0430PM This course will introduce students to the ways in which sex, gender, and sexuality mark our bodies, influence our perceptions of self and others, organize families and work like, delimit opportunities for individuals and groups of people, as well as impact the terms of local and transnational economic exchange. We will explore the ways in which sex, gender, and sexuality work with other markers of difference and social status such as race, age, nationality, and ability to further demarcate possibilities, freedoms, choices, and opportunities available to people.
    GSWS 002-601 GENDER & SOCIETY FISCHLER, DEVORAH WILLIAMS HALL 214 T 0600PM-0900PM This course will introduce students to the ways in which sex, gender, and sexuality mark our bodies, influence our perceptions of self and others, organize families and work like, delimit opportunities for individuals and groups of people, as well as impact the terms of local and transnational economic exchange. We will explore the ways in which sex, gender, and sexuality work with other markers of difference and social status such as race, age, nationality, and ability to further demarcate possibilities, freedoms, choices, and opportunities available to people.
      GSWS 004-401 THE FAMILY GONALONS-PONS, PILAR WILLIAMS HALL 29 MW 0200PM-0330PM Historical and cultural development of the family, analysis of sexual codes; discussion of role difference between men and women; factors involved in mate selection and marital adjustment; analysis of family disorganization with both individual and societal implications.
        GSWS 007-401 POPULATION & SOCIETY FLIPPEN, CHENOA MCNEIL BUILDING 285 TR 1030AM-1200PM The course serves as an introduction to the study of population and demography, including issues pertaining to fertility, mortality, migration, and family formation and structure. Within these broad areas we consider the social, economic, and political implications of current trends, including: population explosion, baby bust, the impact of international migration on receiving societies, population aging, racial classification, growing diversity in household composition and family structure, population and environmental degradation, and the link between population and development/poverty.
          Society sector (all classes) SOCIETY SECTOR
          GSWS 028-401 FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY JACQUART, MELISSA JAFFE BUILDING 104 TR 1200PM-0130PM This course is an introduction to feminist thought, both in theory and in practice. We will consider how feminist thought emerged and evolved, as well as how feminist theories respond to various intellectual, social and political challenges. Questions we will address include: What exactly is feminism? How does one's gender identity impact one's lived experiences? How should we revise, reformulate, or rethink traditional answers to politial and ethical issues in light of feminist theories? How can feminist analyses contribute to the development of better science, and our conceptions of knowledge?
            GSWS 048-401 VOICING POLITICS/POLITICIZING VOICES MURPHY, MARIA FISHER-BENNETT HALL 406 TR 0130PM-0300PM What does it mean to have a voice? To raise your voice? To have your voice heard? What do our voices say about us and what do they fail to communicate? How we speak and how our voices are perceived impact our interactions in daily life, our participation in the political sphere, and our capacity to effect change through activism. This CWiC course explores the parameters by which voice is defined in the context of music and sound studies, social justice, philosophy, and media and communication studies. We will consider how voice embodies our political constitution through an examination of the vocal practices of artists such as Tanya Tagaq, Anohni, Juliana Huxtable, Laurie Anderson, Sikh Knowledge, and Lucas Silveira; the phenomena of voice-activated devices such as Apple s Siri and Amazon s Echo; and the collective voices of movements such as Black Lives Matter and the Standing Rock water protectors. Through individual and group presentations, discussions, and creative projects, this critical speaking seminar encourages students to develop their oral communication skills while examining what informs their individual and collective voices. No previous musical training required. Enrollment limited to 16.
              GSWS 090-401 GENDER,SEXUALITY & LIT: WRITING WOMEN:1680-1800 BOWERS, TONI FISHER-BENNETT HALL 201 TR 0130PM-0300PM This course will focus on questions of gender difference and of sexual desire in a range of literary works, paying special attention to works by women and treatments of same-sex desire. More fundamentally, the course will introduce students to questions about the relation between identity and representation. We will attend in particular to intersections between gender, sexuality, race, class, and nation, and will choose from a rich vein of authors: Mary Wollstonecraft, Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, Lord Byron, the Brontes, Christina Rossetti, George Eliot, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Gertrude Stein, Zora Neale Hurston, E. M. Forster, Virginia Woolf, Nella Larsen, Radclyffe Hall, Willa Cather, Elizabeth Bishop, Jean Rhys, James Baldwin, Sylvia Plath, Bessie Head, Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, Cherrie Moraga, Toni Morrison, Michael Cunningham, Dorothy Allison, Jeanette Winterson, and Leslie Feinberg. See the English Department's website at for a complete description of the current offerings.
