Archaeobotanical Reports from Central Asia and Related Items (Caucasus to Indus and Harappan India)*

compiled by Naomi F. Miller, University of Pennsylvania Museum
December 8, 2023

Akashi, C., K. Tanno, F. Guliye, and Y. Nishiaki
2018 Neolithisation proceses of the South Caucasus: As viewed from macro-botanical analyses at Hacı Elamzanlı Tepe, West Azerbaijan. Paléorient 44.2: 75-89.
Azerbaijan//Göytepe//Hacı Elamzanlı T.//6M

Arnanz, Ana
1997 The Flora from Velikent, A preliminary analysis. [part of longer report, "The 1995 Daghestan-American Velikent Expedition," by M.G. Gadzhiev et al., pp. 181-222.] Eurasia Antiqua 3: 215-218.

Asouti, Eleni
2010 Remains of wood charcoal from Jeitun: Identification and analysis. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 166-170. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.

Asouti, Eleni
2010 Wood charcoal from the Dam Dam Cheshme rockshelters. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 199-200. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Dam Dam Cheshme //2M

Bashtannik, S.V.
2008 Archaeobotanical studies at Medieval sites in the Arys river valley. Archaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology of Eurasia 33(1): 85-92.
Kazakhstan //Djuvan-tobe//Karaspan-tobe//AD

Benecke, N. and R. Neef
2005 Faunal and plant remains from Sohr Damb/Nal: A prehistoric site (c. 3500-2000 BC) in Central Balochistan (Pakistan). In South Asian Archaeology 2003, eds. U. Franke-Vogt and H.-J. Weisshaar, pp. 81-91. Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists (7-11 July 2003, Bonn), Aachen.
Pakistan//Sohr Damb/Nal//3M//sesame

Berthon, Rémi, Alexia Decaix, Zsófia Eszter Kovács, Wim Van Neer, Margareta Tengberg, George Willcox, and Thomas Cucchi
2013 A bioarchaeological investigation of three Late Chalcolithic pits at Ovçular Tepesi (Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan). Environmental Archaeology 18: 191-200.

Boardman, Sheila
1995 Archaeobotanical progress report. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report on the Third Season (1994)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 31-60] Iran 33: 50-52.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Gyaur Kala//Sasanian//1M AD

Boardman, Sheila
1997 Archaeobotanical remains. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report of the Fifth Season (1996)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov, St J. Simpson et al., pp. 1-33] Iran 35: 9-10.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Sasanian

Boardman, Sheila
1999 Archaeobotanical analyses. [part of longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report of the Seventh Season (1998)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov, St J. Simpson et al., pp. 1-24] Iran 37: 9 and 13.
Turkmenistan//Erk Kala//Gyaur Kala//Sasanian//AD

Brite, Elizabeth Baker, Gairatdin Khozhaniyazov, John M. Marston, Michelle Negus Cleary, and Fiona J. Kidd
2017 Kara-tepe, Karakalpakstan: Agropastoralism in a Central Eurasian oasis in the 4th/5th century A.D. transition. Journal of Field Archaeology.

Charles, Michael
2010 Charred seeds from the Dam Dam Cheshme rockshelters. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 197-198. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.
Turkmenistan//Dam Dam Cheshme //2M

Charles, M. and A. Bogaard
2005 Identifying livestock diet from charred plant remains: A Neolithic case study from southern Turkmenistan. In Diet and Health in Past Animal Populations, eds. J. Davies, M. Fabis, et al., pp. 93-103. 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham 2002. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

Charles, Michael and Amy Bogaard
2010 Charred plant macro-remains from Jeitun: Implications for early cultivation and herding practices in western Central Asia. In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, by David R. Harris, pp. 150-165; 256-259. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.

Charles, M. and G. C. Hillman
1992 Crop husbandry in a desert environment: Evidence from the charred plant macro-remains. (in Russian; ms. in English). In New Research at the Jeitun Settlement (Preliminary Reports of the Soviet-British Expedition), ed. V.M. Masson. Pp. 83-94. Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan, Ashkabad.