                GSWS 096-401 THEORIES GENDR/SEXUALITY ZUZGA, JASON CLAUDIA COHEN HALL 402 MW 0330PM-0500PM What makes men and women different? What is the nature of desire? This course introduces students to a long history of speculation about the meaning and nature of gender and sexuality -- a history fundamental to literary representation and the business of making meaning. We will consider theories from Aristophanes speech in Platos Symposium to recent feminist and queer theory. Authors treated might include: Plato, Shakespeare, J. S. Mill, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sigmund Freud, Virginia Woolf, Simone de Beauvoir, Adrienne Rich, Audre Lorde, Michel Foucault, Gayle Rubin, Catherine MacKinnon, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Judith Butler, bell hooks, Leo Bersani, Gloria Anzaldua, David Halperin, Cherr¿e Moraga, Donna Haraway, Gayatri Spivak, Diana Fuss, Rosemary Hennesy, Chandra Tadpole Mohanty, and Susan Stryker. See the English Department's website at for a complete description of the current offerings.
                  GSWS 109-401 WOMEN AND RELIGION: Beyond the Virgin Martyr and the Repentant Harlot ROBB, MEGAN DAVID RITTENHOUSE LAB A5 TR 1030AM-1200PM This course looks at the contrast between the model of the virtuous woman, and the instructive power of the uncontrollable woman, from 1800 to the present in Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam. Drawing examples from a variety of historical contexts and traditions, this course will touch on issues of religious empowerment, piety, leadership, and theoretical questions involving gender, spirituality, the body, and the intersection of class status and religious performance.
                    Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR
                    GSWS 114-401 DISCRIMINATION This course is concerned with the structure, the causes and correlates, and the government policies to alleviate discrimination by race and gender in thee United States.The central focus of the course is on employment differences by race and gender and the extent to which they arise from labor market d discrimination versus other causes, although racial discrimination in housing is also considered. After a comprehensive overview of the structures of labo and housing markets and of nondiscriminatory reasons (that is, the cumulative effects of past discrimination and/or experiences) for the existence of group differentials in employment, wages and residential locations, various theorie ofthe sources of current discrimination are reviewed and evaluated. Actual government policies and alternatives policies are evaluated in light of both the empirical evidence on group differences and the alternative theories of discrimination.
                      Society sector (all classes) CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; SOCIETY SECTOR; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US
                      GSWS 119-401 WITCHCRAFT & POSSESSION ST.GEORGE, ROBERT COLLEGE HALL 314 TR 0130PM-0300PM This course explores world witchcraft and possession from the persecutions of the early seventeenth century through the rise of Wicca in the twentieth century. The mere mention of these terms, or of such close cousins as demonology, sorcery, exorcism, magic, and the witches Sabbath, raises clear ethnographic and historical challenges. How can the analysis of witchcraft-- including beliefs, patterns of accusation, the general social position of victims, the intensity and timing of witch hunts, and its relation to religious practice, law, language, gender, social marginalization, and property--lead us to a more humane understanding of belief and action? Films such as The Exorcist, The Blair Witch Project, The Crucible, and Three Sovereigns for Sarah will focus discussion.
                        Hum & Soc Sci Sector (new curriculum only) HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTOR
                        GSWS 122-401 SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER LEIDNER, ROBIN CLAIRE M. FAGIN HALL (NURSING 110 TR 0130PM-0300PM Gender is an organizing principle of society, shaping social structures, cultural understandings, processes of interaction, and identities in ways that have profound consequences. It affects every aspect of people's lives, from their intimate relationships to their participation in work, family, government, and other social institutions and their place in the stratification system, Yet gender is such a taken for granted basis for differences among people that it can be hard to see the underlying social structures and cultural forces that reinforce or weaken the social boundaries that define gender. Differences in behavior, power,and experience are often seen as the result of biological imperatives or of individual choice. A sociological view of gender, in contrast, emphasizes how gender is socially constructed and how structural constraints limit choice. This course examines how differences based on gender are created and sustained, with particular attention to how other important bases of personal identity and social inequality--race and class-interact with patterns of gender relations. We will also seek to understand how social change happens and how gender inequality might be reduced.