Costantini, Lorenzo
1979 Notes on the palaeoethnobotany of protohistorcial Swat. South Asian Archaeology 1977, ed. M. Taddei, pp. 703-708.
Pakistan//Loebanr III//Aligrama//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1979 Plant remains at Pirak, Pakistan. In Fouilles de Pirak, vol. I, by Jean-Francois Jarrige and Marielle Santoni, pp. 326-333. Diffusion de Boccard, Paris.

Costantini, Lorenzo
1981 Palaeothnobotany at Pirak: A contribution to the 2nd Millennium B.C. agriculture of the Sibi-Kacchi plain, Pakistan. In South Asian Archaeology 1979, pp. 271-277. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.

Costantini, Lorenzo
1984 The beginning of agriculture in the Kachi Plain: The evidence of Mehrgarh. In South Asian Archaeology 1981, ed. Bridget Allchin. Pp. 29-33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Costantini, Lorenzo
1985 Considerazioni su alcuni reperti di palma da dattero e sul centro di origine e l'area di coltivazione della Phoenix dactylifera L. Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata 56: 209-217.

Costantini, Lorenzo
1987 Vegetal remains. In Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c. 3000-1400 B.C.), by G. Stacul. Pp. 155-165. IsMEO, Rome.
Pakistan//Ghalegay//Bir-Khot-Ghwandai//Loebanr 3//3M//2M

Costantini, Lorenzo
1990 Harappan agriculture in Pakistan: The evidence of Nausharo. South Asian Archaeology 1987, pp. 321-332.

Costantini, L. and L. Costantini-Biasini
1985 Agriculture in Baluchistan between the 7th and the 3rd Millennium B.C. Newletter of Baluchistan Studies 2: 16-30.

Costantini, Lorenzo and Loredana Costantini-Biasini
1985 Laboratory of Bioarchaeology. East and West 35: 331-336.

Costantini, Lorenzo and Loredana Costantini-Biasini
1986 Laboratory of Bioarchaeology. East and West 36: 354-365.

Costantini, Lorenzo and Alessandro Lentini
1991 Agricoltura e ambiente della piana di Mehrgarh (Pakistan) durante il IV-III millennia a.C. In Paleoecologia e Arqueologia II, eds. F. Queiroga and A.P. Dinis, pp. 173-186. Vila Nova de Famalicao.

Costantini, Lorenzo and Alessandro Lentini
1993 Palaeoethnobotanical investigations in the archaeological area of Mehrgarh-Nausharo, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Giornale Botanico Italiano 127: 680.

Costantini L. and A. Lentini
2000 Studies in the vegetation history of central Baluchistan, Pakistan: palynological investigations of a Neolithic sequence at Merhgarh. InSouth Asian Archaeology, Rome Oriental Series, vol. I, pp. 132-159. Edizioni IsIAO Rome and Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples.

Cywa, Katarzyna
2011 Use of wood in the ancient cult of fire temple at Mele Hairam (South-western Turkmenistan), based on preliminary charcoal analysis. 5th International Meeting of Charcoal Analysis: Charcoal as Cultural and Biological Heritage SAGVNTVM 11, Extra:151-152. Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia.
Turkmenistan//Mele Hairam//AD

Danilevsky, V.V., V.N. Kokono, and V.A. Neketen
1940 Исследование растительных остатков из раскопок согдийского замка VIII века на горе Муг в Таджикистана (A study of the plant remains excavated from the VIII century settlement of Mug in Tajikistan). In Растительность Таджикистана и ее освоение (Vegetation of Tajikistan and Human Interaction), pp. 484-490. Tajikistan Base of Science of the USSR, Dushanbe.

Decaix, A.
2012 First results of the archaeobotanical studies at Kamiltepe and Mentesh Tepe. In "Ancient Kura 2010-2011: The First Two Seasons of Joint Field Work in the Southern Caucasus," by B. Lyonnet, F. Guliyev, B. Helwing, T. Aliyev, S. Hansen, and G. Mirtskhulava, pp. 1-190. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 44: 156-163.
Azerbaijan//Kamil Tepe//MPS 4, 5, 16//Mentesh Tepe//6M//5M//4M//3M

Decaix, Alexia, Erwan Messager, Margareta Tengberg, Reinder Neef, Bertille Lyonnet, Farhad Guliyev
2016 Vegetation and plant exploitation at Mentesh Tepe (Azerbaijan), 6th-3rd millennium BC initial results of the archaeobotanical study. Quaternary International 395: 19-30.
Azerbaijan//Mentesh Tepe//6M//5M//4M//3M

Desse, J., N. Desse-Berset, A. Henry, M. Tengberg, and R. Besenval
2008 Faune et flore des niveaux profonds de Shahi-Tump (Balochistan, Pakistan), premiers résultats. Paléorient 34.1: 159-171. [archaeobotany:167-169]

Earley-Spadoni, Tiffany
2011 Preliminary archaeobotanical results from Maxta 1 and Kültəpə. Iranica Antiqua 46: 15-19, 51, 53. In: Settlement and Society in Naxçivan: 2006 excavations and survey of the Naxçivan Archaeological Project. Iranica Antiqua 46: 1-53, by Ristvet, L., V. Baxşəliyev, and S. Aşurov. DOI: 10.2143/IA.46.0.2084412
Naxçivan//Maxta 1//Kültəpə//1M

Frachetti, Michael D., Robert N. Spengler, Gayle J. Fritz, and Alexei N. Mar'yashev
2010 Earliest direct evidence for broomcorn millet and wheat in the central Eurasian steppe region. Antiquity 84:993-1010

Goyal, Pankaj, Anil K. Pokharia, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Pramod Joglekar, Y.S. Rawat, and Toshiki Osada
2013 Subsistence system, paleoecology, and 14C chronology at Kanmer, a Harappan site in Gujarat, India. Radiocarbon 55: 141-150.
India// Kanmer//4M//3M

Harris, David R. and Chris Gosden
1996 The beginnings of agriculture in western Central Asia. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, ed. D. R. Harris, pp. 370-389. UCL Press, London.

Harris, D.R., C. Gosden and M.P. Charles
1996 Jeitun: recent excavations at an early Neolithic site in southern Turkmenistan. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 62: 423-442.

Harris, D.R., V.M. Masson, Y.E. Berezkin, M.P. Charles, C. Gosden, G.C. Hillman, A.K. Kasparov, G.F. Korobkova, K. Kurbansakhatov, A.J. Legge and S. Limbrey
1993 Investigating early agriculture in Central Asia: New research at Jeitun, Turkmenistan. Antiquity 67: 324-338.

Herrmann, G., K. Kurbansakhatov and St J. Simpson
1996 The International Merv Project, Preliminary Report on the Fourth Season (1995). Iran 34: 1-22 (19-20).
Turkmenistan//Merv//1M AD

Hovsepyan, Roman
2011 Palaeoethnobotanical data from the high mountainous Early Bronze Age settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia). Ethnobiology Letters 2: 58-62.

Hovsepyan, Roman
2014 Preliminary data on anthracological study at Godedzor Chalcolithic settlement (Armenia). In Ethnology and Archaeology of Armenia and Neighboring Countries. Habitus 1: 206-211. National Academy of Sciences RA Gitutyun Publishing House, Yerevan. Armenia//Godedzor//4M

Hovsepyan, Roman
2015 On the agriculture and vegetal food economy of Kura-Araxes culture in the South Caucasus. Paléorient 41.1: 69-82. overview//4M//3M

Hovsepyan, Roman
2015 On the agriculture and vegetal food economy of Kura-Araxes culture in the South Caucasus. Paléorient 41.1: 69-82.

Hovsepyan, Roman
2013 First archaeobotanical data from the basin of Lake Sevan. Veröffentlichungendes Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt 67: 93-105. Archäologie in Armenien II.
Armenia//Norabak I//Geghakar//Sotk 2//3M//2M//1M//AD

Hovsepyan, R. and G. Willcox
2008 The earliest finds of cultivated plants in Armenia: evidence from charred remains and crop processing residues in pisé from the Neolithic settlements of Aratashen and Aknashen. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 63-71.

Janushevich, Z.V.
1975 Fossil remains of cultivated plants in the south west Soviet Union. Folia Quaternaria 46: 23-30.

Janushevich, Z.V.
1976 Kulturnije rastenija jugo-spada SSSR po paleobotanicheskim issledovanijam. Kishinev.

Janushevich, Z.V.
1977 O nakhodke yachmenya na poselenii Altyn-depe. Karakumskie Drevnosti 5: 162-169.