                          Society sector (all classes) SOCIETY SECTOR
                          GSWS 125-601 ADULTERY NOVEL FISCHLER, DEVORAH FISHER-BENNETT HALL 24 R 0530PM-0830PM The object of this course is to analyze narratives of adultery from Shakespeare to the present and to develop a vocabulary for thinking critically about the literary conventions and social values that inform them. Many of the themes (of desire, transgression, suspicion, discovery) at the heart of these stories also lie at the core of many modern narratives. Is there anything special, we will ask, about the case of adultery--once called "a crime which contains within itself all others"? What might these stories teach us about the way we read in general? By supplementing classic literary accounts by Shakespeare, Pushkin, Flaubert, Chekhov, and Proust with films and with critical analyses, we will analyze the possibilities and limitations of the different genres and forms under discussion, including novels, films, short stories, and theatre. What can these forms show us (or not show us)about desire, gender, family and social obligation? Through supplementary readings and class discussions, we will apply a range of critical approaches to place these narratives of adultery in a social and literary context, including formal analyses of narrative and style, feminist criticism, Marxist and sociological analyses of the family, and psychoanalytic understandings of desire and family.
                            Arts & Letters Sector (all classes) ARTS & LETTERS SECTOR
                            GSWS 149-301 LAW SOC POL SEX REPRO: Women, Gender, Sexuality and the Law TRACY, CAROL WILLIAMS HALL 220 T 0130PM-0430PM This course will examine how statutory law, court decisions and other forms of social policy encourage or discourage various forms of sexuality, reproduction and parenting. Such issues as contraception, abortion, gay and lesbian rights, reproductive technology, family violence, and welfare and family policies will be covered.
                              GSWS 160-401 SEX AND SOCIALISM GHODSEE, KRISTEN JAFFE BUILDING 113 TR 1030AM-1200PM This seminar examines classic and current scholarship and literature on gender and sexuality in contemporary Eastern Europe, and examines the dialogue and interchange of ideas between East and West. Although the scholarly and creative works will primarily investigate the changing status of women during the last three decades, the course will also look at changing constructions of masculinity and LGBT movements and communities in the former communist bloc. Topics will include: the woman question before 1989; gender and emerging nationalisms; visual representations in television and film; social movements; work; romance and intimacy; spirituality; and investigations into the constructed concepts of freedom and human rights.
                                ALL READINGS AND LECTURES IN ENGLISH
                                GSWS 216-401 GENDER AND HEALTH LINKER, BETH CLAUDIA COHEN HALL 337 TR 1200PM-0130PM Women's health is a constant refrain of modern life, prompting impassioned debates that speak to the fundamental nature of our society. Women's bodies are the tableaux across which politicians, physicians, healthcare professional, activists, and women themselves dispute issues as wide-ranging as individual versus collective rights, the legitimacy of scientific and medical knowledge, the role of the government in healthcare, inequalities of care, and the value of experiential knowledge, among many others. Understanding the history of these questions is crucial for informed engagement with contemporary issues.
                                  GSWS 233-402 UNOFFICIAL HISTORIES OF THE COLONIAL CARIBBEAN FABELLA, YVONNE VAN PELT LIBRARY 302 W 0200PM-0500PM This is a topics course. See History Department's website: for a complete description of this course for the term.
                                    GSWS 236-401 GENDER, VIOLENCE AND WWII: EUROPE 1933-1950 RODGERS, JENNIFER COLLEGE HALL 315A R 0300PM-0600PM This seminar explores World War II-era Europe through the lens of evolving gender norms and relations. This turbulent period in European history magnified the so-called "gender troubles" that emerged in the wake of the First World War. From the question of equality between the sexes to the liberalization of sexual mores and divergence from the proscribed roles of men and women, gender had a profound impact on the prewar, wartime, and immediate postwar European landscape. Drawing on primary and secondary sources, we will consider the following questions: How did gender and violence shape the course of World War II and the immediate postwar from Britain to the Soviet Union? How can gender and sexuality help us to understand militarization, violence, and war? How did war and occupation impact relations between and among men and women on the home- and war fronts? We will complicate these questions by probing topics such as women's support for war, masculinity in combat, everyday racial discrimination, eugenics, sexual violence and genocide and the ways in which they infiltradted the every aspect of Europeans' public and private lives. Finally, we will discuss scholarly debates and historiographies on gender during World War II that have emerged since the early 1970s.
                                      GSWS 270-601 FOLKLORE AND SEXUALITY AZZOLINA, DAVID ANNENBERG SCHOOL 110 T 0630PM-0930PM Sexuality is not only a biological act or fact, it also has a creative and aesthetic element. This course examines the folklore elements of sexuality and includes historical readings such as the Bible and the Decameron as well as a contemporary look at topics such as body art and clothing choice. A field-based paper will be required and a final examination will be given on class discussions and readings.
                                        CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US
                                        GSWS 279-401 PROVOCATIVE PERFORMANCE MALAGUE, ROSEMARY FISHER-BENNETT HALL 222 TR 1200PM-0130PM Theatre began as a form that excluded women entirely. The plays of ancient Greece and Elizabethan England were written and performed only by men, beginning a long tradition of theatre that represented women only from male perspectives. Has that tradition been so dominant for so long that women's voices on stage are still a novelty? This course focuses on a wide range of plays and performances by and about women; the work we read (and view) will evidence artistic attempts to represent women's lives, experiences and perspectives on the stage. Among the issues encountered and examined in these works are the roles of love, sexuality, friendship, career, community, marriage, motherhood, family, and feminism in women's lives - as well as the economic and political position(s) of women in society. The course will also offer contextual background on feminist theatre history, theory, and literature, the diverse (and divergent) creative efforts of female artists to use live performance as a means of creating social and political change.
                                          BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINARS; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINAR
                                          GSWS 302-401 QUEER CINEMA: QUEER CINEMA TRENTIN, FILIPPO FISHER-BENNETT HALL 231 MW 0200PM-0330PM Queerness has often been understood as a threat to society whether social institutions like marriage or monogamy or familial practices have been characterized by increasing acceptance of gays and lesbians into mainstream society, this process has no doubt reproduced new inequalities and asymmetrities - in terms of race, class and access to institutional spaces. Does "queer" still pose a threat to the mainstream or is it now part of the "normal"? Should one welcome the progressive acceptance of queer lives within the mainstream or should one reject it in the name of an indissoluble difference? In this course we will range across movies and theories that engage with these questions, particularly focusing on negative reactions to processes of assimilation. Topics will include sex and death, queerness and neoliberalism, intersections of race and sexuality. Some of the films we will watch and discuss are Paolini's Pigsty, Fassbiner's In a Year of 13 Moons, Jennie Livingstone's Paris is Burning, Cheryl Dunye's Watermelon Woman, Kimberly Peirce's Boys Don't Cry.
                                            GSWS 318-401 RACE, GENDER, CLASS AND THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN HEALTH CARE FAIRMAN, JULIE
                                            MAHONEY, AMANDA
                                            CANCELED This multidisciplinary course surveys the history of American health care through the multiple perspectives of race, gender, and class, and grounds the discussions in contemporary health issues. It emphasizes the links between the past and present, using not only primary documents but materials from disciplines such as literature, art, sociology, and feminist studies that relate both closely and tangentially to the health professions and health care issues. Discussions will surround gender, class-based, ethnic, and racial ideas about the construction of disease, health and illness; the development of health care institutions; the interplay between religion and science; the experiences of patients and providers; and the response to disasters and epidemics.