Janushevich, Z.V.
1978 Prehistoric Food Plants in the South-West of the Soviet Union. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 59-66.

Janushevich, Z.V.
1984 The specific composition of wheat finds from ancient agricultural centres in the USSR. In Plants and Ancient Man, eds. W. van Zeist and W.A. Casparie, pp. 267-276. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Kadowaki, Seiji, Lisa Maher, Marta Portillo, Rosa M. Albert, Chie Akashi, Farhad Guliyev, Yoshihiro Nishiaki
2015 Geoarchaeological and palaeobotanical evidence for prehistoric cereal storage in the southern Caucasus: the Neolithic settlement of G&0uml;ytepe (mid 8th millennium BP) Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 408-425.

Kajale, M.D.
1991 Current status of Indian palaeoethnobotany: Introduced and indigenous food plants with a discussion of the historical and evolutionary development of Indian agricultural systems in general. In New Light on Early Farming, ed. J.M. Renfrew. Pp. 155-189. University Press, Edinburgh.

Kakhiani, Kakha, Antonio Sagona, Claudia Sagona, Eliso Kvavadze, Giorgi Bedianashvili, Erwan Massager, Lucie Martin, Estelle Herrscher, Inga Martkoplishvili, Jessie Birkett-Rees, and Catherine Longford
2013 Archaeological investigations at Chobareti in southern Georgia, the Caucasus. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 50: 1-138. (environmental: 40-48, 130-138) DOI: 10.2143/ANES.50.0.2975510

Kvavadze, Eliso and Kakha Kakhiani
2010 Palynology of the Paravani burial mound (Early Bronze Age, Georgia). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19: 479-494.
Georgia//Paravani //3M

Kvavadze, Eliso, Goderdzi Narimanishvili, and Liana Bitadze
2010 Fibres of Linum (flax), Gossypium (cotton) and animal wool as non-pollen palynomorphs in the late Bronze Age burials of Saphar-Kharaba, southern Georgia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19: 469-478.
Georgia//Saphar-Kharaba //2M

Kvavadze, E., L. Rukhadze, V. Nikolaishvili, et al.
2008 Botanical and zoological remains from an early medieval grave at Tsitsamuri, Georgia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 217-224.

Lau, H., L. Proctor, H. Gopnik, and V. Baxşəliyəv
2020 Agropastoralism in Middle Bronze through Early Iron Age Naxçıvan: Preliminary zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical data from the Naxçıvan Archaeological Project. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 33: 102535. Azerbaijan//Qızqala//3m//2m//1m

Lisitsina, Gorislava N.
1978 Main types of ancient farming on the Caucasus - on the basis of palaeo-ethnobotanical research. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 47-57.

Lisitsina, Gorislava N.
1981 The history of irrigation agriculture in southern Turkmenia. In The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia: Recent Soviet Discoveries, ed. P. Kohl, pp. 350-358. M.E. Sharpe, New York.

Lisitsina, G.N. and K.P. Popov
1988 On the woody vegetation in the lowlands of south Turkmenistan during the Neolite, Eneolite, Bronze, and Early Iron Ages. Izv. Akad. Nauk. Turkm. SSR, Ser. Biol. [Proc. Acad. Sci. Turkm. SSR, Ser. Biol.] 1: 68-70 (in Russian).

Lisitsina, Gorislava N. and Ludmila V Prishchepenko
1976 The significance of paleoethnobotanical remains for the reconstruction of early farming in the arid regions of the USSR. Folia Quaternaria 47: 83-88.

Madella, Marco
2003 Investigating agriculture and environment in South Asia: Present and future contributions from opal phytoliths. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 199-249. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

Meier-Melikyan, N.R.
1990 Analysis of plant remains from Togolok-21 [in Russian, "Opredelenie Rastitel'nix Ostatkov iz Togolok-21"]. Drevnosti Strani Margush, by V.I. Sarianidi, pp. 203-205 and figs. 55-58. Ilim, Ashkabad.
Turkmenistan//Togolok 21

Messager, Erwan , Estelle Herrscher, Lucie Martin, Eliso Kvavadze,Inga Martkoplishvili, Claire Delhon, Kakha Kakhiani, Giorgi Bedianashvili, Antonio Sagona, Liana Bitadze, Modwene Poulmarc'h, André Guy, and David Lordkipanidze
2015 Archaeobotanical and isotopic evidence of Early Bronze Age farming activities and diet in the mountainous environment of the South Caucasus: a pilot study of Chobareti site (Samtskhee Javakheti region). Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 214-226.