                                              GSWS 324-401 US CHILD HLTH 1800-2000 CONNOLLY, CYNTHIA CANCELED This course explores the impact of historical ideas, events, and actors pertaining to the history of children's health care in the United States. Emphasis is placed on tracing the origins and evolution of issues that have salience for twenty-first century children's health care policy and the delivery of care.
                                                BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINARS; BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SEMINAR
                                                GSWS 336-401 "WHERE MY GIRLS AT?":AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PERFORMERS IN THE 20TH CENTURY TILLET, SALAMISHAH CANCELED African American women performers from blues woman Bessie Smith to Paris revue star Josephine Baker, from jazz darling Billie Holiday to rock legend Tina Turner, and from hip hop giant Lauryn Hill to millennial star Beyonce, have constantly redefined and expanded American popular music. Using the long 20th century as our historical marker, this course will explore how African American women performers, across genres and time, have consciously and sometimes contradictorily navigated the racial and sexual limits of American popular culture in order to assert their own particular narratives of artistic and political freedom.
                                                  CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN US; CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE US
                                                  GSWS 343-401 BOYS WILL BE BOYS: MASCULINITY IN FRENCH LITERATURE FRANCIS, SCOTT CANCELED Why was a portrait depicting the Renaissance king Francois I as half-man, half-woman made with royal approval, and moreover intended to represent the king as the perfect embodiment of the ideal qualities of a male sovereign? And why, in what is now regarded as the official portrat of Louis XIV, does the king prominently display his silk stockings and high heels with diamond-encrusted buckles? These are just two examples of the questions that lead us to the point of departure for this course: the idea that masculinit is not a fixed essence that has existed since time immemorial, but rather a flexible concept that changes across and even within historical periods. We will examine how masculinity has evolved from the Middle Ages and the chivalric ideal to the present day, how it has been defined, and its implications for gender relations, politics, and religion in different eras. In addition to literary works, we will study how masculinity is represented across a range of media, including visual arts, music, and film. Discussions will be in English, and assignments will be available in translation, but students who wish to receive credit in French will be able to do coursework in French.
                                                    GSWS 344-401 PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONAL GROWTH ZAMEL, PAMELA WILLIAMS HALL 723 T 0430PM-0730PM Intellectual, emotional and behavioral development in the college years. Illustrative topics: developing intellectual and social competence; developing personal and career goals; managing interpersonal relationships; values and behavior. Recommended for submatriculation in Psychological Services Master's Degree program.
                                                      GSWS 345-401 SINNERS, SEX AND SLAVES: RACE AND SEX IN EARLY AMERICA BROWN, KATHLEEN MCNEIL BUILDING 286-7 MW 1200PM-0100PM This course explores the lost worlds of sinners, witches, sexual offenders, rebellious slaves, and Native American prophets from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. Using the life stories of unusual individuals from the past, we try to make sense of their contentious relationships with their societies. By following the careers of the trouble-makers, the criminals, and the rebels, we also learn about the foundations of social order and the impulse to reform that rocked American society during the nineteenth century.
                                                          GSWS 400-301 SENIOR THESIS BEETHAM, GWENDOLYN F 0200PM-0500PM This course is for senior undergraduate Women's Studies majors who will be completing their thesis. The seminar helps students decide on the most appropriate methodologies to use and topics to include in their thesis. Other topics include thesis organization and drawing conclusions from primary and secondary sources of data.
                                                            GSWS 516-401 PUBLIC INTEREST WORKSHOP SUESS, GRETCHEN CANCELED This is a Public Interest Ethnography workshop (originally created by Peggy Reeves Sanday - Department of Anthropology) that incorporates an interdisciplinary approach to exploring social issues. Open to graduate and advanced undergraduate students, the workshop is a response to Amy Gutmann's call for interdisciplinary cooperation across the University and to the Department of Anthropology's commitment to developing public interest research and practice as a disciplinary theme. Rooted in the rubric of public interest social science, the course focuses on: 1) merging problem solving with theory and analysis in the interest of change motivated by a commitment to social justice, racial harmony, equality, and human rights; and 2) engaging in public debate on human issues to make research results accessible to a broader audience. The workshop brings in guest speakers and will incorporate original ethnographic research to merge theory with action. Students are encouraged to apply the framing model to a public interest research and action topic of their choice. This is an academically-based-community-service (ABCS) course that partners directly with Penn's Netter Center Community Partnerships.