Miller, Naomi F.
1993 Preliminary Archaeobotanical results from the 1989 excavation at the Central Asian site of Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan. Information Bulletin, International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia 19: 149-163. [ Download pdf]

Miller, Naomi F.
1999 Agricultural development in western Central Asia in the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: 13-19. [Download pdf]

Miller, Naomi F.
2003 The use of plants at Anau North. In A Central Asian Village at the Dawn of Civilization, Excavations at Anau, Turkmenistan, by F. Hiebert, 127-138, Appendix C (201-215). University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia. [Download pdf]

Miller, Naomi F.
2011 Preliminary archaeobotanical results. In "Excavations at Monjukli Depe, Meana-Čaača Region, Turkmenistan, 2010," by S. Pollock and R. Bernbeck, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 43: 169-237 [archaeobotany: 213-221]. [Download pdf or different link to same paper]
Turkmenistan//Monjukli Depe//7M//6M//5M

Mir-Makhamad, Basira, Sorojdin Mirzaakhmedov, Husniddin Rahmonov, Sören Stark, Andrey Omel/chenko, and Robert N. Spengler III
2021 Qarakhanids on the edge of the Bukhara Oasis: Archaeobotany of Medieval Paykend. Economic Botany.

Moore, Katherine M., Naomi F. Miller, Fredrik T. Hiebert, and Richard H. Meadow
1994 Agriculture and herding in the early oasis settlements of the Oxus civilization. Antiquity 68: 418-427.

Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, G., B. Mir-Makhamad, and K. Tabaldiev
2021 The first comprehensive archaeobotanical analysis of prehistoric agriculture in Kyrgyzstan. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 30:743-758.
Kyrgyzstan//Chap I//2M//1M

Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, G., R.C. Preece, S. Wang, L. Colominas, K. Ohnuma, S. Kume, A. Abdykanova, and M.K. Jones
2015 Ecology and subsistence at the Mesolithic and Bronze Age site of Aigyrzhal-2, Naryn valley, Kyrgyzstan. Quaternary International

Moulherat, Christophe, Margareta Tengberg, Jérôme-F. Haquet, Benoît Mille
2002 First evidence of cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakastan: Analysis of mineralized fibres from a copper bead. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 1393-1401.

Neef, R.
2010 Die Pflanzenreste. In Die skythenzeitliche Fürstenkurgan Aržan 2 in Tuva, by K.V. Čugonov, H. Parzinger and A. Nagler, pp. 242-248. Archäologie in Eurasien Band 26. D.A.I.

Nesbitt, Mark
1993 Archaeobotanical remains [part of a longer report, "The International Merv Project preliminary report on the first season (1992)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 39-62]. Iran 31: 56-58.

Nesbitt, Mark
1994 Archaeobotanical research in the Merv Oasis. [part of a longer report, "The International Merv Project, Preliminary report on the second season (1993)," by G. Herrmann, K. Kurbansakhatov et al., pp. 53-75]. Iran 32: 71-73.
Turkmenistan//Merv//Tahirbaj Tepe//2M//1M//AD

Pokharia, Anil K., B.R. Mani, Michael Spate, Alison Betts, and Alka Srivastava
2017 Early Neolithic agriculture (2700-2000 BC) and Kushan period developments (AD 100-300): macrobotanical evidence from Kanispur in Kashmir, India. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. DOI 10.1007/s00334-017-0645-8
India// Kanispur //3M//AD

Porteres, R.
1961 Sur quelques échantillons végétaux des fouilles de Mundigak. In Fouilles de Mundigak, vol. 1, by J.M. Casal. P. 260. C. Klincksieck, Paris.