                                                              AN ACADEMICALLY BASED COMMUNITY SERV COURSE
                                                              GSWS 538-401 MAJ. REN. WRITERS: QUEER THEORY AND EARLY MODERN LITERATURE SANCHEZ, MELISSA FISHER-BENNETT HALL 140 T 1200PM-0300PM The topic varies. See the English Department's website at for a complete description of the current offerings.
                                                                UNDERGRADUATES NEED PERMISSION
                                                                GSWS 542-401 WORK AND GENDER LEIDNER, ROBIN DAVID RITTENHOUSE LAB 3C6 W 0200PM-0500PM This seminar examines the relevance of gender to the organization and experience of paid and unpaid work. Combining materialist and social constructuionist approaches, we will consider occupational segregation, the relation of work and family, gender and class solidarity, the construction of gender through work, race and class variation in work experiences, and related topics.
                                                                  GSWS 550-401 WOMEN WRITING IN THE LONG 17TH CENTURY DEJEAN, JOAN WILLIAMS HALL 516 F 0200PM-0400PM The specific topics of the seminar vary from semester to semester, depending on the instructor and his/her choice. When the topic includes gender, sexuality or women's studies it will be cross-listed with GSWS. Please see the French Department website for a description:
                                                                    GSWS 555-401 WOMEN AND INCARCERATION: Health Education for Incarcerated Women UGARTE GALDOS, LUISA CLAIRE M. FAGIN HALL (NURSING 103 T 0530PM-0900PM This elective course will afford students the opportunity to develop and implement health education workshops for incarcerated women in the Philadelphiajail system. Students will explore the social and historical framework and trends in the incarceration of women, as well as the needs of this population, and will identify specific areas that need to be addressed by particular disciplines or professions. Students will have direct contact with the jail system, its staff, and female inmates.
                                                                      GSWS 588-401 THE POLITICS OF WOMEN'S HEALTH CARE LESSNER, BRIDGET CLAIRE M. FAGIN HALL (NURSING 209 R 0400PM-0700PM This course will utilize a multidisciplinary approach to address the field of women's health care. The constructs of women's health care will be examined from a clinical, as well as sociological, anthropological and political point of view. Topics will reflect the historical movement of women's health care from an an obstetrical/gynecological view to one that encompasses the entire life span and life needs of women. The emphasis of the course will be to undertake a critical exploration of the diversity of women's health care needs and the past and current approaches to this care. Issues will be addressed from both a national and global perspective, with a particular focus on the relationship between women's equality/inequality status and state of health.
                                                                        GSWS 683-401 GENDER,POWER&FEM THEORY CANCELED This seminar will examine the theme of power as it engages questions of sex and gender. Subsidiary themes that will be developed over the course of the semester include: the modernism/postmodernism debate as it particularly relatesto feminism; the intersectionality of race, gender, sexuality and class and howfeminists can and do talk about "women"; the relevance of feminist theory to policy issues, and which theoretical approaches are the most appropriate or have the most powerful potential. The readings represent some of the newest scholarship as well as several more familiar texts to provide an understanding of how some of the latest developments in feminist theory have come to pass. In the first 5 weeks we will explore general issues of power and then turn to works that attempt to grapple with more specific political issues in which power is expressed.
                                                                          GSWS 705-401 SEM IN ETHNOMUSICOLOGY MULLER, CAROL CANCELED This seminar in Ethnomusicology is cross-listed with GSWS when the topic includes gender, sexuality and women's studes.
                                                                            GSWS 790-401 REC ISSUES IN CRIT THEOR KAZANJIAN, DAVID VAN PELT LIBRARY 627 W 0600PM-0900PM The primary for this course is the English Department. When the course content includes gender, sexuality and women's studies it will be cross-listed with GSWS. See additional information and description on the English Department's website: See the English Department's website at for a complete description of the current offerings.
                                                                              PERMISSION NEEDED FROM INSTRUCTOR