Reddy, Seetha N.
1991 Archaeobotany at Oriyo Timbo 1989-90: A Post Urban site in Gujarat. Man and Environment 16(1): 73-83.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Harappan

Reddy, Seetha N.
1991 Complementary approaches to Late Harappan subsistence: An example from Oriyo Timbo. In The Archaeology of 3rd Millennium Urbanism at Harappa (Pakistan), ed. Richard Meadow, pp. 127-135. Prehistory Press, Madison.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Harappan

Reddy, Seetha
2003 Discerning palates of the past, an ethnoarchaeological study of crop cultivation and plant usage in India. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ethnoarchaeological series 5 Ann Arbor, Michigan.
India//Oriyo Timbo//Babar Kot//2M

Rühl, Lisa, Christoph Herbig, and Astrid Stobbe
2014 Archaeobotanical analysis of plant use at Kamennyi Ambar, a Bronze Age fortified settlement of the Sintashta culture in the southern Trans-Urals steppe, Russia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 24: 413-426.
Siberia//Kamennyi Ambar//3M//2M

Rusishvili, Nana
2016 Identification results of botanical material from Ananauri Archaeological Complex. In Ananauri Big Kurgan No. 3, pp. 197-208, tr. N. Bukhslanidze. Georgian National Museum, Tbilisi.

Saraswat, K.S.
2020 Plant economy of late Harappans at Hulas. In Excavations at Hulas (1978-1983) (From Harappan Times to Early Medieval), by K.N.Dikshit, pp. 223-242. Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi.

Sataeva, Liliya and Robert Sataev
2014 Wood using at the Bronze Age site Gonur-Depe (ancient Margiana, south Turkmenistan). Proceedings, 9th ICAANE, Basel 2014, vol. 3, 643-645.

Sataeva, L.V. and R.M. Sataev
2017 Роль древесных растений в жизни древнего населению Гонур-депе (Бронзовый век, Туркменистан). Вестник археологии, антропологии и этнографии. The role of trees in the life of ancient population of Gonur-Depe (The Bronze Age, Turkmenistan). Bulletin of Archaeology, Anthropology and Ethnography. DOI: 10.20874/2071-0437-2017-36-1-134-142

Schultze-Motel, Jurgen
1989 Archäologische Kulturpflanzenreste aus der Georgischen SSR (Teil 2). Kulturpflanze 37: 415-426.

Shumilovskikh, L. and I. Poole
2020 Plant remains. In Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages. The Joint Georgian-British Dariali Gorge Excavations and Surveys 2013-2016, eds. E.W. Sauer, L. Chologauri, A. Gabunia, et al., pp. 789-829. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Georgia//Dariali Gorge//AD

Smith, Alexia, Tamara Bagoyan, Ivan Gabrielyan, Ron Pinhasi, and Boris Gasparyan
2014 Late Chalcolithic and Medieval Archaeobotanical Remains from Areni-1 (Birds' Cave), Armenia. In Stone Age of Armenia, eds. B. Gasparyan and M. Arimura, pp. 233-260. JSPS-Bilateral Jount Research Project. Center for Cultural Resource Studies, Kanazawa University, Japan.
Armenia//Areni-1//Birds' Cave//5M//4M//AD

Spate, Michael , Guilin Zhang, Mumtaz Yatoo, and Alison Betts
2017 New evidence for early 4th millennium BP agriculture in the Western Himalayas: Qasim Bagh, Kashmir. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 11: 568-577.
India//Qasim Bagh//2M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Li Tang, Ayushi Nayak, Nicole Boivin, and Luca Maria Olivetti
2021 The southern Central Asian mountains as an ancient agricultural mixing zone: New archaeobotanical data from Barikot in the Swat valley of Pakistan. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 30:463-476.

Spengler, Robert N. III, Claudia Chang, and Perry A. Tourtellotte
2013 Agricultural production in the central Asian mountains: Tuzusai, Kazakhstan (410-150 B.C.). Journal of Field Archaeology 38:68-85. DOI: 10.1179/0093469012Z.00000000037

Spengler, Robert N. III, Barbara Cerasetti, Margareta Tengberg, Maurizio Cattani, and Lynne M. Rouse
2014 Agriculturalists and pastoralists: Bronze Age economy of the Murghab alluvial fan, southern Central Asia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany: online March, 2014.
Turkmenistan//Ojakly//Murghab 1211, Murghab 1219//2M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Michael D. Frachetti, and Paula N. Domani
2014 Late Bronze Age agriculture at Tasbas in the Dzhungar Mountains of eastern Kazakhstan. Quaternary International.

Spengler, Robert, Michael Frachetti, Paula Doumani, Lynne Rouse, Barbara Cerasetti, Elissa Bullion, and Alexei Mar'yashev
2014 Early agriculture and crop transmission among Bronze Age mobile pastoralists of Central Eurasia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 281, 20133382. Kazakhstan//Turkmenistan//Begash//Tasbas//Ojakly//3M//2M

Spengler Robert N., Farhod Maksudov, Elissa Bullion, Ann Merkle, Taylor Hermes, and Michael Frachetti
2018 Arboreal crops on the medieval Silk Road: Archaeobotanical studies at Tashbulak. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0201409.

Spengler, Robert N. III, Ilaria de Nigris, Barbara Cerasetti, Marialetizia Carra, and Lynne M. Rouse
2016 The breadth of the dietary economy in Bronze Age Central Asia: Case study from Adji Kui 1 in the Murgab region of Turkmenistan. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Turkmenistan//Adji Kui 1//3M//2M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Naomi F. Miller, Reinder Neef, Perry A. Tourtellote, and Claudia Chang
2017 Linking agriculture and exchange to social developments of the Central Asian Iron Age. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 48: 295-308.
Kazakhstan//Tuzusai//Tseganka 8//Taldy Bulak 2//Begash//Mukri//Kyzyltepa//1M

Spengler, Robert N. III, Natalia Ryabogina, Pavel E. Tarasov, and Mayke Wagner
2016 The spread of agriculture into northern Central Asia: Timing, pathways, and environmental feedbacks. The Holocene 26: 1527-1540. [DOI link]
Central Asia survey

Spengler, Robert N. and George Willcox
2013 Archaeobotanical results from Sarazm, Tajikistan, an Early Bronze Age settlement on the edge: agriculture and exchange. Environmental Archaeology 18: 211-222.

Tengberg, Margareta
1999 Crop husbandry at Miri Qalat, Makran, SW Pakistan (4000-2000 B.C.). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: 1-12.
Pakistan//Miri Qalat//4M//3M

Tengberg, Margareta and Stephanie Thiébault
2003 Vegetation history and wood exploitation in Pakistani Baluchistan from the Neolithic to the Harappan period: The evidence from charcoal analysis. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 21-63. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Pakistan/Mehrgarh//Lal Shah//Nausharo//Shahi Tump//Miri Qalat//5M//4M//3M//2M

Thiébault, Stephanie
1989 A note on the ancient vegetation of Baluchistan based on charcoal analysis of the latest periods from Mehrgarh, Pakistan. In South Asian Archaeology 1985, pp. 186-188. (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Occasional Papers 4). The Riverdale Company, Riverdale, MD.

Thomas, D., K. Deckers, M.M. Hald, M. Holmes, M. Madella, and K. White
2006 Environmental evidence from the Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project, Afghanistan. Iran 44.
Afghanistan //Jam//AD

Weber, Steven A.
1991 Plants and Harappan Subsistence. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Weber, Steven A.
2003 Archaeobotany at Harappa: Indications for change. In Indus Ethnobiology, eds. S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher, pp. 175-198. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

Weber, Steven A. and William R. Belcher (editors)
2003 Indus Ethnobiology, New Perspectives from the Field. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

Willcox, G.W.
1989 Étude archéobotanique. In Fouilles de Shortughaï, Recherches sur l'Asie Centrale protohistorique, vol. 1, by H.-P. Francfort, pp. 175-185. Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique Française en Asie Centrale 2.

Willcox, G.W.
1991 Carbonised plant remains from Shortugaï. In New Light on Early Farming, ed. J. Renfrew, pp. 139-154. University Press, Edinburgh.

Wu Xin, Naomi F. Miller, and Pam Crabtree
2015 Agro-pastoral Strategies and Food Production on the Achaemenid Frontier in Southern Central Asia: A Case Study of Kyzyltepa (Uzbekistan). Iran 53: 93-117. [available on University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons, Philadelphia.]

*NOTE: I have not personally seen every reference listed, and I include syntheses because some of the reports are linguistically or physically unavailable.

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